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Thread: WADE FRAZIER : A Healed Planet

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    United States Avalon Member Wade Frazier's Avatar
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    Default Re: WADE FRAZIER : A Healed Planet

    Hi Krishna:

    I don’t need to tell you how India suffered under British rule. I doubt that any of it was random, but the fates of peoples were tied to the dynamics of the time, although fate sure could seem capricious. Some did better than others, for various reasons. The Osage, like all aboriginal peoples of the Western Hemisphere, suffered greatly, if they survived at all, when Europeans invaded. Are you referring to the Osage’s relative affluence because oil was discovered on their “worthless” land? I have taken business trips in Oklahoma, you could not pay me enough to live there, and in the airport at Oklahoma City was a big picture of Osage Indians being driven in their cars by chauffeurs, and the exhibit stated how they got rid of each car when it needed any repairs, as they were so rich. What the exhibit did not mention was that many of those rich Indians were murdered by whites, to get their hands on their wealth.

    The Cherokee invented an alphabet and had a higher literacy rate than American whites, but that did not stop the Trail of Tears. Over my years of traveling the USA, I have seen many exhibits and memorials about the aboriginal natives, and while some were kind of disgusting, such as the rich Osage exhibit, most of the rest were respectful and told a story that I never got in school. I saw one just last week in Leavenworth, as the exhibits told about what Indian life was like before the whites invaded. In fact, I am going to attach pictures that I took of an exhibit.

    I recall one that I saw in upstate New York on my Bucket List road trip in 2013. It was about the slaughter and razing of an Indian “village” in the 1700s, although the “village” looked identical to a colonial town of the day, as the Indians had completely adopted European ways and lived in houses with slate roofs, glass windows, etc. But no matter how “civilized” they were, they lived on land that the invaders coveted, so an excuse was made to destroy their town and steal the land, which was standard operating procedure. The killers undoubtedly sold some scalps after it was over.

    I have found that when you got into the details of the trajectories of any peoples, it was always understandable, in that you could see the dynamics that led to their trajectory. It can often be a mystery, particularly with preliterate or vanished peoples, but as more evidence is adduced, the story becomes clearer. An example is the Classic Maya. When I was born, the fate of the Maya was a complete mystery and the leading interpretation of the evidence, of a peaceful forest people, is now known to be just one more romantic fiction. That said, the rise and fall of the Maya is another fascinating study that is not nearly finished. I was about to write my Third Epoch posts in this little series, so this is an appropriate place for a little vignette on the Maya.

    To me, the Mayan trajectory was kind of a New World parallel to Sumer. Agriculture was not invented in the Yucatan or Mesopotamia, but crops were imported into a seemingly unpromising region and clever water management practices made the land arable. City-states then arose, with the usual trappings of agrarian civilizations, with peasants, elites, soldiers, slaves, a professional priesthood that conferred divine status to the new elites, etc. Alluvial Mesopotamia did not have handy stone, so the monumental architecture was made of earth and wood, and those mounds are excavated and studied to this day, at least until the USA invaded the region to steal the oil.

    But the agricultural methods were not sustainable. In Sumer, soil salination did them in and siltation clogged the irrigation canals, and in the Yucatan, a 50-year drought finished them off, but their unsustainable practices exacerbated it. As with Sumer, the lowland Mayan civilization collapsed with starvation and endless wars between the city-states, and like Sumer, the place was abandoned by the survivors. In Sumer, the ruins eroded and were buried in the silt of “progress,” but in the Yucatan, the forest reclaimed the land, and the ruins were not rediscovered until whites began exploring them. As with Sumer, when the central core collapsed, the center of Mayan civilization moved to lands that had not yet been depleted, and the northern Yucatan and nearby highlands became the center of Mayan civilization, and the lowlands were permanently abandoned. In Sumer, civilization moved upriver, with later centers such as Akkad, Babylon, and Assyria, and the original cities are buried under silt in a desert today.

    Best,

    Wade
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    Last edited by Wade Frazier; 4th December 2017 at 16:26.
    My big essay, published in 2014, is here.

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    Default Re: WADE FRAZIER : A Healed Planet

    Quote Posted by Wade Frazier (here)
    Hi Krishna:
    Are you referring to the Osage’s relative affluence because oil was discovered on their “worthless” land?

    The Cherokee invented an alphabet and had a higher literacy rate than American whites, but that did not stop the Trail of Tears.
    Yes. I was referring to the oil find on "worthless" land. My comment about randomness was more about literacy in Sri Lanka and Myanmar, they also suffered under colonization, but literacy reduces suffering and other factors like colonization increase it. Weather had a role to play in Late Victorian Holocausts. I am trying to understand all the forces that together make history. Literacy is not the only factor as your rightly point out w.r.t. Cherokee.

    World Wars (which growing up I always though of as European Wars) weakened the British and allowed a little breathing space leading to the great divide year in India. Even then independence did not happen at the same time, Kenya and Uganda becoming independent only in 1960s. Its a long story and my understanding is incomplete.

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    Default Re: WADE FRAZIER : A Healed Planet

    Hi Krishna:

    I was just reading this map this morning, which is from the 1930s. Well, the purpose of my big essay is to not just understand human history, but the history of life on Earth. There are some so-called “principles” of history, but they have always ridden on the energy issue. I think that the concept of energy Epochs of the human journey is critical to understanding how human history has unfolded as it has, and what the future may be.

    Unfortunately, when one society got the upper hand in the energy game, it played it to the hilt on its neighbors. That is really the story of colonialism. A rising Europe turned the global ocean into a low-energy transportation lane and thereby conquered the world, setting off the greatest demographic catastrophes in the human journey so far. Those conquering Europeans were the oceanic equivalent of the Mongol hordes.

    When higher-energy societies engage lower-energy ones, the lower-energy ones don’t have a chance, and this goes back to the Neolithic Expansion and earlier. Sure, some groups will fare slightly better than others, but it is like studying who became house slaves versus field slaves; they were all still slaves. The so-called post-colonial era of “freedom” has really been anything but that, as the USA took over the colonial mantle from its weakened rivals, with the terror states that it erected. That has really been the primary thrust of Noam’s and Ed’s work over the years. On India, I think that it was too big and powerful of a colony to be subjugated outright forever, similar to China, and the USA did not have nearly the strategic interest in India as it did the oil-rich Middle East or East Asia, and it was never really a threat to go communist. None of William Blum’s work, for instance, mentions any American interventions in India, while the USA intervened everywhere else in the post-colonial world. This “friendly” relationship is partly reflected in millions of high caste Indians living in North America. You might say that India got “lucky” with the Americans. If they had been sitting on huge oil reserves or went communist, it would have been a different story.

