View Full Version : Sinking Grounds... Not Rising Waters.

27th June 2016, 18:58
Depleted groundwater is causing Beijing to sink (http://thinkprogress.org/world/2016/06/26/3792768/beijing-is-sinking/)

by Justin Salhani (http://thinkprogress.org/?person=jsalhani) Jun 26, 2016 11:40 am

CREDIT: AP Photo/Andy WongA woman carrying an umbrella to shield from the sun as she walks past a mural on display near a construction site at the Central Business District of Beijing, Thursday, June 16, 2016.

China’s capital of Beijing is literally sinking into the ground, a recent study found. “An international study led by Beijing-based researchers has discovered that the city is dropping by as much as 11 centimeters (4 inches) in some districts per year,” CNN reported (http://www.cnn.com/2016/06/26/asia/beijing-sinking-study/index.html) Sunday.

The sinking is happening because of the city’s depleted groundwater, with central districts the most severely affected. The city regulates the instillation of wells but inconsistently applies it, the Guardian reported (https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jun/24/beijing-has-fallen-chinas-capital-sinking-by-11cm-a-year-satellite-study-warns).

China requires around 3.5 billion liters of water each year. Water management has been a struggle for the world’s most populous country, with droughts causing billions of dollars in damage and leaving many citizens and animals without drinking water in southern China a few years ago.

“We are currently carrying out a detailed analysis of the impacts of subsidence on critical infrastructure (eg high-speed railways) in the Beijing plain,” three of the seven academics involved in the study told (https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jun/24/beijing-has-fallen-chinas-capital-sinking-by-11cm-a-year-satellite-study-warns) the Guardian. “Hopefully a paper summarising our findings will come out later this year.”

The draining of water could deeply affect the integrity of the city’s infrastructure — especially buildings and the rail system. Problems could also get much worse, especially with sparse enforcement of well-digging regulations

“There are some rules but the enforcement is doubtful,” Ma Jun, director of the Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs in Beijing, told (https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jun/24/beijing-has-fallen-chinas-capital-sinking-by-11cm-a-year-satellite-study-warns) the Guardian.


A similar thing is also occurring in Florida and California... via the pumping of aquifers (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Groundwater-related_subsidence) to water lawns...

19th March 2017, 00:56
California is sinking, and it’s getting worse (https://www.revealnews.org/article/california-is-sinking-and-its-getting-worse/)

By Nathan Halverson (https://www.revealnews.org/author/nathan-halverson) / June 4, 2015

Total subsidence in California's San Joaquin Valley for the period May 3, 2014 to Jan. 22, 2015, as measured by Canada's Radarsat-2 satellite. Two large subsidence bowls are evident, centered on Corcoran and south of El Nido. Credit: Canadian Space Agency/NASA/JPL-Caltech › Larger image (http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/earth/earthquake/20150819/earth20150819.jpg)

California is sinking – and fast.
While the state’s drought-induced sinking is well known, new details highlight just how severe it has become and how little the government has done to monitor it.

Last summer, scientists recorded the worst sinking in at least 50 years. This summer, all-time records are expected across the state as thousands of miles of land in the Central Valley and elsewhere sink.

But the extent of the problem and how much it will cost taxpayers to fix are part of the mystery of the state’s unfolding drought. No agency is tracking the sinking statewide, little public money has been put toward studying it and California allows agriculture businesses to keep crucial parts of their operations secret.

The cause is known: People are pulling unsustainable amounts of water out of underground aquifers, primarily for food production. With the water sucked out to irrigate crops, a practice that has accelerated during the drought, tens of thousands of square miles are deflating like a leaky air mattress, inch by inch.

Groundwater now supplies about 60 percent (http://www.water.ca.gov/waterconditions/docs/Drought_Response-Groundwater_Basins_April30_Final_BC.pdf) of the state’s water, with the vast majority of that going to agriculture. Tens of thousands of groundwater pumps run day and night, sucking up about 5 percent of the state’s total electricity, according to a Reveal analysis of the increased pumping resulting from the historic drought (https://watershed.ucdavis.edu/files/biblio/2015Drought_PrelimAnalysis.pdf). That’s an increase of 40 percent over normal years – or enough electricity to power every home in San Francisco for three years.

The sinking is starting to destroy bridges, crack irrigation canals and twist highways across the state, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.

Two bridges in Fresno County – an area that produces about 15 percent of the world’s almonds – have sunk so much that they are nearly underwater and will cost millions to rebuild. Nearby, an elementary school is slowly descending into a miles-long sinkhole that will make it susceptible to future flooding.

Private businesses are on the hook, too. One canal system is facing more than $60 million (http://grac.org/gracast/handout052015.pdf) in repairs because one of its dams is sinking. And public and private water wells are being bent and disfigured like crumpled drinking straws as the earth collapses around them – costing $500,000 or more to replace.

The sinking has a technical name: subsidence. It occurs when aquifers are drained of water and the land collapses down where the water used to be.

The last comprehensive survey of sinking was in the 1970s, and a publicly funded monitoring system fell into disrepair the following decade. Even the government’s scientists are in the dark.

“We don’t know how bad it is because we’re not looking everywhere,” said Michelle Sneed, a hydrologist with the geological survey. “It’s frustrating, I’ll tell you that. There is a lot of work I want to do.”

Some places in the state are sinking more than a foot per year. The last time it was this bad, it cost the state more than a billion dollars to fix.

