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Thread: Dust Particles Influence On The Weather AND Earth's Climate

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    Default Dust Particles Influence On The Weather AND Earth's Climate

    Incredible image captured by a Nasa satellite reveals the criss-cross patterns that ships leave in the CLOUDS

    By Shivali Best The Mirror, News

    14:15, 24 JAN 2018
    Updated16:46, 24 JAN 2018


    The stunning image reveals the impact that ships passing through the Atlantic Ocean have on the clouds above (Image: NASA/Jeff Schmaltz, LANCE/EOSDIS Rapid Response)

    A stunning image captured by a Nasa satellite reveals the impact that ships passing through the Atlantic Ocean have on the clouds above.

    The image shows a patchwork of bright, criss-crossing cloud trails off the coast of Portugal and Spain, known as ship tracks.

    Ship tracks form when water vapour condenses around tiny particles of pollution that ships emit as exhausts.

    These incredible clouds typically form in areas where low-lying stratus and cumulus clouds are present.


    The image was taken by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on board Nasa’s Aqua satellite (Image: Nasa)

    In a blog about the image, a spokesperson for Nasa said:
    “Some of the pollution particles generated by ships (especially sulfates) are soluble in water and serve as the seeds around which cloud droplets form.
    “Clouds infused with ship exhaust have more and smaller droplets than unpolluted clouds.
    “As a result, the light hitting the polluted clouds scatters in many directions, making them appear brighter and thicker than unpolluted marine clouds, which are typically seeded by larger, naturally occurring particles such as sea salt.”
    The image was taken by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on board Nasa’s Aqua satellite on January 16.


    While the ship tracks may not look too long in the image, in reality, some stretch hundreds of kilometres from end to end.


    The narrow ends of the clouds are youngest, while the broader, wavier ends are older.

    ================================================== ===

    The above gives an inkling as to what happens when volcanic ashes and an increasing amount of meteoritic/cometary dust settle down... which may be the omitted, generating factor for persistent contrails; beside pollution.
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    Default Re: Dust Particles Influence On The Weather AND Earth's Climate

    Fascinating......I've recently come across some compelling research that indicates that water vapour when factored into the false climate models illustrates almost ALL of the "global warming" a missing link so to say. These vapours can be produced by solar and cosmic radiation interacting with our atmosphere.

    Nearly 20 years ago there was a documentary on a PBS type channel (TV Ontario actually with David Suzuki narrating I believe) that illustrated how planktons would rush to the surface and release something like a spore? or particles? (I cannot recall) in order to force a thunderstorm that would produce conditions so they could gorge and feed. Noting phytoplantkons exist in the hundreds of trillions........of course whales would come and eat them

    If cargo ships switched to all electric the equivalent Annual output of pollution from the USA would disappear.

    Here is one of these ghost ships prototypes ( I don;t expect they go anywhere near the Somali pirates)

    The Dutch company Port-Liner is building two giant all-electric barges dubbed the ‘Tesla ships‘. The company announced that the vessels will be ready by this autumn and will be inaugurated by sailing the Wilhelmina canal in the Netherlands.
    The 100 million-euro project supported by a €7m subsidy from the European Union is expected to have a significant impact on local transport between the ports of Amsterdam, Antwerp, and Rotterdam.
    Chief executive of Port-Liner Ton van Meegen told The Loadstar:
    “There are some 7,300 inland vessels across Europe and more than 5,000 of those are owned by entrepreneurs in Belgium and the Netherlands. We can build upwards of 500 a year, but at that rate it would take some 50 years to get the industry operating on green energy.”
    The battery-powered barges – pictured above – are capable of carrying 280 containers.
    The first 6 barges are expected to remove 23,000 trucks from the roads annually in the Netherlands and replace them with zero-emission transport.


    https://electrek.co/2018/01/12/large...ectric-barges/

    ¤=[Post Update]=¤

    I found something about the Plankton

    Clouds From Plankton Blooms Control Weather

    Russ George / July 14, 2014 / Comments Off on Clouds From Plankton Blooms Control Weather / Get Your Geek On, Good News For The Planet
    Ocean plankton produce clouds as they thrive

    Ocean plankton is the largest natural factor of this blue planet when it comes to managing CO2 (and sunlight via clouds.) These micro plants of the world’s ocean convert CO2 from its ocean acidifying form and global warming form into more ocean plants, phytoplankton. They are just being plants like any other which complete this miracle through photosynthesis. But very few people know that ocean plants also control the amount of sunlight that falls on the ocean by producing a chemical known as DMS that is a powerful cloud forming compound.


    http://russgeorge.net/2014/07/14/clo...ntrol-weather/

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    Default Re: Dust Particles Influence On The Weather AND Earth's Climate

    Full journal article

    Abstract: The major source of cloud-condensation nuclei (CCN) over the oceans appears to he dimethylsulphide, which is produced by planktonic algae in sea water and oxidizes in the atmosphere to form a sulphate aerosol. Because the reflectance (albedo) of clouds (and thus the Earth’s radiation budget) is sensitive to CCN density, biological regulation of the climate is possible through the effects of temperature and sunlight on phytoplankton population and dimethylsulphide production. To counteract the warming due to doubling of atmospheric CO2, an approximate doubling of CCN would he needed.
    http://www.jameslovelock.org/oceanic...o-and-climate/

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    Default Re: Dust Particles Influence On The Weather AND Earth's Climate

    Yeah... clouds of strange origins:

    Spectacular polar stratospheric clouds captured over Peru (PHOTOS)

    Sott.net
    Sun, 28 Jan 2018 09:27 UTC


    © Red Climática Mundial/David Alvarado

    Stunning polar stratospheric clouds were captured by David Alvarado over Lamas, in the region of San Martín, Peru on January 18, 2018.