    India made a certain sense for the British to conquer and subjugate, but the same did not go for the USA. It already had a continent to exploit and slaves to raise and pick the cotton and tobacco, declared all of Latin America to be its imperial hinterland, etc. China and India were going to regain their freedom a lot faster than smaller nations such as Kenya. Hitler thought that England’s rule of India was a poor colonial model. He preferred the Anglo-American experience in North America of exterminating the inhabitants and taking their land, which became his model for Germanic “settling” of Eastern Europe.

    As long as scarcity and fear are humanity’s operative principles, the future looks grim. Introduce abundant and harmless energy to humanity, and an entirely different game awaits.

    Best,

    Wade
    Last edited by Wade Frazier; 5th December 2017 at 16:39.
    My big essay, published in 2014, is here.

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    Default Re: WADE FRAZIER : A Healed Planet

    Hi:

    It took a few weeks, but I finally received a book with an interview of Ed, and read it last night, along with an interview with Noam in the same volume. That interview is where some of the quotes in Ed’s obits came from, such as this one. While Noam seems to give interviews weekly, not so with Ed. He only gave a handful that I am aware of, and I think that Ed was OK with that, as he wanted his work to speak for itself, and it was never about him. It was about our world and how to make it better. That said, Ed was a man of his Epoch, and his work revolved around the Fourth Epoch’s politics and economics, or, at least, the retail versions of them. No Godzilla and free energy on his radar. My work was a little too radical for him. In fact, I have had to coin a new term for my work, which is “Epochal.” The so-called radicals are not really very radical, operating within the confines of their Epoch, unable to imagine anything beyond it, as all peoples have always done. I am not picking on them. Noam and Ed are examples of what high-integrity scientists and scholars have been like in the Fourth Epoch, if a little blinkered by the paradigms of their Epoch.

    Now, I will spend the rest of my year’s “spare” time working on Ed’s big bio, fielding feedback from his pals, and then making the abridged Wikipedia version. Next year will be working on my essay update, which is way overdue because I resumed my career and my “spare” time is very limited. I am going on all cylinders and then some, and I don’t see any daylight for another decade, if I am lucky, and then it will be time for my dotage.

    So, I expect that my forum postings will slow down next year, as they did at times this year, as something has to give.

    Best,

    Wade
    My big essay, published in 2014, is here.

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    Default Re: WADE FRAZIER : A Healed Planet

    Hi:

    During my studies over the years, one dynamic became very fascinating. All life finds its energy niche, where it can survive. Sometimes, life helped build that niche, and some niches have lasted for billions of years. Those niches can give a glimpse into the past. In hydrothermal vents today we can see the most primitive forms of life still at it, called extremophiles today, but they probably represent the earliest life on Earth, and are probably doing it just like they did nearly four billion years ago.

    When a bacterium learned how to split water for its photosynthetic needs, oxygenic photosynthesis was born, which ultimately saved Earth’s ocean and made land-based life possible. That event likely happened more than three billion years ago. The oldest fossils yet found are of colonies of that bacteria. Those colonies can even be found today, in a few places on Earth too hostile for animals that can eat those colonies.

    So, in environments too hostile for complex life, we can still find bacteria living like they have for billions of years. The bacteria that learned how to split water also became the energy center for all plants. We all owe our existence to bacteria. There is little reason to believe that cyanobacteria have changed much for billions of years. They found something that worked, keep doing it, and nothing else on Earth does it.

    Sponges were among the first animals, and they are still at it, with a lifestyle that still works. The direct ancestor of vertebrates may still be around. The coelacanth and nautilus are so-called “living fossils,” as they survived for hundreds of millions of years in deep-water energy niches while all of their cousins died off, leaving them the last leaf on their branch of the tree of life, although coelacanths are our direct ancestors or close cousins to them. After amazingly surviving in their niches for hundreds of millions of years, as evolution passed them by, they are both threatened with extinction by humanity.

    The horsetail is a living fossil, nearly 400 million years old, and horsetails helped form the first forests. Their large cousins were driven to extinction long ago, as other plants overtook them in the game of evolution, but horsetails thrive today in the niches that resemble what they thrived in so long ago. These relics all provide a window into the past, for scientists to study and amateurs like me to marvel over. I hike past horsetails almost whenever I hike, and they are usually found near ferns, which are nearly as old and can also still live in wet environments.

    Humans are about to become living fossils, as they drive all of their cousins to extinction. It began when humans conquered Earth, and all great apes today are in danger of becoming extinct, due to humans. While no First Epoch specimens live today, in the historical era, Third Epoch humans encountered Second Epoch humans that lived in their energy niches. Basically, Third Epoch humans drove Second Epoch humans to extinction or the brink of it, and this also goes back to the Neolithic and Bantu expansions and other migrations. Perhaps the most illustrative example is Australia, but all other continents had similar encounters, especially when Europe conquered Earth.

    One of the more fascinating hypotheses that I encountered in my studies was the idea that plant domestication and state formation could not have happened if the region had warfare. Where humans had not hunted the big game to extinction and hunting was still the dominant mode of production, men still ruled with patrilocal societies, and those were violent societies that warred with their neighbors once the Golden Age of the Hunter Gatherer ended. But where the big game was driven to extinction and the plants conducive to it, women domesticated plants as an adjunct to their gathering duties, and the Third Epoch began.

    Aboriginal Australians could never hunt the fleet-footed kangaroo to extinction, so hunting remained the dominant form of production for nearly 50,000 years, until an industrializing Britain invaded and quickly brought aboriginal Australians to the brink of extinction. But before they were wiped out, white people got a glimpse into the human past. Those patrilocal aboriginal societies were in constant warfare with each other, and although there were plenty of candidates for domestication in Australia, as with the other continents, Australians never did, as stealing the neighbor’s crops would have been easy for hungry hunters.

    Aboriginal Australians also had a religion dominated by dancing and singing rituals that could go on all night and their rituals could last for months. With the rise of DNA testing, it has been determined that aboriginal Australians and Negritos are relict populations of the original migration from Africa, and they lived in their energy niches ever since, at least until Europeans invaded. While Australia was relatively isolated, I imagine that they kept out Third Epoch people like the Andamans did, by killing any strange people arriving in boats (which Native Americans didn’t do, which led to their extermination). The !Kung people of Africa are also a relict population of the original humans that conquered Earth, living in their energy niche in the desert (too hostile for Third Epoch energy practices to work), and they have a click language, which is likely how the original human language sounded. Those relict peoples all had strikingly similar religious rituals, which give us a window into the human past.

    Best,

    Wade
    Last edited by Wade Frazier; 6th December 2017 at 16:36.
    My big essay, published in 2014, is here.