Joseph Poland of the U.S. Geological Survey used a utility pole to document where a farmer would have been standing in 1925, 1955 and where Poland was then standing in 1977 after land in the San Joaquin Valley had sunk nearly 30 feet. Credit: U.S. Geological Survey

How a legendary hydrologist solved the mystery
In the 1920s, farmers began transforming desert lands into verdant crop fields by pumping groundwater to the surface. At the time, these farmers were not just head and shoulders above their modern-day counterparts – they were actually as much as three stories above them. But then the land started to sink.

In the 1930s, scientists first noticed the land was sinking. At the time, the cause was a mystery. A legendary hydrologist, Joseph Poland, was assigned to solve the puzzle starting in the 1940s.

He realized that underneath the sinking land, groundwater was being pumped rapidly to irrigate crops. It created massive sinkholes that stretched for miles in every direction. In the farming community of Mendota, the land sunk about 30 feet between 1925 and 1977.

The sinkhole is so vast that it is essentially impossible for residents to see that they are standing in one. Poland used a utility pole to build a temporary monument to show them just how much the land had sunk.

The sinking, which peaked in the late 1960s, wreaked havoc on the state’s rapidly expanding infrastructure, damaging highways, bridges and irrigation canals. One estimate (http://www.groundwatervoices.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/San-Joaquin-Subsidence-Report-July-24-2014.pdf) by the California Water Foundation put the price tag at $1.3 billion for just some of the repairs during that time.

The sinking did not slow until the 1970s, after California had completed its massive canal system – the most expensive public works project in state history. It delivered water from wetter parts of the state to farmers in the Central Valley and elsewhere, relieving their reliance on groundwater. The problem was fixed – at least for a while.

‘When we looked back, whoa – it had gotten bad’

In 2012, Sneed, the hard-charging geological survey scientist, received a startling report. Land was subsiding along the San Joaquin River at a rate worse than during the 1987-92 drought. It was nearing the historic rates of sinking recorded by Poland in the late 1960s. She couldn’t believe it.

“Is this even real?” she asked. “We hadn’t seen rates of subsidence like that in a long time.”

She and others began assembling what little public data was available. They got funding to analyze satellite data for parts of the San Joaquin Valley. They discovered that in one of the worst observed areas, around the town of El Nido (Spanish for “The Nest”), land was sinking at a rate of about 1 foot per year (http://www.latimes.com/local/california/la-me-groundwater-20150318-story.html#page=1) in 2012.

“It’s incredible,” Sneed said, expelling a puff of air as if she still couldn’t believe it. “We looked away for a long time. And when we looked back, whoa – it had gotten real bad.”

The El Nido subsidence bowl was sinking so fast that the satellite couldn’t keep pace.
No one has monitored it since. But Sneed and others contacted by Reveal said they expect it now could be sinking by 2 feet per year. That would be an all-time record.

Chris White, general manager of the Central California Irrigation District, said that last year, a farmer near El Nido sent him a photo of a gas pipe that had protruded more than 18 inches from the ground in less than a year as the land sank around it.

White said Californians now might have the opportunity to witness firsthand the devastation Poland chronicled in the 1960s.

“There is that potential,” he said.

Sneed is practically begging to expand her limited research. A hodgepodge of about 350 ground-elevation monitors – many leftover from the 1960s – are all she and other researchers have to track tens of thousands of miles that are sinking. This includes vineyards in Sonoma and Napa counties, areas around Paso Robles and Santa Barbara, and agricultural regions encircling Los Angeles, all which have shown signs of sinking, according to a California Department of Water Resources report (http://www.water.ca.gov/groundwater/docs/Summary_of_Recent_Historical_Potential_Subsidence_ in_CA_Final_with_Appendix.pdf).

To draw awareness to the problem, Sneed replicated Poland’s 1977 photo. Her photo captures the early stages of today’s worsening subsidence problem, she said. But she and others expect that it will get much worse.

Photo taken at National Geodetic Survey vertical control mark W 990 CADWR, West Washington Road near the San Joaquin River, Merced County, California. Photo Credit: USGS/Justin Brandt. The photo is in the public domain.

U.S. Geological Survey scientist Michelle Sneed shows where a farmer would have been standing in 1988, before a six-year drought triggered sinking in California’s San Joaquin Valley. It also shows how sinking accelerated in 2008. Credit: U.S. Geological Survey

Bridges are sinking and canals are cracking
Many businesses and state agencies appear to be unaware of the problem.
Sneed and her boss at the U.S. Geological Survey, Claudia Faunt, have tried reaching out to various government agencies and private businesses to warn them and inquire about the extent of damage being done to infrastructure.

“We tried calling the railroads to ask them about it,” Faunt said. “But they didn’t know about subsidence. They told us they just fixed the railroads and categorized it as repair.”

Thousands of miles of highways snaking through the state also are being damaged, she said.

“They go to repair the roads, but they don’t even know it’s subsidence that is causing all the problems,” Faunt said. “They are having to fix a lot because of groundwater depletion.”

A spokeswoman for the state Department of Transportation said the agency does not track costs related to subsidence and was not aware of any current bridge repairs resulting from it.

The wall of a canal (left) cracks as the earth around it sinks. The top of a well (right) is pushed up and out of the ground as the ground around it sinks.Credit: U.S. Geological Survey

But Faunt pointed to the Russell Avenue bridge that crosses the Outside Canal in the Central Valley. It sank during two previous droughts – one in the late 1970s and then again between 1987 and 1992. Now with the current sinking, the 60-year-old bridge is almost totally submerged by canal water.