    Polar stratospheric clouds, also known as nacreous clouds (or mother of pearl, due to its iridescence), are clouds in the winter polar stratosphere at altitudes of 15,000-25,000 meters (49,000-82,000 ft). Usually the clouds only form over the poles during winter because the air in the upper stratosphere needs to be at least -78C.

    These images were posted on Red Climática Mundial (Global Climate Network).


    © Red Climática Mundial/David Alvarado


    © Red Climática Mundial/David Alvarado


    © Red Climática Mundial/David Alvarado

    This 'rare' phenomena is becoming increasingly common: Though beautiful, these clouds are likely an indication of a cooling atmosphere, due to dust loading from increased comet and volcanic activity.

    For some other indicators see these related articles:
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    Default Re: Dust Particles Influence On The Weather AND Earth's Climate

    Thanks, Herve....amazing colors & most interesting what causes them!

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    Default Re: Dust Particles Influence On The Weather AND Earth's Climate

    so where do Chemtrails fit into all of this?

    am just wondering...

    Larry

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    Default Re: Dust Particles Influence On The Weather AND Earth's Climate

    @all

    anyway, the weather can be influenced anyway one want's it; these technologies have been arround for decades; so where's the problem with this concept?-

    Larry

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    Default Re: Dust Particles Influence On The Weather AND Earth's Climate

    Quote Posted by Cardillac (here)
    @all

    anyway, the weather can be influenced anyway one want's it; these technologies have been arround for decades; so where's the problem with this concept?-

    Larry
    Quote Posted by Cardillac (here)
    so where do Chemtrails fit into all of this?

    am just wondering...

    Larry
    Please take that potential discussion to an already existing thread like this one (<---) or a new thread of your choice
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    Default Re: Dust Particles Influence On The Weather AND Earth's Climate

    High atmospheric dust particles factory:


    Etna - 2016
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    Default Re: Dust Particles Influence On The Weather AND Earth's Climate

    Herve.....you had me laughing out loud with your picture!! What an amazing picture...Thank You!!

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    Default Re: Dust Particles Influence On The Weather AND Earth's Climate

    The cosmic fuse to all sorts of dust particles generation:

    Early humans witnessed global cooling, warming, and massive fires from comet debris impacts says major study

    Anthony Watts Watts Up With That
    Sat, 03 Feb 2018 11:15 UTC


    Graph of temperature for the last 20,000 years, provided to illustrate this story, but was not part of the original press release.

    New research suggests toward end of Ice Age, human beings witnessed fires larger than dinosaur killers

    On a ho-hum day some 12,800 years ago, the Earth had emerged from another ice age. Things were warming up, and the glaciers had retreated.

    Out of nowhere, the sky was lit with fireballs. This was followed by shock waves.

    Fires rushed across the landscape, and dust clogged the sky, cutting off the sunlight. As the climate rapidly cooled, plants died, food sources were snuffed out, and the glaciers advanced again. Ocean currents shifted, setting the climate into a colder, almost "ice age" state that lasted an additional thousand years.

    Finally, the climate began to warm again, and people again emerged into a world with fewer large animals and a human culture in North America that left behind completely different kinds of spear points.

    This is the story supported by a massive study of geochemical and isotopic markers just published in the Journal of Geology.

    The results are so massive that the study had to be split into two papers.

    "Extraordinary Biomass-Burning Episode and Impact Winter Triggered by the Younger Dryas Cosmic Impact ~12,800 Years Ago" is divided into "Part I: Ice Cores and Glaciers" and "Part 2: Lake, Marine, and Terrestrial Sediments."

    The paper's 24 authors include KU Emeritus Professor of Physics & Astronomy Adrian Melott and Professor Brian Thomas, a 2005 doctoral graduate from KU, now at Washburn University.

    "The work includes measurements made at more than 170 different sites across the world," Melott said.


    The solid line defines the current known limits of the Younger Dryas Boundary field of cosmic-impact proxies, spanning 50 million square kilometers. Again, used to illustrate this story, not part of the original press release.

    The KU researcher and his colleagues believe the data suggests the disaster was touched off when Earth collided with fragments of a disintegrating comet that was roughly 62 miles in diameter - the remnants of which persist within our solar system to this day.
    "The hypothesis is that a large comet fragmented and the chunks impacted the Earth, causing this disaster," said Melott.

    "A number of different chemical signatures - carbon dioxide, nitrate, ammonia and others - all seem to indicate that an astonishing 10 percent of the Earth's land surface, or about 10 million square kilometers, was consumed by fires."
    According to Melott, analysis of pollen suggests pine forests were probably burned off to be replaced by poplar, which is a species that colonizes cleared areas.

    Indeed, the authors posit the cosmic impact could have touched off the Younger Dryas cool episode, biomass burning, late Pleistocene extinctions of larger species and "human cultural shifts and population declines."
    "Computations suggest that the impact would have depleted the ozone layer, causing increases in skin cancer and other negative health effects," Melott said.

    "The impact hypothesis is still a hypothesis, but this study provides a massive amount of evidence, which we argue can only be all explained by a major cosmic impact."
    The study: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/695703
    Extraordinary Biomass-Burning Episode and Impact Winter Triggered by the Younger Dryas Cosmic Impact ∼12,800 Years Ago. 1. Ice Cores and Glaciers

    Abstract

    The Younger Dryas boundary (YDB) cosmic-impact hypothesis is based on considerable evidence that Earth collided with fragments of a disintegrating ≥100-km-diameter comet, the remnants of which persist within the inner solar system ∼12,800 y later.