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    Default Re: WADE FRAZIER : A Healed Planet

    Hi:

    My previous post is an example of what comprehensive thinking is all about. Comprehensive thinking is about combining the detail orientation of the specialist with the pattern recognition and big picture thinking of the generalist. It is not easy, but the potential insights are more than worthwhile to pursue. They could have Epochal significance. The challenge is to learn the details well enough to not overly generalize, and seek the overarching principles at work (if there are any ). It is kind of like unified field thinking. Today, scientists are often trained to think that way, so they don’t get stuck in overspecialization and can see the bigger picture.

    Sedentism partially preceded the domestication of plants, but not by much. Sedentism was only possible with a stable and adequate energy (AKA food and wood in preindustrial societies) supply. Before the Domestication Revolution, that was possible in only a few places on Earth. Where land met water was always a good place for that, for a few reasons, and some are a water supply and the relative ease of water transportation, but ever since bacterial colonies, where land met water was a key environment, even for the beginning of life on Earth. The shore is where fish learned to walk, and the primary environment by which humanity conquered Earth. Even today, nearly half of humanity lives near the coasts.

    Ancient shellfish middens (Europe, Florida, California, etc.) are evidence of at least semi-sedentary humans living off of seashore environments for a long time. In the Pacific Northwest, Indians lived in semi-sedentary villages that took advantage of both estuary environments and salmon runs. In California, south of the salmon runs, Indians took advantage of seashore environments and the acorn harvest. One good week of acorn harvesting could feed a family for years, and they stored the acorns in silos. Those were all sustainable situations and led to at least semi-sedentary living, as long as populations were relatively small. Mammoth villages, however, only lasted as long as the mammoths did, as humans quickly drove them to extinction.

    Acorns and pistachios formed the basis of the culture immediately preceding the first acts of plant domestication in the Fertile Crescent, so they also got a taste of semi-sedentary living, and liked it. I doubt that I need to explain to anybody what the benefits of sedentary living are. Even in my industrialized world, those leading nomadic existences are generally marginal people, such as those miserable truck drivers. The sailors that conquered the world on behalf of Europe lived horrific lives, if they survived for long.

    Around today’s Turkey is where key crops and animals were domesticated, in upland environments. Only thousands of years later did those domesticates form the basis of the “grain cores” of civilization. Without domesticated animals to fertilize the grain cores of the Fertile Crescent, the civilization would not have lasted long. In China, with few domesticates, people fertilized the farms with their night soil practices. The Mississippian culture had neither domesticated animals nor used night soil methods, so their culture did not last long and their first city soon collapsed from environmental exhaustion.

    Scott’s book makes the case that civilization was an invention of peasant-enslaving elites, who became elites by enslaving people to work the grain cores. There was certainly coercion involved in building civilization, but slavery appeared wherever sedentary living did, which Scott did not deny. His case was that coercion by elites was the sole reason why civilization appeared, which he called the state. I will be studying his referred works before I make my essay update, but the benefits of civilization were also many. The constant influx of peasants into the cities, to sustain their populations, was a feature of all cities until the 20th century. From what I have seen in my studies, the attractions of civilization were not just elite-living or aspiring to be one, or to be the professional class that supported them. The “class-conflict” theories of civilization formation are only one set of theories, and the other were the attractive benefits that civilization conferred. That debate is thousands of years old. Scott comes down on the “class-conflict” side, but it was far more than that. In the past decade, I saw a poll of people in the Seattle area, and the ideal living situation for most people was living in rural environments with urban amenities. I completely understand, and that would be my ideal, too. In the Fifth Epoch, everybody on Earth could enjoy that lifestyle.

    It is very true that hunter-gatherers in their Golden Age would hardly want to trade their lives for the drudgery of the peasant in the grain cores or becoming a slave, but in order to understand those dynamics, both a bigger and longer-term picture needs to be attained. The Neolithic Expansion was a Golden Age, at least for the farmers, and the hunter-gatherer women ran, not walked, into the arms of those farmers. Whether it was in sub-Saharan Africa, the Fertile Crescent, or today’s American Southwest, lands suitable for farming were there for the taking, and life was easy at first, at least while the forests and soils lasted, and “pests” had yet to adapt to eating those human crops.

    Scott made the case that “non-state” peoples during the Third Epoch easily moved back and forth between hunting, gathering, herding, and farming, moving from one mode to another as conditions warranted, and their flexibility allowed them to escape the clutches of states for millennia. Well, those people were going to be relatively few. Civilization arose where intense food-production was feasible, which obviously meant far more people. The difference in Earth’s carrying capacity under the hunter-gatherer versus farmer modes of production was a factor of 200. The difference was so dramatic that I call it an Epochal difference, and there was no way that very many people could move between the hunter-gatherer and farmer lifestyles. The numbers just don’t support that idea very well.

    I will not underplay the coercive aspects of states. They have always been coercive, although the elite reigns over their subjects are far gentler in Fourth Epoch societies versus Third Epoch ones, at least on the surface. That said, plenty of good stuff that Scott amasses in his book will make it into my essay update. There is a lot to write about the Third Epoch, and those chapters of my big essay will be significantly revised in next year’s planned essay update. The basic thrust will not change, but it is going to be fleshed out more.

    Best,

    Wade
    Last edited by Wade Frazier; 8th December 2017 at 03:17.
    My big essay, published in 2014, is here.

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    Default Re: WADE FRAZIER : A Healed Planet

    Hi:

    My big essay attempts to make very clear the profound differences between each Epoch, which why I call them Epochs. The First Epoch was a radical departure from the history of life on Earth, when a big-brained tool-maker appeared on the evolutionary scene and learned to control fire. Nothing remotely like it ever existed before, and the Second Epoch was about their conquest of Earth, as they expanded their numbers by a thousand-fold. Each Epoch would have been incomprehensible to the beings who lived immediately before it. That goes for the First Epoch as much as the coming Fifth, even though we have works of fiction and other accounts to give us hints. The Third Epoch would have been entirely incomprehensible to Second Epoch peoples.

    The first hint of the coming Third Epoch was likely the domestication of the dog, which may have domesticated themselves. Animals were domesticated around the time that plants were, and humans were also domesticated, in a process that likely began before anything else was domesticated, as psychopathic men were gradually eliminated from the gene pool. The human conscience gradually grew, and each Epoch was markedly more humane than the previous one, as the energy surplus increased. Chimps slaughtered each other with abandon, and once the Golden Age of the Hunter-Gatherer ended, people did the same, although the “Golden Rule” applied to in-group members, but that in-group could shrink to one in hard times, when eating’s one’s children was acceptable practice, and I suppose that the parents sized up each other when the child-food ran out. The out-group was fair game, but men slaughtered each other in the late-Second Epoch at rates slightly less than male chimps slaughtered each other, so you might say that “progress” was made. Bonobos showed how a doubling of their energy supply could allow a society to radically reengineer itself, and bonobo societies are more peaceful than any human society ever was.