The Russell Avenue bridge once passed more than 2 feet above the water, but it has been sinking as a result of groundwater pumping and now is nearly submerged in the canal. Credit: U.S. Geological Survey

Down the road about a mile, Russell Avenue crosses another irrigation canal, the Delta-Mendota Canal. That bridge is sinking, too, and now is partially submerged in water. Plans to replace it are estimated to cost $2.5 million, according to an estimate by the Central California Irrigation District.

The bridge is part of an $80 million list of public and private repairs already needed near the El Nido subsidence bowl because of sinking, White said.

Last year, the state passed its first law attempting to regulate groundwater, but farmers won’t be required to meet goals until 2040 at the earliest. And the information on who is pumping what will be kept private (https://www.revealnews.org/article/california-wont-identify-whos-draining-the-states-groundwater/).

“A doomsayer would say we will run out of water,” said Matt Hurley, general manager of the Angiola Water District, near Bakersfield. “But I don’t believe we’re heading there. We’ve been given a good opportunity with the sustainability law.”

But Devin Galloway, a scientist with the geological survey, sees devastation of a historic proportion returning to California. He says that even if farmers stopped pumping groundwater immediately, the damage already done to aquifers now drained to record-low levels will trigger sinking that will last for years, even decades.

“This could be a very long process. Even if the water levels recover, things could continue to subside,” he said. “This is a consequence of the overuse of groundwater.”

26th July 2017, 21:33
Sea levels are falling (https://www.iceagenow.info/sea-levels-are-falling/)

By Robert (https://www.iceagenow.info/author/xilef/) July 25, 2017 (https://www.iceagenow.info/sea-levels-are-falling/)

That’s right, according NASA, sea levels are going DOWN! This is big news. How come the media hasn’t mentioned it?


NASA satellite sea level observations for the past 24 years show that – on average – sea levels have been rising 3.4 millimeters per year. That’s 0.134 inches, about the thickness of a dime and a nickel stacked together, per year.


As I said, that’s the average. But when you focus in on 2016 and 2017, you get a different picture.

Sea levels fell in 2016, and with all of this winter’s record-breaking snowfall, I wouldn’t be surprised if they decline again this year.

I clicked and zoomed on the above chart as NASA suggested, and obtained a closeup screen shot of sea levels from Jan 2016 to March 2017. This clearly shows the decline.


See larger interactive graph: https://climate.nasa.gov/vital-signs/sea-level/

Thanks to Norman Grant Smith for this info


30th July 2017, 12:37
Today’s sea-level rise is BELOW normal (https://www.iceagenow.info/todays-sea-level-rise-normal/)

By Robert (https://www.iceagenow.info/author/xilef/) July 27, 2017 (https://www.iceagenow.info/todays-sea-level-rise-normal/)

This talk of unprecedented sea-level rise is complete nonsense.

__________________________________________________ _____________________
Today’s sea-level rise is BELOW normal

By Robert Felix
During the last ice age almost all of Canada, along with parts of Europe and Asia, were buried beneath one to two miles of ice. At the same time, sea levels stood 350 to 400 feet lower than today.

Sea levels were so low that the entire continental shelf, at least in eastern North America, was above water. Many states on the eastern seaboard were twice as big as today. New Jersey’s shoreline, for example, stood 60 to 100 miles east of its present location.

Same in the west.

The land between Alaska and Asia rose out of the sea like a bridge (or rather, the sea dropped away from the land), and the Bering Strait, which today is only 18 stories deep at its deepest point, was above water. Our ancestors could have walked to Siberia. (The word bridge is misleading, because the land connection between Alaska and Siberia was almost as wide as Alaska itself.)

Why were sea levels so low? Because that’s where the water came from to create those huge ice sheets. Literally millions of cubic miles of water had turned to ice.

Then, about 10,000 years ago, the ice began to melt and sea levels began to rise.

Here’s a sea-level graph (https://www.iceagenow.info/no-unusual-rise-in-sea-level-says-nobel-laureate-video/) from Nobel Laureate Ivar Giaever.

. . .


. . .
Rising sea levels have been the norm
If you run the numbers (see below), you’ll find that sea levels have been rising an average of .42 to .48 inches (just under half-an-inch) per year for the past 10,000 years.

Rising sea levels have been the norm, in other words, for 10,000 years.

And that brings us to today. What are sea levels doing right now?

Sea levels now rising slower than normal
According to NASA, sea levels are rising 3.4 mm (http://climate.nasa.gov/vital-signs/sea-level/) (about 1/8th of an inch) per year. That’s about the thickness of a dime and a nickel stacked on top of each other. Not the diameter of the nickels, but the thickness, In other words, sea levels are rising slower than normal.

Sea levels declined in 2010 and 2011
That doesn’t even take into account the fact that sea levels declined in 2010 (https://www.iceagenow.info/sea-levels-dropped-2010/), in 2011 (https://www.iceagenow.info/sea-level-continues-inexorable-decline/), and yet again in 2016 (https://www.iceagenow.info/sea-levels-are-falling/).

Yes, no matter how assiduously the media tries to ignore it, sea levels actually declined in those three years.

Where is the water going?

It’s being locked up on land as snow and ice. That’s how ice ages begin.

If we keep getting record snowfall as we have during the past few years, sea levels will begin falling and won’t begin rising again until the end of the next ice age.

This talk of unprecedented rising sea levels and catastrophic global warming is complete nonsense. It is just simply not true.

It’s not rocket science. Try it yourself. Multiply 400 by 12 and you get 4,800. That’s how many inches in 400 feet (how far sea levels have risen in the past 10,000 years). Now divide 4,800 by 10,000, and you get .48, just under ½ inch.

Just under half-an-inch. That’s how much sea levels have been rising on average per year for the past 10,000 years.