    Evidence suggests that the YDB cosmic impact triggered an "impact winter" and the subsequent Younger Dryas (YD) climate episode, biomass burning, late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions, and human cultural shifts and population declines. The cosmic impact deposited anomalously high concentrations of platinum over much of the Northern Hemisphere, as recorded at 26 YDB sites at the YD onset, including the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice core, in which platinum deposition spans ∼21 y (∼12,836-12,815 cal BP).

    The YD onset also exhibits increased dust concentrations, synchronous with the onset of a remarkably high peak in ammonium, a biomass-burning aerosol. In four ice-core sequences from Greenland, Antarctica, and Russia, similar anomalous peaks in other combustion aerosols occur, including nitrate, oxalate, acetate, and formate, reflecting one of the largest biomass-burning episodes in more than 120,000 y.

    In support of widespread wildfires, the perturbations in CO2 records from Taylor Glacier, Antarctica, suggest that biomass burning at the YD onset may have consumed ∼10 million km2, or ∼9% of Earth's terrestrial biomass.

    The ice record is consistent with YDB impact theory that extensive impact-related biomass burning triggered the abrupt onset of an impact winter, which led, through climatic feedbacks, to the anomalous YD climate episode.


    Related:

    Michigan Meteor Event: Fireball Numbers Increased Again in 2017

    Of Flash Frozen Mammoths and Cosmic Catastrophes

    Interview with astronomer Bill Napier: Cyclical catastrophes and cometary bombardments

    Witches, Comets and Planetary Cataclysms

    The Younger Dryas Impact Event and the Cycles of Cosmic Catastrophes - Climate Scientists Awakening

    The Day the Earth Froze: Younger Dryas Ice Age caused by Storm of Comet Debris

    Comet Research Group replies to Robert Schoch's theory on the end of the last ice age

    Large volcanic eruption may have caused the first mass extinction
    Last edited by Hervé; 3rd February 2018 at 14:25.
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    Default Re: Dust Particles Influence On The Weather AND Earth's Climate

    ...

    Ground level dust particles factories...

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    Default Re: Dust Particles Influence On The Weather AND Earth's Climate

    ANOTHER great picture!!

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    Default Re: Dust Particles Influence On The Weather AND Earth's Climate

    Volcanic eruptions, epics, pagan gods and the shift towards monotheism in Middle Ages Iceland

    Laura Geggel Live Science
    Tue, 20 Mar 2018 09:06 UTC


    The Codex Regius, an Icelandic collection of poems about pagan gods, contains a version of the Vǫluspá. © Werner Forman/Universal Images Group/Getty

    A series of Earth-shattering volcanic eruptions in Iceland during the Middle Ages may have spurred the people living there to turn away from their pagan gods and convert to Christianity, a new study finds.

    The discovery came about thanks to precise dating of the volcanic eruptions, which spewed lava about two generations before the Icelandic people changed religions.

    But why would volcanic eruptions turn people toward monotheism? The answer has to do with the "Vǫluspá," a prominent medieval poem that predicted a fiery eruption would help lead to the downfall of the pagan gods, the researchers said. [Cracking Codices: 10 of the Most Mysterious Ancient Manuscripts]

    New, volcanic land
    Historians have long known that the Vikings and Celts settled Iceland in about A.D. 874, but they were less certain about the date of the Eldgjá lava flood, the largest eruption to hit Iceland in the past few millennia. Knowing this date is crucial, because it can tell scientists whether the eruption - a colossal event that unleashed about 4.8 cubic miles (20 cubic kilometers) of lava [ash?] onto Greenland - impacted the settlement there, the researchers said.


    The nearly 25-mile-long (40 kilometers) Eldgjá fissure formed during a giant eruption from a volcano in southern Iceland. © Clive Oppenheimer

    To investigate, the researchers examined ice core records. Their results showed that the eruption took place less than 100 years after people settled the island. The volcano began gushing lava in the spring of A.D. 939 and lasted, at least episodically, until the autumn of 940, the researchers said.
    "This places the eruption squarely within the experience of the first two or three generations of Iceland's settlers," study lead researcher Clive Oppenheimer, a professor of volcanology at the University of Cambridge, in England, said in a statement.

    "Some of the first wave of migrants to Iceland, brought over as children, may well have witnessed the eruption."
    The finding matches medieval chronicles from Ireland, Germany and Italy that noted the spread of a haze in 939. Moreover, the tree-ring data revealed that in A.D. 940, the Northern Hemisphere had one of its coldest summers in the previous 1,500 years - a cold shift consistent with the release of large amounts of volcanic sulfur into the atmosphere, the researchers said.
    "In 940, summer cooling was most pronounced in Central Europe, Scandinavia, the Canadian Rockies, Alaska and Central Asia, with summer average temperatures 2 degrees Celsius [3.6 degrees Fahrenheit] lower," co-researcher Markus Stoffel, a professor in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Geneva in Switzerland, said in the statement.
    Suffering followed, with hard winters and drought in the spring and summer. Locusts invaded, and livestock died. "Famine did not set in everywhere, but in the early 940s, we read of starvation and vast mortality in parts of Germany, Iraq and China," said study co-researcher Tim Newfield, an environmental historian at Georgetown University, in Washington, D.C.

    However, no texts from that period survive from Iceland, the volcano's homeland.

    A mere two generations after the Eldgjá eruption, in about A.D. 1000, the people of Iceland formally converted to Christianity. And it likely had to do with the "Vǫluspá," the researchers said. [The 11 Biggest Volcanic Eruptions in History]

    Apocalyptic poem
    The "Vǫluspá" was written after the eruptions, in about A.D. 961. It describes how an eruption and meteorological events would mark the end of the pagan gods, who would be replaced by one, singular god, the researchers said.

    Part of the poem explains how "the sun starts to turn black, land sinks into sea; the bright stars scatter from the sky ... flame flies high against heaven itself," according to a translation.