    The early Third Epoch saw a similar reengineering in horticultural societies. It happened where the easy meat had been rendered extinct and some plants were conducive to domestication. In those relatively few places, women began bringing in more calories than the men, and those societies often became matrilocal (which was likely a first in the human line in at least ten million years), related to the increasing status of women, not far removed from the bonobo experience, which broke up the male gangs, and those became the human journey’s most peaceful preindustrial societies. Women don’t have the proclivity to dominance and violence that men do, which is rooted in our evolutionary journeys. When men run the show, it usually becomes greedy and violent, and psychopaths make great politicians and corporate executives. The women who “make it” in those professions often have that psychopathic edge, such as how Hillary joked about murdering a head of state and destroying a nation. Being a psychopath seems to be a prerequisite to becoming the American president, and they are all puppets and know it. The last president who thought that he could make a dent was JFK, and he got taken care of.

    One of the most compelling hypotheses that I have seen in my studies of those days is that warring societies could not have domesticated plants or mounted the efforts that led to civilization. But once those societies were on the way to forming civilization, they all had similar dynamics, without influencing each other, which supports the idea that humans in similar circumstances will act similarly, kind of like convergent evolution. Otterbein’s and Scott’s work are not that far apart, as far as the formation of civilization went. Once an agricultural surplus was generated and could be used for political purposes, men rose to dominance once again and the establishment of their rule was a brutal process. Women’s status universally declined with the advent of civilization and only rose again when the Fourth Epoch began, which also ended slavery as a hallowed institution. Only after the ruling class violently established their dominance could their rule become more bureaucratic and gentler. However, warring polities became the norm with the rise of civilization, wherever it appeared, as they fought over energy supplies, which at its most essential was the intensely farmed “cores” of civilization, which provided the energy surplus to sustain civilization, as well as the wood of forests.

    The dynamics of early civilizations were never stable, as they rapidly depleted their energy bases of arable soils and wood, and they all collapsed, to only rise again in the regional vicinity, where the same practices could be repeated for a time, until their inevitable collapse. The Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean’s periphery is the first and best-studied example of those dynamics. It has nearly all been rendered a semi-desert or outright desert today.

    Best,

    Wade
    Last edited by Wade Frazier; 8th December 2017 at 17:10.
    My big essay, published in 2014, is here.

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    Default Re: WADE FRAZIER : A Healed Planet

    Hi:

    While the downsides of civilization were many, there were also numerous attractions, which Scott underplayed in his work to the point where the benefits of civilization were not even evident, as if only elites would want to live there. For people living in the Fourth Epoch, it is very difficult to even imagine lives in the other Epochs. We may be able to get some sense of their material life, social and political organization, and the like, but try to imagine a late-Second Epoch person, living when nomadic life was all that was ever known. No crops, no homes, other than the cave that might be seasonally inhabited for the fortunate few, your only possessions were what you could carry, and you were lucky to live to adulthood. You had language, largely used for gossip, but no Third Epoch features even existed, other than the few bands that had dogs. In the late Second Epoch, you killed members of neighboring bands on sight, except for fertile women, who were always worth stealing.

    The early Third Epoch saw the rise of the horticultural village, and for the fortunate ones that became matrilocal, life was better than ever before, in the Golden Age of the early Neolithic. But even horticultural villages were rarely sustainable and regularly abandoned, as the wood and soils were depleted. But social organization was still along kinship lines. You knew or were at least familiar with everybody in your society, and while your community was still territorial, it was a pretty gentle territorialism in matrilocal societies, and relatively few people died violently. But tools were still made of stone, bone, and plants, literacy was not even a concept, and the idea of a city, professions, metallurgy, elites, and monumental architecture was completely alien, something never seen before. Hollywood has long portrayed the awe of “hayseeds” when gawking at the wonders of big cities. The first cities had to be places of awe for their visitors. Nothing like them had ever been seen before. They all had monumental architecture to overawe those viewing them, and it had to have worked, or else they would not have been built. Even today, the necropolis at Giza is an awesome sight, even stripped and defaced, the mere skeleton of an ancient marvel that took a century to build.

    Fourth Epoch peoples might disparage the “marvels” of the first cities, but for their time, they were spectacles and humanity’s greatest achievements. When invading Spaniards approached Tenochtitlan, the sights so overwhelmed them that they thought they were dreaming. And they weren’t all rubes; some had visited Venice and Constantinople. So, imagine what the effect must have been on peoples who had never even seen cities before.

    Cities were not just places to marvel at, but they were lived in, and never-before-seen social organization accompanied them. Cities are where professions formed, and for the first time ever, people socialized along something other than kinship lines, and professional associations began. It is hard to overstate that effect, of ending kinship as the basis of society. The levels of wealth creation and concentration were also unprecedented, and temples and palaces became regular features of cities from the beginning.

    Elites and professions appeared with cities, and there were plenty of downsides to cities. Filth and crowding were only part of it, but those led to epidemic diseases that eventually scourged cities. All city-states had their professional armies, and in Otterbein’s hypothesis, the rise of civilization was one of the two paths to war. All early cities had slaves, too. Forced servitude was a standard feature of Third Epoch societies. Slavery began when sedentism did and ended with industrialization. The first written laws largely dealt with slave matters, and closely following the first cities was the first empire. Laying siege to cities was a standard feature of the Third Epoch, and conquering a city and putting the men to death (or becoming crippled slaves, by either blinding them or cutting off feet) and stealing the women were typical outcomes.

    No city was ever sustainable, either, as they burned through their energy supplies, which in the Third Epoch was comprised of wood and arable soil. Those early cities all eventually collapsed, leaving ruins for scientists to investigate. That dynamic of unsustainability is far from confined to the Third Epoch. No Fourth Epoch city was ever sustainable, either. Fourth Epoch civilizations are burning through their primary energy sources a million times as fast as they were created. With all of the recent ballyhoo about electric cars, windmills, and how the USA was becoming energy self-sufficient, I recently saw a graphic of global energy consumption in 2013. Fossil fuels provided nearly 80% of global energy consumption, nuclear energy about 2%, and “renewable” energy was 19%. About half of the “renewable” 19% was basically firewood (or cow pies ), which is still the primary energy source of the world’s poor nations, still in their Third Epoch, which is more than 80% of humanity. The remainder of “renewable” is more than 3% energy from crops, almost 4% hydroelectric, and wind, solar, geothermal, and ocean energy combined are well short of 1%. All of that hype, and it is still less than 1%.