Today, sea levels are rising only 1/8 of an inch per year, LESS than normal.

And we’re supposed to throw billions, if not trillions, of dollars at it?

We’re supposed to destroy our economies over a non-issue?


Robert Felix is author of Not by Fire but by Ice, in which he maintains that the next ice age could begin any day.
See www.iceagenow.info (https://iceagenow.info)


Drowning The Sea Level/Global Warming Relationship Myth (https://stevengoddard.wordpress.com/2010/10/25/drowning-the-sea-levelglobal-warming-relationship-myth/)

By stevengoddard (https://stevengoddard.wordpress.com/author/stevengoddard/) Posted on October 25, 2010 (https://stevengoddard.wordpress.com/2010/10/25/drowning-the-sea-levelglobal-warming-relationship-myth/)

One of the most often stated pieces of drivel from the climate science community, is that sea level rise is an indication of warming temperatures. In fact, there is no such correlation.

The graph below overlays global temperatures with global sea level. For the last 8,000 years, sea level has been rising while temperatures have been falling.


16th November 2017, 00:03
My mathematician's eye has some trouble with the Holocene Sea Level chart beyond 7 thousand years ago. The curve fitting on the left end seems to be biased by the author's beliefs. Also, I do not see sufficient data points on the right end to support that the sea levels have dropped. I do not disagree - simply do not see the data. I do agree that any increases in the sea level are disconnected from any global warming that might be caused by human activity.

In any event, the ice will still come, be it a mini ice age or a full-scale ice age. Thirty years or ten thousand years. Time will tell.

4th January 2018, 20:14
Sinking of Mexico City linked to metro accident, with more to come (http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/12/sinking-mexico-city-linked-metro-accident-more-come)

By Katherine Kornei (http://www.sciencemag.org/author/katherine-kornei) Earth (http://www.sciencemag.org/category/earth) Physics (http://www.sciencemag.org/category/physics)
Dec. 20, 2017 , 8:00 AM

As Mexico City sinks, its structures twist and deform. Josh Haner/The New York Times

NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA—Darío Solano-Rojas remembers living in Mexico City and riding metro trains that sometimes slowed to a crawl. A geophysicist at the University of Miami in Florida, he now understands one of the causes of those delays: Mexico City, built on an ancient lakebed, is sinking by up to 30 centimeters per year, as groundwater is extracted to support its more than 20 million inhabitants. All of that ground movement has wreaked havoc on the city’s metro system, bending rails and precipitating a train crash, according to a new satellite-based map presented here last week at the fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union. The map, researchers say, can now be used to pinpoint spots where future accidents may occur.

“This study is important because it links surface deformation directly to critical infrastructure,” says Tim Wright, a geophysicist at the University of Leeds in the United Kingdom who was not involved in the research.

Ground subsidence has been implicated in a variety of damage reports and service interruptions across Mexico City’s vast surface and underground metro network, known as the Collective Transport System. For instance, inspectors have noted cracks in the concrete columns that support the above-ground tracks, and vertical shifts in the tracks themselves. In 2015, a crash left 12 people injured after a train traveling down an incline into Oceania Station in the eastern part of the city crashed into a stopped train. “The original design [of the tracks] was for a slope of 3%,” Solano-Rojas says. “But after so many years of subsidence the slope changed [to more than 7%], and the train’s brakes weren’t designed for that slope.”

Now, Solano-Rojas and his collaborators have analyzed satellite data showing how the ground near 93 kilometers of above-ground metro rail track in Mexico City is subsiding. The team used data from an Italian satellite that bounces microwave laser pulses off the ground and records the time it takes the light to return. Armed with these travel times for satellite passes from 2011–12, the scientists calculated the ground heights with millimeter-level precisions—and how they changed over time.

Metro lines in the eastern part of the city are subsiding more rapidly than those elsewhere (https://agu.confex.com/agu/fm17/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/294338), Solano-Rojas reported at the meeting. The researchers also analyzed how subsidence rates varied along adjacent 30-meter sections of track. This differential subsidence is the real culprit when it comes to causing track damage and accidents, says Solano-Rojas, because it causes the track to bend and change slope as some sections of track subside more quickly than others.

Solano-Rojas and his colleagues then correlated their maps of differential subsidence with the locations of reported track damage and accidents collected from local newspapers, YouTube, and Twitter. The results were striking: The team found that segments of the southeasterly Line A had both the most problems and the highest levels of differential subsidence. That's troubling because government officials are currently evaluating a plan to extend Line A by 13 kilometers, the team notes. The researchers also found high levels of differential subsidence near Oceania Station, the site of the 2015 crash.

Not all areas of high differential subsidence are associated with reported damage or accidents, the researchers found. But these spots, obvious in the satellite data, should be monitored because the effects of subsidence often take years to manifest, Solano-Rojas says. “We see displacements that could lead to problems in the future.”

The results show that the metro is particularly vulnerable to highly variable rates of subsidence, says Cathleen Jones, a radar scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. “This information can be used to identify parts of the system that need repair to prevent accidents.”

25th March 2018, 21:45
The heaving and sinking oil wells of Wink, Texas (https://www.sciencealert.com/massive-oil-fields-in-texas-are-heaving-sinking-and-opening-up-like-mouths-wink-sinkholes-geohazard)

Peter Dockrill Science Alert (https://www.sciencealert.com/massive-oil-fields-in-texas-are-heaving-sinking-and-opening-up-like-mouths-wink-sinkholes-geohazard)
Thu, 22 Mar 2018 19:16 UTC

Wink Sink 2 © J. Andrews

It began with sinkholes. Two of them, gaping mouths to nowhere opening up as if to swallow the town of Wink, Texas. As they expanded, there were fears they might collide, morphing into one giant void.