    Considering Eldgjá's eruptions date to before the poem was written, Icelanders who experienced the fiery spectacle likely looked back at the events and wrote the poem, "with the purpose of stimulating Iceland's Christianization over the latter half of the 10th century," the researchers wrote in the study, published online today (March 19) in the journal Climate Change.
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    Default Re: Dust Particles Influence On The Weather AND Earth's Climate

    The effect of volcanoes on climate and climate on volcanoes

    Andy May WUWT
    Thu, 10 May 2018 00:00 UTC


    In this photo provided by the U.S. Geological Survey, red ash rises from the Puu Oo vent on Hawaii's Kilauea Volcano after a magnitude-5.0 earthquake struck the Big Island, Thursday, May 3, 2018 in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. © volcanoes.usgs.gov

    The relationship between volcanoes and climate is a very complex one. From reading the media one gets the impression that they are some sort of climatic wild card. They are used to explain the cooling after the Pinatubo eruption, or the Little Ice Age cooling as a detriment to the solar hypothesis. But they are also used to explain the warming leading to mass extinctions in the distant past.

    To be able to fulfill such a dual role, scientists take advantage of the different gas emissions from volcanoes. About 50-90 % of the gas emitted by volcanoes is water vapor. The rest is highly variable from one volcano to another, but CO2 can be 1-40 %, SO2 1-25 %, H2S 1-10 %, and HCl 1-10 %, plus a lot of other minor gases. H2S gets quickly oxidized to SO2.

    If we want to concentrate on the cooling produced by volcanoes we look at SO2 (+H2S). Due to silent degassing, nobody knows how much SO2 volcanoes are producing, and the estimates vary wildly, but their contribution is very significant. SO2 placed in the troposphere gets converted to sulfate and coalesces into aerosols that affect cloud condensation and get precipitated as acid rain in a relatively short time. SO2 also reaches the stratosphere mainly during explosive eruptions that take place about every two years, but also from rising tropospheric SO2. Most of the stratospheric SO2 is of volcanic origin. In a period of weeks to months stratospheric SO2 gets converted to sulfate, dehydrating the stratosphere and building a sulfate peak in about 3 months after the eruption, that produces a stratospheric aerosol layer enhancement that lasts about 4 years.


    Figure 1. Schematic overview of the climate effects after a very large volcanic eruption. Source: Timmreck, 2012.

    The better known one is to scatter incoming solar radiation producing surface cooling. But they also absorb near IR (Infrared radiation) and LWR (longwave infrared radiation, incoming and outgoing) producing stratospheric heating, affecting atmospheric circulation and leading to warm winters in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) in the 1-2 years after a stratospheric eruption. The third effect is a very effective destruction of ozone due to altered chemistry and perturbed heating rates. The drop in the ozone level affects stratospheric climate leading to widespread atmospheric changes and to an increase in solar UV (ultraviolet) radiation reaching the surface.

    To complicate things, the climatic effects of volcanoes depend a lot not only on their SO2 stratospheric injection, but also on the latitude of the volcano and the time of the year. These factors have a significant effect on the dispersal of the cloud. Thus, some volcanoes have a global effect while others only a hemispheric one, or no effect at all, like the Mt. St. Helen's eruption of 1980, a strong volcanic eruption with no climatic effect.

    When scientists want to concentrate on the warming produced by volcanoes, they look at CO2. Currently CO2 emissions from volcanoes are too small, about 1% of anthropogenic emissions. But, in the distant past the amount of CO2 produced by a much higher level of volcanic activity, particularly by Large Igneous Provinces (LIP), might have been very considerable. Since mass extinctions, from the past in some cases, correlate well with LIP, there is a lively debate on whether SO2 and cooling, or CO2 and warming, caused the extinction, with the latter one being the most popular hypothesis today.

    Volcanic activity and the Little Ice Age
    The available evidence from El Chinchon and Pinatubo eruptions only supports a short-term effect from volcanoes on temperatures, lasting at most a few years. Based on this evidence volcanic eruptions affect weather, not climate, very much like strong El Niño events, but opposite. In fact an El Niño-like condition develops in the first year after large tropical eruptions, followed by a stronger La Niña-like condition in the second year (Sun et al., 2018). The La Niña condition recharges subsurface ocean temperatures, contributing to a rebound in temperatures once the volcanic stratospheric effect ends, around the fourth year.


    Figure 2. Superposed epoch analysis of the summer temperature anomaly centered on 34 large volcanic eruptions (VEI index ≥ 5) within the 1111–1976 CE period. Temperatures over Northern (blue) and Central (red) Europe derived from a network of tree-ring maximum latewood density (MXD) records (thick lines). Thin lines represent 3 Northern and 4 Central sites to assess spatial and temporal variability. Source: Esper et al., 2013.

    This evidence makes it difficult to explain the LIA (the Little Ice Age) in terms of volcanic activity, and therefore weakens the CO2-hypothesis. The main alternative to the volcanic hypothesis is that the LIA was caused by a reduction in solar activity, but if lower solar activity is more important in the LIA cooling, then increasing solar activity is likely to be more important in modern global warming.

    Defenders of a volcanic-LIA use models to support a much longer effect by larger eruptions that took place during the LIA, like the Tambora eruption of 1815, by clusters of eruptions, and by a proposed long-term oceanic effect from eruptions. While these explanations are possible, there is no evidence supporting them. Tree-ring analysis shows a similar weather effect for LIA volcanoes (figure 2). The solar-LIA hypothesis has the problem that the cooling started before some of the solar grand minima started and that the cold periods don't exactly match the low solar activity periods.