    Take away hydroelectric dams and nuclear energy, neither of which is ideal or very sustainable, and about 99% of Fourth Epoch fuels are fossil fuels. The prize hydrocarbon, conventional oil, will be completely burned up in this century, and the others are not far behind. And that is if we don’t have a species-ending catastrophe before we suck out the last dregs.

    There is no way that Fourth Epoch denizens would want to live in the Third, if they could have understood what it really meant. Today’s average American lives a richer life than Earth’s richest human of three centuries ago, when the Industrial Revolution began. The average Fifth Epoch denizen will live a vastly richer life than Bill Gates does today. But for Second Epoch denizens, the Third Epoch would have been mind-boggling, just as the idea of the Fifth Epoch blows people’s minds today, as nearly everybody reacts in denial or fear. You could not have talked a Second Epoch person into wanting to become a Third Epoch person. It had to be experienced to be understood, just as it is today regarding ideas of the Fifth Epoch. The masses are not going to be talked or enticed into embracing it.

    Best,

    Wade
    Last edited by Wade Frazier; 9th December 2017 at 15:41.
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    Default Re: WADE FRAZIER : A Healed Planet

    Hi:

    I have been working on Uncle Ed’s big biography lately, and plan to be relatively quiet until I get it done. I want to get my Ed project done this month, including getting a Wikipedia bio published, and then it will be off to battle the hack “editors” at Wikipedia. I have been doing my homework, and Ed wrote about the numerous attacks on Noam over Cambodia and the Faurisson Affair in this book, but it costs over $1,000 today, so I’ll have to do without it. But Ed talked and wrote about the issues enough elsewhere, so I can get my task done well enough. The next steps will have to be taken by a professional biographer. Some of Ed’s pals have offered to help, and we will see how it goes.

    I’ll leave you with a morsel from my account of Ed’s academic career, which I drafted this morning as an overhaul of this section, as I make my way through his bio. As I have written, Ed and I had some profound professional overlaps that I did not fully realize until recently. The below further reflects those overlaps, and shows how Ed was far from a slouch in his profession.


    Academic career and writings

    Herman’s post-doctoral career began at Penn State in 1954. In 1958, he joined Wharton’s finance department to help perform studies of banks and corporate control mechanisms, which Wharton had contracted with various government agencies to study. For the next 15 years, Herman participated in studies of various financial institutions. Herman’s specialty was analyzing the power and control issues in those institutions.

    In 1962, Herman’s team, led by Wharton professor Irwin Friend, completed the first large-scale study of mutual funds, which was commissioned by the Securities and Exchange Commission and published by the United States Congress. Wharton’s study became a landmark in the field, and one of its key findings was that:


    “The main problems affecting mutual funds do not seem to relate to the size of the individual funds or companies…The more important current problems appear to be those which involve potential conflicts of interest between fund management and shareowners, the possible absence of arm’s-length bargaining between fund management and investment advisers.”


    Among the Wharton study’s conclusions was that the performance of mutual fund advisers was no better than that achieved by randomly selecting securities. In the study’s wake, one senator picked a portfolio by throwing darts at a list of stocks, which subsequently performed better than the average common stock mutual fund. In a preview of his political writings and media analysis, Herman publicly defended the study from an attack by an interest-conflicted mutual-fund-related professional, which generally praised the study but challenged the motivation of its authors, including Herman’s.

    Wharton’s next major study was on savings and loan banks, for which Herman wrote the chapter on conflicts of interest. When the study was published, the savings and loan industry called a press conference to specifically dispute Herman’s chapter, and Herman was particularly proud of receiving that denunciation. Herman then studied bank trust departments and their conflicts of interest.

    In 1981, Herman published Corporate Control, Corporate Power, which The Twentieth Century Fund sponsored. It was partly an update of A.A. Berle, Jr. and Gardiner C. Means’s The Modern Corporation and Private Property.

    In Corporate Control, Corporate Power, Herman analyzed the internal structure of American corporations, their influence over the American economy and polity, and the competing interests within corporations, which were primarily owners, lenders, and managers. Herman wrote that corporate managers had prevailed in those power struggles, and that in 1981, management’s “triumph is virtually complete,” although managerial ascendance did not dim the overriding corporate goal of profit maximization. The primary competing interests within corporations were united on that premise.

    Herman wrote that expanding government influence in the 1960s and 1970s was resisted by the American business community and that “Big Government” was in the midst of attacks on it. Herman concluded that American corporations were, on average, as immune to outside influence as they were at the turn of the 20th century, as they operated with virtual autonomy, no matter their impact on American society, including environmental harm. Herman wrote that government influence over corporations was “extremely modest,” and that efforts by public interest groups and citizens to make corporations more accountable to American society were “extremely feeble.”

    Near his life’s end, Herman said that although he sometimes received anonymous and unhappy critiques from members of Wharton’s faculty, many at Wharton thought that his public political writings and media analyses were valuable, and he never had any professional repercussions at Wharton due to his activism or his political writings or media analyses. Herman noted that because he was a “steadily producing professor according to the rules of the game, I was promoted and became a full professor during the Vietnam War years,” and that Wharton’s dean was friendly to Herman.



    That is it for that section, and I’ll try to make a post or two this week, between stints of writing on Ed.

    Best,

    Wade
    Last edited by Wade Frazier; 11th December 2017 at 04:07.
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    Default Re: WADE FRAZIER : A Healed Planet

    Apart from Sri Lanka, Thailand I found another outlier w.r.t. education in the British Empire which is Jamaica it had literacy rates atleast 50% around 1950. The Indian state of Kerala also had 50% literacy rate in 1950.
    I just re-read Hunger and Public Action and India Economic Development Social Opportunity, I think Amartya Sen, Jean Dreze mistakenly attribute the improved Human Development Indicators to public policies, I would attribute it to mostly literacy and schooling. Never thought that I could gain insights on Human Development beyond their books This student has graduated the class.

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    Default Re: WADE FRAZIER : A Healed Planet

    Hi Krishna:

    There is that old saw in science, that correlation does not equal causation. In the social sciences, finding causes can even be harder. Hypotheses ideally rise and fall on tests of their causation. I think that Drèze and Sen would be happy to know that you chewed on their work long enough that you came up with different conclusions, right or wrong. That you digested and pondered is the goal of any author. That is big goal of my work, too. If I can get enough people thinking and interacting, about my big essay in particular, the comprehensive perspectives will be on their way to being formed, and some are going to see things differently than I do. However, I do expect them to understand the Epochal significance of free energy.

    Best,

    Wade
    My big essay, published in 2014, is here.