They first emerged in 1980, and things haven't gotten better since. Now, an unprecedented study reveals Wink and its vast sinkholes are just a tiny part of a much bigger problem - a vast stretch of historical oil fields that are heaving and sinking, covering an area almost the size of Connecticut.

"The ground movement we're seeing is not normal," explains geophysicist Zhong Lu (http://blog.smu.edu/research/2018/03/20/radar-images-show-large-swath-of-texas-oil-patch-is-heaving-and-sinking-at-alarming-rates/) from Southern Methodist University in Dallas.

"The ground doesn't typically do this without some cause."


Safety sign in Wink (Nicolas Henderson/Flickr)

Lu was part of a team who in 2016 used satellite data to reveal that the two Wink sinkholes weren't frozen in place (http://blog.smu.edu/research/2016/06/13/geohazard-giant-sinkholes-near-west-texas-oil-patch-towns-are-growing-as-new-ones-lurk/), but could be about to expand in response to subsidence detected in and around the town.

Now, the researchers have used the same techniques, zoomed out, to find that an area encompassing some 10,360 square kilometres (4,000 square miles) - covering four counties and six towns - is in fact sinking and uplifting, in parts by as much as 1 metre (40 inches).

"These hazards represent a danger to residents, roads, railroads, levees, dams, and oil and gas pipelines, as well as potential pollution of ground water," Lu says (http://blog.smu.edu/research/2018/03/20/radar-images-show-large-swath-of-texas-oil-patch-is-heaving-and-sinking-at-alarming-rates/).

"Proactive, continuous detailed monitoring from space is critical to secure the safety of people and property."

The satellite data the team used was sourced overhead in between November 2014 and April 2017, and coupled with oil-well production data provided by the Railroad Commission of Texas, the researchers conclude this epic instability is the result of decades of oil extraction in the area, and its knock-on effects on rocks below the surface of the earth.

Ground deformation © Zhong Lu and Jin-Woo Kim/SMU

Nobody's sure quite how the heaving and sinking will develop from here, but the bad news is the phenomenon might not be contained to the already vast expanse of oil fields the researchers have so far looked - the extent of the damage could ultimately be way bigger.

"Our analysis looked at just this 4,000-square-mile area," says one of the team (http://blog.smu.edu/research/2018/03/20/radar-images-show-large-swath-of-texas-oil-patch-is-heaving-and-sinking-at-alarming-rates/), geodetic scientist Jin-Woo Kim.

"We're fairly certain that when we look further, and we are, that we'll find there's ground movement even beyond that. This region of Texas has been punctured like a pin cushion with oil wells and injection wells since the 1940s and our findings associate that activity with ground movement."

The subsidence issues - which are thought to be tied to seismic activity that's previously been linked (https://www.sciencealert.com/oil-and-gas-industry-causing-texas-earthquakes-research-study) to oil and gas operations in Texas - will be monitored ongoing by the team, who want to know how bad the problem is, and how far it reaches.

"We have seen a surge of seismic activity around [the town of] Pecos in the last five to six years. Before 2012, earthquakes had not been recorded there," Kim says (http://blog.smu.edu/research/2018/03/20/radar-images-show-large-swath-of-texas-oil-patch-is-heaving-and-sinking-at-alarming-rates/).

"Although earthquakes and surface subsidence could be coincidence, we cannot exclude the possibility that these earthquakes were induced by hydrocarbon production activities."

There's a lot more research to be done before we understand the full extent of this heaving landscape, but it sure looks like a legacy of plunder spanning most of a century has left the ground under Texas disturbed, even famished, and the time has come where it wants something back in return.

The findings are reported in Scientific Reports (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-23143-6).

26th March 2018, 12:00
Nice post everyone, being part of this Avalon family is like having a family of teachers and being in school everyday . As for the aquafurs in California, there are the resovoirs that is used for the population ,the water on top of the ground and then for the farming there is the underground resovoirs they are tapping with wells, that water is 15,000 years old. And the reason the ground is sinking it's not being replaced and the plates are always moving,thus shaking and settling imo . Are we having an effect on the earth, possibly from a surface aspect to some small degree,but on the larger picture as the earth heats up I personally believe since the earth is a living organism that it is slowly growing in mass over billions of years.never heard of the crystal in the earth and boy does that resonate with me. I may also suggest that since anything burning needs oxygen ,could it be some sinkhole are happening due to the volcanic activity increasing in the inner core thus sucking more oxygen to burn.just my 3 cents.

13th April 2018, 13:51
UK: Devon village rising 2cm a year, London suburb sinking, and scientists have no idea why (https://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2018/04/12/devon-village-rising-2cm-year-scientists-have-no-idea/)

Sarah Knapton Telegraph (https://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2018/04/12/devon-village-rising-2cm-year-scientists-have-no-idea/)
Thu, 12 Apr 2018 19:03 UTC

https://www.sott.net/image/s23/461755/large/TELEMMGLPICT000160187696_trans.jpg (https://www.sott.net/image/s23/461755/full/TELEMMGLPICT000160187696_trans.jpg)
The village of Willand in Devon, which is rising 2cm every year © SWNS.com

But the small parish of Willand in Devon is not enjoying an unexpected economic boom, but rather a strange geological upsurge.

Scientists have discovered the village is rising by 0.7 inches (2cm) a year, and are utterly baffled about the reason.