    Most scientists, however, accept that the LIA was probably caused by a combination of solar and volcanic causes and the discussion is about which cause was more important. A clear possibility is that low solar activity prevented the recovery from volcanic cooling, prolonging its effects and acting synergistically to produce a bigger combined cooling.

    However more information can be gained by studying the effect that climate change has on volcanic activity.

    The effect of climate on volcanoes
    The idea that volcanoes affected climate by causing cooling on a temporal scale of less than a decade was an old one, already reported in 1940, and in the early 1970's there was speculation that volcanoes could be a cause for glaciations. However, in the mid-1970's J. Roger Bray, the discoverer of the 2500-year solar-climate cycle (wrongly named Hallstatt), made the observation that moving to temporal scales of centuries to millions of years the correlation between "volcanic pulses" and glacial advances was the opposite. Some glacial advances appeared to precede by a few centuries the "volcanic pulses" that were supposed to be their cause, and over the past 2 million years major ice-sheet expansions had lagged behind "volcanic pulses" by up to 10,000 years (Bray, 1977).

    By the late-1970's it was clear that the effect of volcanoes on climate was limited. As Rampino et al. reported in 1979:
    "The eruption of Tambora in 1815, one of the largest eruptions during the past few thousand years, is associated with a hemispheric temperature decrease of only 0.5° to 1°C for 2 to 3 years. In this case, average global temperatures had already been decreasing since 1810 and then rose again in the 1820's."
    Rampino et al. (1979) confirmed one of Bray's observation that major historical eruptions associated with cooling were taking place after decadal length temperature decreases had been initiated, so they asked if rapid climate change could cause volcanic eruptions, by means of stress changes on the earth's crust, through loading and unloading of ice and water masses and through axial and spin-rate changes.

    This question was left unanswered and forgotten once scientific focus changed from cooling to warming in the 1980's. However, through better data collection the question reemerged at the turn of the century. Zielinski et al. published in 1996 the GISP2 ice-core record of 110,000 years of explosive volcanism (figure 3), showing that the transitions between colder periods (stadials) and warmer periods (interstadials) displayed increased volcanism. The following year McGuire et al. published a correlation between sea-level changes and the frequency of explosive volcanism in the Mediterranean. And in 1999 Glazner et al. published under the suggestive title "Fire or ice," that the anti-correlation between volcanism and glaciation extended for the past 800,000 years in the Californian volcanoes, located 300 km from the sea. This was also confirmed for continental volcanism in France and Germany by Nowell et al. in 2006.


    Figure 3. GISP2 ice core volcanic SO2 (red), total SO2 (blue), and temperature (black, from δ18O proxy), for the past 50,000 years. Non-volcanic SO2 correlates with other sea salt ions. This graph demonstrates that the LIA cannot be due to volcanic activity, as the highest volcanic activity, several times higher than during the LIA, is associated with the strongest warming in 50,000 years, and the warmest period of the Holocene.

    Then research turned to the mechanisms. Jellinek et al. showed in 2004 that Californian volcanoes were responding to ice changes in the obliquity (41-kyr) frequency with a time lag, related to glacial unloading, that was of a few kyr for silicic volcanism but of ~ 10-kyr for basaltic volcanism. They advanced the hypothesis that the decrease in pressure from ice melting stimulated dike formation leading to more explosive volcanism. But this is not the only hypothesis. Volcanism is terribly complicated, and caldera-forming volcanoes from the glaciated arc of Kamchatka seem to respond to glacial loading and show peak activity during glacial maxima (Geyer and Bindeman, 2011).

    Kutterolf et al. conducted in 2013 the most comprehensive analysis to date of the temporal frequency of volcanism in the Ring of Fire, where most of the world's largest volcanic eruptions have occurred in the recent past. They built an extensive dataset of 408 tephra (volcanic ejecta) layer dates for the past million years from multiple coring sites down-stratospheric-wind from volcanic areas along the Pacific Ring of Fire. Frequency analysis of volcanic eruption activity shows a significant peak at the 41-kyr period with non-significant peaks also at the 23-, 82-, and 100-kyr Milankovitch frequencies (figure 4). The 41-kyr volcanic frequency peak coincides in period with the δ18O rate from benthic cores. Since changes in δ18O rate are anti-phased with obliquity, volcanism peaks roughly when the rate of change of δ18O is most negative, i.e. ~ 4 kyr after the greatest rate of sea-level rise and ice volume decline (figure 4).


    Figure 4. B: Power spectrum (red solid line) with 95% confidence limits (light red field) of the tephra layer records for the Ring of Fire time series. Computed with a time bandwidth of 1.5 k.y., have been normalized to the maximum value in the 40–50 k.y. band to allow better comparison. Energy at the obliquity period of 1 per 41 k.y. stands out as being significant. C: Power spectrum (blue solid line) with 95% confidence limits (light purple field) of the time rate of change of the LR04 Pleistocene stack of δ18O benthic records. Bottom: Phase shifts at a period of 41.2 k.y. between time series of δ18O, the time rate of change of δ18O, and volcanic eruptions, relative to the Earth’s obliquity. 360° represents one full cycle. Source: Kutterolf et al., 2013.

    Ice cores (volcanic sulfate deposition) and volcanic (tephra layers) datasets independently show that the highest level of volcanic activity for the past 100,000 years took place between 13 and 7 kyr BP, with a rate 2-6 times above background level (figure 5c). Part of the lag with respect to the start of the deglaciation at ~ 18 kyr might be due to the melting starting at the Eastern Laurentide and Antarctic ice sheets that do not affect volcanic regions. After 7 kyr BP, once the ice sheets melted, volcanic activity has declined and has returned to background glacial-comparable levels.