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    Default Re: WADE FRAZIER : A Healed Planet

    Hi:

    Over the next week, I will largely put up sections of Ed’s bio that I am working on. I previously mentioned that what I published last month was only intended as a rough draft, and the Manufacturing Consent chapter was intentionally short, because Wikipedia already had a fairly decent article on Ed and Noam’s propaganda model.

    I decided to beef up the Manufacturing Consent section to get it to a standalone standard in my bio, although I will likely truncate it in my Wikipedia bio, because of that propaganda model at Wikipedia. What is pretty bizarre is that Ed was the primary author of the propaganda model, which is widely used by media analysts globally, while the Wikipedia article on Ed himself is borderline libelous.

    So, without further ado, here is my section on Ed and Noam’s first filter of their propaganda model, which is who owns the media. I partly draw on my previous writings on the issue. You can’t see my references in this post, but they will be available when I publish my final bio on Ed.


    Herman and Chomsky’s propaganda model has the following “news filters” that determine the mass media’s news content in the United States.


    Size, ownership, and profit orientation of the mass media


    Herman and Chomsky cited the work of James Curran and Jean Seaton on the British working class press in the first half of the 19th century. British elites tried to destroy the working class press through punitive laws, which proved ineffective. After the punitive laws were repealed, there was a brief renaissance of the working class press, but the last half of the 19th century saw the “industrialization of the press,” and the working class press could not keep up with capitalist industrial practices. In 1837, the cost of establishing a profitable national weekly newspaper was less than a thousand pounds and breakeven sales were a circulation of 6,200. By 1867, the cost of establishing a new London daily was 50,000 pounds, and in the early 20th century, the Sunday Express invested two million pounds to reach a breakeven circulation of 250,000. By the end of the 19th century, the British working class press was effectively defunct. The United States never had anything resembling a working class press.

    Herman and Chomsky analyzed the American media in the late-20th century, particularly 24 of the largest media companies. The authors cited Ben Bagdikian’s statistics that showed that the 29 largest media systems dispensed more than half of the newspapers, books, broadcasting, magazines, and movies in the United States. Herman and Chomsky argued that perhaps more important was how those large media organizations provided the national and global news for local media organizations, which usually only provided original news on local events.

    Herman and Chomsky made the case that those large media conglomerates were all profit-seeking corporations that were owned and controlled by wealthy interests, and that any reporting contrary to the interests of the owners would be distorted by that conflict of interest. In addition, large industrial corporations such as General Electric, which was also a huge military contractor at the time, diversified into owning media companies, which further concentrated the ownership of the media into a few rich hands and created greater conflicts of interest.

    When Ben Bagdikian first published The Media Monopoly in 1983, he noted that 50 media organizations controlled more than half of the United States’s media content (which shrank to 29 companies in The Media Monopoly’s 1987 edition, which was cited in Manufacturing Consent). Bagdikian observed that each edition of The Media Monopoly was dismissed by media figures as “alarmist,” but that by 2013, the number of media organizations controlling more than half of its output had shrunk to just five companies.

    A few years after Manufacturing Consent was published, the influence of media ownership became starkly evident during the first Gulf War. General Electric (GE), through its subsidiary GE Aerospace, was one of the world’s largest military contractors in 1990, when Iraq invaded Kuwait, and GE had acquired NBC in 1986. Before 1991, GE had been involved in several instances of censoring NBC’s reporting, such as removing a reference to GE in a Today Show segment on substandard products.

    During the United States’s Operation Desert Storm against Iraq in 1991, GE’s technologies were part of nearly every weapons system deployed in that war. NBC regularly dispensed with journalism in favor of cheerleading, such as calling Iraq’s Scud missile an “evil weapon” while describing an American missile as “accurate within a few feet” soon after admitting that such an “accurate” missile had just hit Iraqi homes.

    When the United States invaded Panama in 1989, the Pentagon’s spokesman was Pete Williams, whose prevarications on behalf of the Pentagon became legendary (such as his announcing 457 Iraqi deaths during Operation Desert Storm, when the real number was more like 100,000), and his performance during Operation Desert Storm earned him the appellation as commander of “Operation Desert Muzzle.” Williams’s and the Pentagon’s lies were so influential to NBC anchor Tom Brokaw that he announced that the Patriot anti-missile system “put the Scud in its place.” NBC’s glowing commentary failed to mention that the weapons it praised were built by its owner. In 1993, NBC hired Williams as a news correspondent.

    GE’s influence led to a spectacular instance of censorship during 1991’s Gulf War. Jon Alpert has won 15 Emmy awards and has twice been nominated for Academy Awards for his documentary efforts. He was the first American journalist to bring back uncensored footage from Iraq in 1991, which depicted heavy civilization casualties. The footage was presented to NBC, which had commissioned the effort, and although even Tom Brokaw wanted it aired, NBC president Michael Gartner not only killed the story but fired Alpert and ensured that he never worked for NBC again. Alpert then took the footage to CBS, where CBS Evening News Executive Director Tom Bettag told Alpert that he and his footage would be on the air with CBS Evening News’s anchor Dan Rather the next evening. However, Bettag was fired that night and Alpert’s footage never aired on an American news show.

    It was not until 1997 that the American people heard about the truth of those highly praised weapons systems, when a General Accounting Office report was declassified, which detailed the exaggerations of effectiveness made by the Pentagon and weapons manufacturers regarding the American weapons used in Operation Desert Storm.


    I’ll put up the other sections as I draft them.

    Best,

    Wade
    Last edited by Wade Frazier; 13th December 2017 at 16:10.
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    Default Re: WADE FRAZIER : A Healed Planet

    Mentioning GE was very interesting to me as a neighbor of mine was fired from his job at a factory nearby that made airplane parts, due to a withdrawal of orders from GE. He had worked there 10 years!

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    Default Re: WADE FRAZIER : A Healed Planet

    Hi:

    Here are two other sections on Ed and Noam’s propaganda model. We’ll see if the cigarette vignette makes it into the final version.


    The advertising license to do business

    Herman and Chomsky wrote that the Liberal chancellor of the British Exchequer, Sir George Lewis, in the mid-19th century observed that market forces would marginalize dissident opinion by promoting those newspapers “enjoying the preference of the advertising public.” The authors noted that, indeed, the pressure of advertising weakened the working-class press, and that the subsidy of advertising and the affluent audiences that they target, as well as the “downscale” audience that is also attracted, gives media that cater to affluent audiences an economic edge that marginalizes and drives out media that don’t attract or rely on such advertising revenue.

    Herman and Chomsky cited Curran’s work on the subject, which noted that in its last year of publication, the Daily Herald had nearly twice the circulation of The Times, Financial Times, and the Guardian combined, and was held in far higher regard by its readers, but because it was not integrated into establishment systems with their generous advertising revenue, it failed, along with other social-democratic newspapers in the 1960s, which contributed to the Labor party’s decline. The authors wrote: “A mass movement without any major media support, and subject to a great deal of active press hostility, suffers a serious disability, and struggles against grave odds.”