The curious elevation was spotted by researchers from the University of Nottingham's (https://www.nottingham.ac.uk/) spin-off company Geomatic Ventures Limited (GML) (https://www.geomaticventures.com/) who have been compiling satellite images between 2015 and 2017 to create the first country-wide map of land motion (https://mangomap.com/geomatic-ventures-limited/maps/72883/united-kingdom-relative-deformation-map?preview=true#) in Britain.

"We generally see this sort of uplift where there has been mining works and the pumps have been switched off, allowing the water to gradually seep back into the ground," said Dr Andy Sowter, Chief Technical Officer at GVL (https://www.geomaticventures.com/).

https://www.sott.net/image/s23/461753/large/Willand_trans_NvBQzQNjv4BqqVzu.jpg (https://www.sott.net/image/s23/461753/full/Willand_trans_NvBQzQNjv4BqqVzu.jpg)
The area of Willand which is rising up © GVL

"But I contacted the British Geological Society to ask if there was any history of mining in the area and there is none. Willand is in the middle of nowhere, and there were no mines, so we have no idea what is going on.

"For people living in the village it would be imperceptible and there is unlikely to be any structural damage, but it is concerning that there is a high speed railway line running in the area and the M5.

"If you're running a railway over that you may notice you have to maintain a bit of rail a little more if the ground is rising."
The rising area, which is elliptical in shape, measures around 1.2 miles (2km) wide and has been detected by several satellites.

https://www.sott.net/image/s23/461754/large/TELEMMGLPICT000160187693_trans.jpg (https://www.sott.net/image/s23/461754/full/TELEMMGLPICT000160187693_trans.jpg)
Scientists say villagers in Willand will not notice the shift but said it might cause problems with local railways and roads © SWNS.com

Experts say the fact that both fields and urban areas are rising together suggests that the answer 'lies deep underground,' and are concerned that it could be the result of a large environmental discharge, or huge leak.
"It's fairly sizable, the whole town is moving here," added Dr Sowter.

"I think the authorities definitely need to go down there and investigate what is going on.

"If it is down to liquid seeping underground, or some sort of discharge of waste then that could be a threat to the environment.

"If this is not a natural occurrence then it is symptomatic of something happening underground so it's important to find our what that is."
The new map was created using a technique called satellite interferometry, which overlays repeat radar pictures of the same location over time, so that tiny changes in land height can be seen.

The images were taken using the European Space Agency's satellite Sentinal-1 Credit: ESA

The images were taken by the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1 (https://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Observing_the_Earth/Copernicus/Sentinel-1) satellite mission which orbits 500 miles above Earth.

It offers the most detailed look ever at the UK's shifting topography and highlights areas of hazards due to coal mining, soil compaction, landslides, coastal erosion, landfill subsidence and tunnelling for the London Underground.

As well as the village movement, the map also unveiled a subsidence bowl more than 500 yards wide at Kennington Park, just east of The Oval in London. The Team believes it was due to the sinking of a shaft for the Northern Line extension in November 2017.

Britain's coal mining heritage is also evidence, with large regions of 'rebound' where underground workings have flooded after closure, as well as subsidence where shafts have collapsed.

Examples can be seen extensively over former coalfields such as Leigh, Greater Manchester; North Nottinghamshire; South Yorkshire; Stoke-on-Trent; and Midlothian.

Dr Stephen Grebby, Assistant Professor in Earth Observation, at Nottingham University said,
"With the new map we are able to better understand how the entire UK landscape is being affected by various natural and anthropogenic processes.

"Whilst providing us with detailed information to study the individual mechanisms of these processes, the technique also offers a means of identifying and mitigating any potential risk that these may also pose to infrastructure, society and the environment."
The team hope the map will be useful for policymakers and a wide range of industries, including onshore oil and gas, civil engineering, insurance, mining and carbon trading.

Dr John Kupiec, Innovation Manager at the Environment Agency (https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/environment-agency) added:
"The Environment Agency and other government and public sector organisations will be able to make use of the rich information for a variety of applications in monitoring both the natural and built environments for the benefit of people and to promote sustainable development."
'Sinking' Pacific Island is actually growing (https://www.sott.net/article/376932-Sinking-Pacific-Island-is-actually-growing)

17th May 2018, 12:20
Sinkhole city: Russian settlement being slowly consumed (VIDEO) (https://www.rt.com/news/426968-sinkholes-destroy-russia-berezniki/)

Published time: 17 May, 2018 09:02
Edited time: 17 May, 2018 09:06
Get short URL (https://on.rt.com/95g8)

© Ruptly

The Russian city of Berezniki has paid the price for being located above a former Soviet potash mine, with the area’s capitulating soil leaving the settlement scarred by sinkholes and moon-like craters.

Springing up throughout the 1900s in the Ural Mountains, Berezniki has more recently become infamous for its devastating sinkholes - the result of mining practices in the area - forcing large areas to be abandoned. As parts of the city began to give way and disappear into the ground, thousands of people had to be evacuated and key services like schools and transport moved or shut down.


Now, drone footage shows many of these abandoned locations lying eerily close to flooded sinkholes and large undulating crevasses.

The recent footage also reveals work being undertaken using heavy machinery to tear down damaged buildings. Some of the menacing water-filled craters now resemble serene lakes. However, the existence of pancaking structures nearby betray the terrifying truth - the earth is unstable and at risk of swallowing the entire city.

The biggest of these sinkholes opened up between 2006 and 2007, threatening train routes, and forcing local authorities to flood many of the alarming cracks in Berezniki. According to Euronews (http://www.euronews.com/2017/12/05/welcome-to-berezniki-the-city-swallowed-by-sinkholes), at least 10 sinkholes have been discovered in the city of around 150,000, while there are fears that the old mine may hide many more of these unpleasant surprises.