    Huybers and Langmuir (2009) have analyzed CO2 output by volcanoes at deglaciation, considering that the increase in subaerial volcanism due to melting must have been compensated in part by a decrease in non-ridge associated submarine volcanism due to the increasing load of sea-level rise. Their modeling indicates that half of the CO2 increase (~ 40 ppm) during deglaciation is due to the volcanic response to climate change, constituting an important feedback factor to glacial termination.


    Figure 5. Changes in volcanic activity and CO2 over the last 40 kyr. (c) Estimated global frequency of volcanic events (solid line), normalized so that the frequency during the last 2 kyr equals one. Also shown is the 99% coverage interval for the null-hypothesis of no systematic difference between glaciated and unglaciated events (dashed lines). Solid line and grey interval represent the average and 90% range of 10,000 different estimates. (d) The contribution to atmospheric CO2 from volcanic activity. (e) CO2 concentrations from the Dome C and Taylor Dome Antarctic ice cores (dots), and a smoothed version using a 2ky window (solid line). Also shown is the residual atmospheric CO2 after subtracting the volcanic CO2 contribution (dash–dot line). The vertical shaded bar is between 12 and 7 kyr, when volcanic frequency appears greatest. Source: Huybers & Langmuir, 2009.

    Discussion and conclusions
    The Holocene Climatic Optimum, the warmest period of our interglacial, showed a level of volcanic activity 2-4 times higher than the Little Ice Age, the coldest period of our interglacial. Therefore, it is impossible that the LIA may have been caused mainly by volcanic activity.

    Volcanic activity has no detectable climatic effect in the Pleistocene. Volcanic eruptions affect weather (a few years), not climate, and their only possible climatic effect is a hypothetical (but reasonable) feedback effect at glacial terminations through their significant contribution to CO2 increase.

    However, climate change has a strong effect on volcanism. The effect of obliquity-linked ice unloading is very clear. Due to the asymmetric nature of ice changes, as melting is very rapid, but ice build-up is very slow, the effect of ice unloading has been well established, but that of ice loading has not. Anecdotal evidence since the 1970's suggests that ice loading might also increase volcanic activity, as eruptions have been observed after decades-long cooling periods, however, the evidence for this is not significant.


    Figure 6. Top: Global volcanic aerosol forcing for the past 2000 years, reconstructed from bipolar sulfate composite records. The 32 largest volcanic signals are indicated by an x, and ages are given for eruptions with atmospheric sulfate loading exceeding that of the Tambora 1815 eruption. Source: Sigl, et al. 2015. Bottom: Low- and high-resolution multi-proxy reconstruction of Northern Hemisphere temperature anomaly (blue curve). Source: Moberg et al., 2005. A red line has been added to indicate the main temperature trend. Light blue ovals indicate cooling periods that coincide with the largest volcanic eruptions, but that are invariably followed by temperature recovery (red boxes). The largest volcanic eruptions did not change the existing temperature trend when they happened.

    The Medieval Warm Period peaked ~ 1100 AD. By the time the Samalas eruption of 1257 took place, the world had been on a cooling trend for a century and a half (figure 6). I place the start of the LIA at 1258 as it makes for a nice boundary. 1258 was the first taste of the coming climate misery that the LIA brought, characterized by crop failure, famine, epidemics, and social disruption like the appearance of the bizarre flagellant movement in 1260 (Stothers, 2000). See figure 7.


    Figure 7. Flagellants in the Middle Ages. Public procession of the flagellants of Spain, Italy, France, Germany. English line engraving, 18th century. Source.

    The Holocene Climatic Optimum and the Little Ice Age are not differentiated by their CO2 levels, that were about the same, while volcanic activity was much higher during the HCO. What separates them is their different solar irradiation from both orbital changes and solar activity. The solar-LIA remains the only hypothesis supported by evidence, even if we do not understand well the climatic response to reduced solar activity.

    A final corollary is that the strong reduction in the continental cryosphere observed during the present global warming is likely to be paid down the road in the form of increased volcanic (and seismic) activity, due to ice unloading. Whatever its cause, the potential for a hazardous geospheric response to climate change is real (McGuire, 2010).


    Bibliography
    Bray, J. R. (1977). Pleistocene volcanism and glacial initiation. Science, 197 (4300), 251-254.

    Esper, J., et al. (2013). European summer temperature response to annually dated volcanic eruptions over the past nine centuries. Bulletin of volcanology, 75 (7), 736.

    Geyer, A., & Bindeman, I. (2011). Glacial influence on caldera-forming eruptions. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 202 (1-2), 127-142.

    Glazner, A. F., et al. (1999). Fire or ice: Anticorrelation of volcanism and glaciation in California over the past 800,000 years. Geophysical Research Letters, 26 (12), 1759-1762.

    Huybers, P., & Langmuir, C. (2009). Feedback between deglaciation, volcanism, and atmospheric CO2. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 286 (3-4), 479-491.

    Jellinek, A. M., et al. (2004). Did melting glaciers cause volcanic eruptions in eastern California? Probing the mechanics of dike formation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 109 (B9).

    Kutterolf, S., et al. (2013). A detection of Milankovitch frequencies in global volcanic activity. Geology, 41 (2), 227-230.

    McGuire, B. (2010). Potential for a hazardous geospheric response to projected future climate changes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 368 (1919), 2317-2345.

    McGuire, W. J., et al. (1997). Correlation between rate of sea-level change and frequency of explosive volcanism in the Mediterranean. Nature, 389 (6650), 473.

    Moberg, A., et al. (2005). Highly variable Northern Hemisphere temperatures reconstructed from low-and high-resolution proxy data. Nature, 433 (7026), 613.

    Nowell, D. A., et al. (2006). Episodic quaternary volcanism in France and Germany. Journal of Quaternary Science, 21 (6), 645-675.