    Herman and Chomsky wrote how CBS took pride in informing its shareholders how it used a sophisticated approach to attract and retain affluent audiences. Just as the 19th century British press did, CBS was not seeking a wide-audience, but an affluent one that, in the 21st century parlance of the Internet, can be “monetized.” The authors noted that the advertisers, seeking those affluent audiences, exert great influence on media content. Advertisers do not want to help fund unsettling media content, but prefer content that puts viewers in the “buying mood.”

    Herman and Chomsky provided an example of advertiser clout when, in 1985, public-television station WNET lost its corporate funding from Gulf + Western when it aired a documentary titled “Hungry for Profit,” which depicted predatory corporate practices in the Third World. Even before the documentary aired, WNET executives, who anticipated the negative corporate reaction, did their best to “sanitize” the show, but that effort did not prevent Gulf + Western’s pulling its funding while its CEO stated that the show was “virulently anti-business if not anti-American.” The London Economist remarked on the situation that “Most people believe that WNET would not make the same mistake again.”

    Advertisers can also gang up on publications that step out of line, an example of which was when Mother Jones ran a series of articles in 1980 that discussed the medical findings that smoking was a major cause of cancer and heart disease. The tobacco companies pulled their ads en masse from Mother Jones, and that event helps explain that while Reader’s Digest had been campaigning for generations on the health hazards of smoking, no other mainstream publication dared to, including Time, Newsweek, and U.S. News & World Report. Eight years after the Mother Jones incident, the world’s largest ad agency, Saatchi and Saatchi, lost its huge RJR Nabisco account when it produced an ad that announced Northwest Airline’s strict no-smoking rule on its flights. RJR Nabisco sold the Winston and Camels cigarette brands. Saatchi and Saatchi learned its lesson, and when it subsequently bought an ad agency that was preparing anti-smoking messages for the Minnesota Department of Health, Saatchi and Saatchi cancelled the deal with the health authorities rather than risk its $35 million fee for promoting Kool cigarettes.

    The next year, U.S. Surgeon General C. Everett Koop angrily denounced magazines and newspapers that were full of ads for cigarettes and refused to publish anything on the dangers of smoking. The media collectively yawned and quickly consigned Koop’s diatribe to media oblivion. Andrew Mills, TV Guide’s assistant managing editor, stated in an interview for Unreliable Sources, “I think it would be naïve to expect publications that take a lot of revenue from the tobacco industry to go after them vigorously.” When Mills made that statement, every issue of TV Guide was filled with cigarette ads, and Mills never heard that TV Guide ever thought of publishing anything critical of cigarettes.

    Some tobacco-ad-carrying publications went even further, as Playboy magazine ran an essay authored by an attorney that attacked proposals to limit cigarette ads, defended the rights of cigarette companies to promote cigarettes, and the essay specifically defended a Camels ad aimed at teenagers. In that issue of Playboy was a two-page color Camels ad.

    The media’s conflicts of interest with advertisers could reach surreal levels. For a generation, the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) ran tobacco ads. It only stopped running them in 1954 when drug companies that advertised in JAMA, as well as physicians, complained. Drug ads appeared next to cigarette ads in JAMA’s pages, those cigarette ads featured doctors promoting various brands, and the ads often made health claims that made cigarettes appear to be wonder drugs.

    The event that finally spurred JAMA to cease running cigarette ads was the final ad campaign for cigarettes in its pages, which began when JAMA’s former editor, Morris Fishbein, the face of American medicine for a generation, entered into a lucrative consulting arrangement with Lorillard, the maker of Kent cigarettes, to structure research that “proved” the superior properties of Kent’s new Micronite filter, which was made of asbestos. The ad blitz that followed the Micronite filter “research” finally inspired the AMA to stop running cigarette ads and declare that its scientific meetings would ban cigarette exhibits (although the AMA’s headquarters had cigarette vending machines in its lobby until the 1980s). Fishbein worked with Phillip Morris on a similar “research” campaign in the 1930s, for the diethylene glycol “moistener” in its cigarettes, which Phillip Morris’s representatives used for a publicity campaign that it took directly into doctor’s offices and onto JAMA’s pages. It was not until 1950, the year after Fishbein was finally ousted as JAMA’s editor, in the aftermath of a scandal relating to his wiping out an alternative cancer treatment practitioner, that the first study of lung disease and smoking appeared in JAMA’s pages. That study showed that 96.5% of lung cancer patients in St. Louis hospitals were smokers.

    In the increasingly hostile environment for American cigarette companies during the 1980s, the Reagan administration successfully used the threat of trade sanctions to force Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand to open their markets to American tobacco companies. The “free trade” rhetoric behind the Reagan administration’s offensive was reminiscent of the British Opium Wars against China. The tobacco industries in those nations were moribund before the entry of the American tobacco companies, and their market was primarily comprised of adult men. In the wake of the entry of American tobacco companies, with ad blitzes that specifically targeted women and children, smoking rates in those nations skyrocketed.

    That groveling before their advertisers was far from restricted to cigarette ads. At Time, Newsweek, and U.S. News & World Report, they would give their advertisers advanced notice, including tobacco companies, if an article ran, including plane crashes and studies on alcoholism, that put their advertisers’ products in an unflattering light, so that the advertisers could move their ads accordingly. Also, those publications would produce ad copy that looked like news, not an ad, to readers who were not careful to distinguish ads from “news.”

    Herman and Chomsky concluded that the “buying mood” imperative of TV advertisers ensures that only bland, lightly entertaining content will be delivered to viewers, as the primary reason for advertising is to disseminate the “selling message.”

    The sourcing of mass media news

    Herman and Chomsky wrote that “The mass media are drawn into a symbiotic relationship with powerful sources of information by economic necessity and reciprocity of interests.” The authors noted that the media’s needs for a reliable stream of raw material for news, and the need of powerful institutions to shape society to their liking, form the basis of symbiotic arrangements between the media and governmental and corporate institutions, which steadily produce material that is increasingly published by news agencies virtually unaltered, turning the mass media into little more than a conduit of governmental and corporate propaganda. The media dependency on those news sources can be extreme. Herman and Chomsky wrote, “It is very difficult to call authorities on whom one depends for daily news liars, even if they tell whoppers.”