Mini ‘Grand Canyon’: 6-story sinkhole opens up on NZ farm (PHOTOS, VIDEO) (https://www.rt.com/news/425820-new-zealand-sinkhole-farm/)

13th August 2018, 20:08
Ground subsidence has put 5 metropolises at risk of being flooded out of existence (https://www.rt.com/news/435858-sinking-cities-rising-sea/)

RT (https://www.rt.com/news/435858-sinking-cities-rising-sea/)
Mon, 13 Aug 2018 17:11 UTC

https://www.sott.net/image/s24/483049/large/wading.jpg (https://www.sott.net/image/s24/483049/full/wading.jpg)
© Manuel Silvestri / Reuters

They may seem like impressive monuments to humanity's control over Mother Nature but did you know that many of the world's biggest and most famous cities are sinking into the sea?

Rising sea levels have put scores of cities at risk of being flooded out of existence. In many cases the city itself is also sinking, further adding to the danger.

Here's five of the most imperilled cities.

Jakarta, Indonesia
Indonesia's capital on the island of Java is home to 10 million people and has a whopping 13 rivers running through it. As much as 40 percent of the city is below sea level. The city also has the dubious title of the fastest sinking city in the world.

The extraction of groundwater and lax regulation has been been identified as two massive contributors to the sinking of Jakarta, as the removal of water from the ground causes it to subside.

Most of north Jakarta could be submerged by 2050. The area has sunk 2.5 meters (8.2ft) in the last decade and, in some parts, it is sinking by as much as 25cm a year.

https://www.sott.net/image/s24/483052/large/car.jpg (https://www.sott.net/image/s24/483052/full/car.jpg)
A woman wades through floodwaters in a flood-hit area in Jatinegara district, Jakarta.© Beawiharta Beawiharta / Reuters

Venice, Italy
Italy's picturesque tourist magnet is built on more than 100 islands and has a marshy foundation. The city stands on a bed of sediment at the mouth of the River Po, making it particularly vulnerable to flooding.

https://www.sott.net/image/s24/483054/large/ch.jpg (https://www.sott.net/image/s24/483054/full/ch.jpg)
© Reuters

Several times each year photos showing submerged tables and chairs on the famous St Mark's Square go viral. As flood waters colonize piazzas they eat away at the buildings that make the city famous.

The UNESCO World Heritage Site is flooded with tourists who also place a strain on the sewage and canal system. The city isn't quite sinking but water is slowly creeping up around it's buildings and they are becoming submerged.

New Orleans, Louisiana
Visitors to New Orleans would probably be surprised to learn that the city famous for its music, food and nightlife could soon be famous for its alarming rate of subsidence.

https://www.sott.net/image/s24/483055/large/swa.jpg (https://www.sott.net/image/s24/483055/full/swa.jpg)
© Reuters

Until the 20th century the city was entirely above sea level, however, large chunks of it have now fallen below the water level of both the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain. In some parts of the city, sinking is occuring at a rate of more than 5cm per year.

New Orleans has also seen the effects of groundwater pumping which leads to sinking. Almost half of the Louisiana city is below sea level, thanks to an engineering error that drained water from parts of the land, allowing people to build there. The draining caused air pockets in the ground, which eventually led it to sink. By the 1930s, one third of the city sank below sea level, and by the 2000s, it was almost half.

Dhaka, Bangladesh
Extensive groundwater extraction is also wreaking havoc with Bangladesh's most populated city, putting it at risk of flooding as the earth beneath gradually disappears.

https://www.sott.net/image/s24/483057/large/fl.jpg (https://www.sott.net/image/s24/483057/full/fl.jpg)
© Mohammad Ponir Hossain / Reuters

The city gets around 90 percent of its water supply from the ground, and the demand is so great that shortages are an issue during summer months.

Dhaka is home to an estimated 18 million people, many of which are Bangladeshis who have fled coastal areas that are already experiencing rising sea levels and extreme floods.

Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
The city once occupied by US forces is now facing a new invader - slowly advancing water. Built on the sprawling Mekong Delta of rivers and swamps, Ho Chi Minh City has sunk nearly half a meter in 25 years.

https://www.sott.net/image/s24/483058/large/flood.jpg (https://www.sott.net/image/s24/483058/full/flood.jpg)
© Wikipedia

Some districts in Vietnam's capital are sinking at a rate of more than 1cm per year. Once again, this is as a result of overuse of groundwater but rapid urbanization has also played a significant part as it exerts pressure on the ground and stops rain reaching underground aquifers.

In coastal areas, the over-exploitation is leading to the spread of saltwater. This intrusion is killing plants and hampering farming.

5th December 2018, 14:30
Tehran is Sinking… Literally – Research (https://sputniknews.com/middleeast/201812051070412422-tehran-sinking-slowly/)

Sputnik Middle East (https://sputniknews.com/middleeast/)
16:42 05.12.2018
(updated 16:44 05.12.2018)


As Iran is working on neutralizing the effect of US sanctions and ensuring continued oil exports abroad, a new threat is emerging, posing a threat to its capital city.

Iran's capital, Tehran, is irreversibly sinking. But not economically speaking — it is literally sinking deeper into the ground by dozens of centimetres every year, according to recent research conducted by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. Using satellite data in the period between 2003 and 2017, researchers detected that the western part of the city, situated on the Tehran Plains, and the southeast suburbs of the city, Varamin Plain, are "sinking" by about 25cm per year. These regions include both urban and agricultural sectors of the capital.