    Rampino, M. R., et al. (1979). Can rapid climatic change cause volcanic eruptions?. Science, 206 (4420), 826-829.

    Stothers, R. B. (2000). Climatic and demographic consequences of the massive volcanic eruption of 1258. Climatic Change, 45 (2), 361-374.

    Sigl, M., et al. (2015). Timing and climate forcing of volcanic eruptions for the past 2,500 years. Nature, 523 (7562), 543.

    Sun, W., et al. (2018). A "La Niña-like" state occurring in the second year after large tropical volcanic eruptions during the past 1500 years. Climate Dynamics, 1-15.

    Timmreck, C. (2012). Modeling the climatic effects of large explosive volcanic eruptions. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 3 (6), 545-564.

    Zielinski, G. A., et al. (1996). A 110,000-yr record of explosive volcanism from the GISP2 (Greenland) ice core. Quaternary Research, 45 (2), 109-118.


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    Last edited by Hervé; 13th May 2018 at 14:57.
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    Default Re: Dust Particles Influence On The Weather AND Earth's Climate

    Noctilucent cloud season over the Arctic began May 27th 2018

    Space Weather
    Thu, 31 May 2018 16:17 UTC


    August 5, 2017 @ Kakwa, Alberta, Canada © Catalin Tapardel

    NASA's Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) spacecraft has spotted its first noctilucent clouds (NLCs) of the 2018 season. They are the electric-blue puffs circled in this image of the Arctic taken by AIM's CIPS instrument on May 27th:

    "The summer season for noctilucent clouds has begun," says Cora Randall, AIM science team member at the University of Colorado.

    "We spotted the first hint of NLCs in our data on May 23rd; now they are brightening rapidly."
    NLCs are Earth's highest clouds. Seeded by meteoroids, they float at the edge of space more than 80 km above the planet's surface. The clouds form when summertime wisps of water vapor waft up and crystallize around specks of meteor smoke.

    Previous data from AIM have shown that NLCs are like a great "geophysical light bulb." They turn on every year in late spring, reaching almost full intensity over a period of 5 to 10 days. This means observers on the ground could begin to see them not long after AIM does.

    Early-season NLCs are usually faint and always found in high latitude places such as Canada, the British isles, Siberia and Scandinavia. To people in those areas, we offer the following observing tips: Look west 30+ minutes after sunset when the sun has dipped 6o or more below the horizon. If you see luminous blue-white tendrils spreading across the sky, you may have spotted a noctilucent cloud.
    SOTT Comment:
    Interestingly, it's the 31st of May, but June 15th 2017 Space Weather reported in The mystery of absent noctilucent clouds:
    During the first two weeks of June 2017, Spaceweather.com received zero images of NLCs - something that hasn't happened in nearly 20 years.

    Where did they go?

    Researchers have just figured it out: There's been a "heat wave" in the polar
    mesosphere, a region in Earth's upper atmosphere where NLCs form. Relatively warm temperatures have wiped out the clouds.
    So with the unsettling rise in fireballs, one would think the two would increase in tandem, and yet, evidently, our atmosphere isn't behaving as is expected. And perhaps when this year's peak occurs will provide more data on just what's going on up there:
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    Default Re: Dust Particles Influence On The Weather AND Earth's Climate

    Strange skies: Red Sprites in Oklahoma, aurora Steve in Canada, iridescent clouds in Illinois and noctilucent clouds in Denmark

    Space Weather
    Sat, 02 Jun 2018 12:12 UTC


    Red Sprite Lightning. May 30, 2018 @ Edmond, Oklahoma, USA © Paul Smith

    The epicentre of Sprite Alley

    Oklahoma is a good place to see sprites. "I photograph them often," says Paul Smith of Edmond OK. "Here are some examples from May 30th flashing above fast-moving storms in the Oklahoma panhandle."

    "Venus is the bright 'star' just behind the windmill," he adds.

    Oklahoma is the epicenter of a region that we call "Sprite Alley," a corridor stretching across the US Great Plains where intense thunderstorms produce lots of upward directed lightning--a.k.a. "sprites."

    "I have been recording sprites since last summer when I accidentally caught a few during the Perseid meteor shower," says Smith. "I now have a couple of hundred events on camera and I am out almost every night there are storms in my vicinity."

    The blue pushpin in the satellite weather map, below, shows Smith's location. The blue arrow points to the storm cell that produced the sprites.



    People have been seeing sprites since at least the 19th century, but those early reports were often met with skepticism. Sprites entered the mainstream in 1989 when researchers from the University of Minnesota finally captured them on film. Subsequent video footage from the space shuttle cemented their status as an authentic physical phenomenon.

    In recent years, citizen scientists have been photographing sprites in record numbers. But why? It could be a result of raised awareness. More photographers know about sprites, so naturally more sprite photos are taken. There might also be a real increase in sprite activity. Some researchers think that sprites are linked to cosmic rays: Subatomic particles from deep space strike the top of Earth's atmosphere, producing secondary electrons that trigger the upward bolts. Indeed, cosmic rays are now intensifying due to the decline of the solar cycle.
    SOTT Comment:

    The latter explanation is more likely, in tandem with a variety of other changes:
    Photographer captures yet another photo of 'rare' red sprites - in skies above Oklahoma
    It all adds up to more sprites over Oklahoma. More examples may be found on Paul Smith's Facebook page.

    Steve
    spotted in Canada
    Rare video of aurora phenomenon "Steve" - formally discovered in 2017

    On May 31st, as Earth was entering a stream of high-speed solar wind, hot currents of plasma began to flow through the upper atmosphere over North America. When this happens, STEVE appears. Matthew Wheeler saw the purple ribbon of light from Robson Valley, British Columbia:


    Aurora Steve. May 31, 2018 @ Robson Valley, BC, Canada © Matthew Wheeler

    "It was visible to the naked eye despite bright moonlight," says Wheeler, who, on darker nights, has taken some incredible videos of the STEVE phenomenon.

    This particular stream of solar wind has a knack for summoning STEVE. One solar rotation ago, in early May, the same stream lashed Earth's magnetic field. STEVE was then sighted not only in Canada (its usual habitat) but also in multiple US states. Bright moonlight this time is making the mysterious ribbon more difficult to see, and will probably reduce the number of sightings.

    Noctilucent clouds seen from the ground

    Only a few days after NASA's AIM spacecraft began to see noctilucent clouds (NLCs) forming over Earth's northern hemisphere, people on the ground are beginning to see them, too. "They are back!" reports Ruslan Merzlyakov of Hjørring, Denmark. "I saw the NLCs during the early hours of May 31st." In this picture, they are silvery ripples beaming through the orange glow of sunrise:


    Noctilucent Clouds. May 31, 2018 @ Hjørring, Denmark
    © Ruslan Merzlyakov

    Early-season sightings of NLCs are always like this--faint and silvery, with a rippling structure that distinguishes them from ordinary clouds. They may not remain faint for long. Previous data from AIM have shown that NLCs are like a great "geophysical light bulb." They turn on every year in late spring, reaching almost full intensity over a period of 5 to 10 days. Soon the silvery ripples Merzlyakov spotted should intensify and spread, forming electric-blue waves that glow deep into the night.

    Noctilucent cloud season over the Arctic began May 27th 2018

    What are NLCs? You can think of them as frosted meteoroids. Noctilucent clouds form when summertime wisps of water vapor waft up to the top of Earth's atmosphere and crystallize around specks of meteor smoke. The resulting swarms of tiny ice crystals glow electric blue when struck by high altitude sunlight.

    Colorful clouds pile above Alberto
    Yesterday, May 30th, tropical depression Alberto was spending the last of its strength over Illinois when Chris Moore in the town of Streator looked up at the sky.
    "I caught these spectacular rainbow-colored rings swirling around a cloud bank on the western edge of the storm," he says.

    "The setting sun lit up the wispy clouds from behind."

    Wispy Rainbow Colored Rings Around Storm. May 30, 2018 @ Streator, Illinois, USA © Chris Moore

    These are pileus clouds, and while they may resemble rainbows, they form in a completely different way. To make a pileus cloud, a cumulus cloud must first boil upward, pushing layers of moist air above it where the layers cool and condense to form cloud caps ('pileus'). Because pileus clouds form very quickly, their internal water droplets tend to be all the same size--the perfect condition for iridescence. Uniform droplets diffract passing sunlight into vivid pastel hues.

    Normally pileus clouds appear on warm summer afternoons when the landscape is festooned with rising cumulous towers. In this case, however, Alberto created the conditions for a late-spring display.

    SOTT Comment: It wasn't so long ago that these strange sights in the sky were considered a rarity, now they're being documented daily.
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    Default Re: Dust Particles Influence On The Weather AND Earth's Climate

    Changing atmosphere: Footage of Russian rocket flyover lights up social media

    RT
    Sun, 17 Jun 2018 08:02 UTC



    Russia's Soyuz rocket. © Taken from https://vk.com/club134454330

    A scheduled launch of Russia's Soyuz rocket with a satellite aboard turned into quite an event in Russia after pictures of it heading into space baffled the whole country.

    People across Russia took to social media to post dazzling pictures and videos featuring a mysterious object flying over them in the night to Sunday. Searching for an explanation, some said it could have been a UFO. Others said the white oval object leaving a massive trail could be a sign that Russia's state of the art ICBM Topol-M had been launched.

    However, alien-seekers were left disappointed, as it turned out to be a Russian Soyuz 2.1-b rocket, which was launched at 12:46am Moscow time (21:46 GMT) from the Plesetsk test launch site. Several hours later, the carrier rocket's Fregat booster put the Glonass-M navigational satellite into orbit. The satellite will join the group of Russia's Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS), which currently has a total of 25 objects, one of which is currently undergoing flight tests.

    Those living close to the site apparently knew what was going on and just posted pictures, commenting on the amazing view. The flyover was seen from various corners of the country, from Arkhangelsk Region to Moscow.

    See video here: https://www.instagram.com/p/BkGpqxiH...ource=ig_embed
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    Default Re: Dust Particles Influence On The Weather AND Earth's Climate

    I guess I now could change the thread's title to "Dust Particles Influence On The Weather AND Earth's Climate":
    Vostok Ice Core Data Graph

    Vostok Ice Core Data Graph
    Originally uploaded in EarthLabs:Climate and the Cryosphere.
    Image 15045 is a 441 by 598 pixel PNG
    Uploaded: Apr21 09

    Last Modified: 2012-03-05 10:49:50
    Permanent URL: https://serc.carleton.edu/download/i..._core_data.png

    According to that graph, it appears that a dust cloud precedes a jump in Polar temperatures... a considerably significant jump... anyone heard of that anywhere???

    If correct and accurate, that graph smashes to pieces the idea of "nuclear winters" following heavy volcanic eruptions... like the Krakatoa explosion!
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    Default Re: Dust Particles Influence On The Weather AND Earth's Climate

    Quote Posted by Hervé (here)
    If correct and accurate, that graph smashes to pieces the idea of "nuclear winters" following heavy volcanic eruptions... like the Krakatoa explosion!
    It does totally break that model. We're led to believe an atmospheric event like that would shield the planet from solar radiation, thus cooling the planet. So does it act as a greenhouse effect, heating the planet instead?

    It's also interesting to note the wild Co2 swings over time, unconnected to human activity. Though it does correlate with strong temperature gains...
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