Tehran's international airport is also in the risk zone, but is currently it descending at a slower pace — 5cm a year. According to the research, a total of 10% of the city's urban area is affected by the phenomenon.

The presumed reason behind the sinking is the significant depletion of the aquifer beneath the city as a result of its overuse by the capital's population and surrounding agricultural activities. Another problem is the illegal pumping of groundwater — in Teheran, there are some 30,000 illegal wells, which are further lowering the underground water levels.

Possibly the worst thing about the phenomenon is the risk of it being irreversible — research shows that refilling groundwater reserves doesn't "lift up" soil that has already sunk. Along with the decreasing porosity of the underlying bedrock, it creates the conditions for potential massive flooding in the Iranian capital.

'Slow-Moving Sinkhole': Sprawling Mud Pot Monster Devouring California (https://sputniknews.com/us/201811051069524363-sinkhole-mud-pot-monster-california/)

30th April 2019, 00:08
Abandon ship! Indonesia plans to move capital city as it is slowly sinking underwater (https://www.rt.com/news/457834-indonesia-move-sinking-capital-jakarta/)

RT (https://www.rt.com/news/457834-indonesia-move-sinking-capital-jakarta/)
Mon, 29 Apr 2019 15:46 UTC

https://www.sott.net/image/s26/520175/large/beach.jpg (https://www.sott.net/image/s26/520175/full/beach.jpg)
Children playing in Jakarta. © Reuters/Beawiharta

The world's fourth most populous country Indonesia looks set to move its capital city away from flood-prone, sinking and overcrowded Jakarta to elsewhere on the Asian archipelago, according to the country's planning minister.

"The president chose to relocate the capital city to outside of Java, an important decision," Planning Minister Bambang Brodjonegoro said of disputed President Joko Widodo's proposal and campaign promise.

The minister cited examples such as Brazil, Australia and Kazakhstan which all, at one point, moved their capital cities. The official presidential election results are due on May 22 and Widiodo's rival Prabowo Subianto has also claimed victory.

Jakarta boasts an official population of over 10 million, with around three times that number living in its sprawling metropolitan area, while some 60 percent of Indonesia's 260 million people live on the island of Java.

Half of the flood-prone capital is below sea level and it continues to sink at an alarming rate; one World Bank report (https://www.abc.net.au/news/2008-04-15/indonesias-thirsty-capital-is-a-sinking-city/2404154) found that Jakarta could be 40cm to 60cm lower in 2025 than it was in 2008. Such sinkage would allow the sea to enter as far as the Presidential Palace, which is some five kilometers inland. Moving the capital could take up to a decade, however.

"Moving the capital requires thorough and detailed preparation," Widiodo said following the announcement, though a new location has yet to be decided. One early contender is Palangkaraya on the part-Indonesian island of Borneo, where some 300,000 hectares of land has already been prepared for habitation in the event it is selected as the new capital.

The issue has come up many times before since Indonesia gained independence from the Dutch in 1945, but none of the country's six presidents have managed to carry out the audacious move so far.


What's encouraging about this is that "rising waters" is not invoked and, in turn, instead of keeping a population in the dark, the actual reason is given so that real, practical solutions can be put forth.

30th April 2019, 00:34
Where is the real coastline?
At the edge of the continental shelves. It a vertical drop of thousands of meters.

Some parts of Sweden are still rising, because they had been depressed by the heavy load of ice during the last glacial which ended about 13,000 years ago.

Hydroelectric dams are know to cause the surrounding mountains to sink several meters due to the sheer weight of water.

Dams cause earthquakes

12th May 2019, 11:28
Sea level once stood 6 to 9 meters (20 to 30 ft) higher than today (https://www.iceagenow.info/sea-level-once-stood-6-to-9-meters-20-to-30-ft-higher-than-today/)

by Robert (https://www.iceagenow.info/author/xilef/) May 11, 2019 (https://www.iceagenow.info/sea-level-once-stood-6-to-9-meters-20-to-30-ft-higher-than-today/)

Long before the industrial revolution

Sea level once stood 6 to 9 meters (20 to 30 ft) higher than today

By Gregory F. Fegel

The coral species that build reefs, which form atolls, are dependent on sub-surface sunlight, so the atoll-building occurs in shallow waters that are near to sea level.


During the Eemian interglacial period, between 130,000 and 115,000 years ago, the sea level rose to about 6 to 9 meters (20 to 30 feet) higher than today.

Former beaches, reefs, and fossil corals that have been found high above the present tidal zone, in various places around the world, are proof of this.

Many published research papers report that from around 7,000 to 6,000 years ago, during the Holocene Climate Optimum, global sea levels peaked at about 2 or 3 meters above today’s sea level. https://notrickszone.com/2m-higher-holocene-sea-levels/

The sea level drops as much as 400 feet during the Ice Age glacial periods, and the atoll-building corals will migrate up and down with the sea level — so we should expect to find the fossils of atoll-building corals down to a depth of 400 feet.

The ability of the atoll-building corals to survive the changes caused by the Ice Age cycle — as well as various other environmental challenges during the past 500,000,000 years — shows that the corals are very resilient. In recent years, ocean acidification has been blamed for “coral bleaching”, but vertical exposure due to land uplift, which often happens in volcanic or tectonic zones, could also cause “coral bleaching”.

If major and sustained global cooling occurs, we should expect to see a drop in sea levels, the bleaching of exposed corals, and the downward migration of the atoll-building coral zone.

Earth on the Brink of an Ice Age
by Gregory F. Fegel