    Herman and Chomsky presented a survey of the American military that showed that the Pentagon produced 371 magazines in 1971, at a cost of $57 million, which was 16 times larger than the largest American publisher. The authors wrote about Senator J.W Fulbright’s investigation of the U.S. Air Force in 1968 that yielded the findings that the Air Force had 1,305 full-time public relations employees, and that the resources that governmental and corporate institutions devoted to spreading their message are hundreds and even thousands of times greater than those of dissident organizations.

    Regarding the American government’s public relations efforts, Herman and Chomsky wrote:


    “It should also be noted that in the case of the largesse of the Pentagon and the State Department’s Office of Public Diplomacy, the subsidy is at the taxpayer’s expense, so that, in effect, the citizenry pays to be propagandized in the interest of powerful groups such as military contractors and other sponsors of state terrorism.”


    Herman and Chomsky wrote that in 1972, future Supreme Court Justice Lewis Powell wrote a memo to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, urging them “to buy the top academic reputations in the country to add credibility to corporate studies and give business a stronger voice on campus.” The authors noted that in the 1970s and early 1980s, that buy-an-expert trend began the era of “think tanks” that had the effect of “propagandizing the corporate viewpoint.”

    Herman and Chomsky provided an analysis of such “experts” on terrorism and defense on the MacNeil-Lehrer News Hour for a one-year period in 1985-1986, on the subjects of the so-called Bulgarian Connection to the assassination attempt on John Paul II, the shooting down of the Korean airliner KAL 007, and terrorism, defense, and arms control. The majority of guests on the show were current and former officials and conservative think tank “experts.”

    The year after Manufacturing Consent was published, the media watch group Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR) published a study of 40 months of Nightline shows, which confirmed Herman and Chomsky’s analysis of MacNeil-Lehrer News Hour, in that the vast majority of American guests on the show were professionals, government officials, or corporate representatives. Only five percent of the guests spoke on behalf of the public interest (peace, environmental, consumer advocates, and so on). Nightline’s most frequent guests were Henry Kissinger and Alexander Haig, both former U.S. Secretaries of State.

    Nightline responded to FAIR’s survey and Ted Koppel, the host of Nightline, replied that FAIR’s survey merely reflected Nightline’s shows during the reign of the conservative Reagan administration. FAIR’s director, Jeff Cohen, replied to Koppel’s defense with:


    “This explanation could have been given uttered by a Soviet TV news programmer – pre-glasnost. American television news is not supposed to be strictly a forum for representatives of the state. FAIR does not criticize Nightline for inviting policy makers to appear on the show, but for its exclusion of forceful American critics of the policy. Critics, and critical sources, are part of a news story.”


    In 1994, the authors of the study released by FAIR on Nightline, David Croteau and William Hoynes, published By Invitation Only: How the Media Limit Political Debate, which presented not only their Nightline research results, but also their analysis of the MacNeil-Lehrer News Hour, and their results were similar to Herman and Chomsky’s. Their study of several hundred Nightline episodes showed that of Nightline's guests, 82% were male, 89% were white, and 78% were government officials, professionals, and corporate representatives. They also presented the same data taken from The MacNeil/Lehrer News Hour. Those numbers were even more skewed, at 87% male, 90% white, and 89% government officials, professionals, and corporate representatives.

    The media themselves also provided their own “experts,” such as Claire Sterling and John Barron, and another class of experts was remarked on by Herman and Chomsky, of “former radicals who have ‘come to see the light.’” Those former “sinners,” whose work was formerly marginalized and ridiculed by the mass media, were suddenly catapulted into the bright lights and became revered “experts.” The authors recalled how Soviet defectors during the McCarthy era vied with each other to provide the most lurid stories and warnings of a coming Soviet invasion. Herman and Chomsky concluded that, “The steady flow of ex-radicals from marginality to media attention shows that we are witnessing a durable method of providing experts who will say what the establishment wants said.”


    Best,

    Wade
    Last edited by Wade Frazier; Yesterday at 13:24.
    My big essay, published in 2014, is here.

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    Default Re: WADE FRAZIER : A Healed Planet

    Orientation toward humans predicts cognitive performance in orang-utans

    NYT has an article on Suzana Herculana-Houzel's research.

    Quote parrots, dolphins and apes raised by scientists in intellectually demanding environments often develop a degree of intelligence not seen in their wild counterparts: Culture unlocks the brain’s latent potential.
    Culture definition is "the arts and other manifestations of human intellectual achievement regarded collectively." The spread of knowledge (via education) is the spread of culture.

    This ties in back to Sen and Dreze, my theory is that they should give more credit to education and less to other public policies like healthcare (they are important, but I think education makes the critical difference). The Kerala Model it not really unique, Costa Rica, Chile, Sri Lanka, China to one extent or other were poor and had with some variation good life expectancy, maternal mortality rates etc... And in all those cases education preceded human development. They do get credit for repeatedly showing via tables that gdp is not a good predictor of human development.

    Which ties back in to why I think Free Software Movement is important and gets it right. Free Software people don't fully appreciate the role that they are playing in the spread of knowledge, a path they did not anticipate until 2000. The effects of their actions has been to spread knowledge, culture and therefore play an unwitting critical role in the evolution of society.

    "Epochal Events in the human journey, and like the first one(s), they were all energy events above all else, and were all dependent on humans gaining the technological prowess and social organization that enabled them to exploit a new energy source"

    When (and iff) the Fifth Epoch arrives Stallman and friends should be remembered for their contribution to the technological prowess (internet, software and tools), and the (virtual) social organizations that they indirectly enabled.

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    Default Re: WADE FRAZIER : A Healed Planet

    Hi Krishna:

    Keep working that muscle! That brain and intelligence work that you cite is the nature/nurture argument for the 21st century. In this world, probably everybody’s IQ is over 200, and I’ll allow that there may have been some genetic (nature) tinkering involved, but done under the framework of love, not fear and greed, as dominates this world, and ours today.

    For my part, the Free Software Movement already gets credit, thanks to your making me aware of it, no matter how Stallman is still stuck in the religion of his Epoch. The mastery of language was the first human Internet, the city was the second, literacy was the third, close behind the city, and now we have the true Internet.

    For many years, it has been well known that you can very cheaply bring up the most critical human development stats close to Western levels. Reducing infant mortality, eradicating hunger and its related diseases, raising literacy, and the like can be done globally for a tiny fraction of what the Pentagon spends each year. That is the surreal part that true humanitarians have discussed for at least the past 70 years, and probably far longer. Even Eisenhower remarked on it. But the global rackets have actively prevented it and, of course, Godzilla is the most culpable of all, although we all have played our part.

    On that brain aspect, I have recently been informed that my Einstein of a father now has dementia. My mother went demented, as her mother did, but they never stimulated their brains. That my father has it too, at only 81, is more incentive than ever to keep my motor going in high gear for the rest of my life. Ed still had it until the very end, at 92, and he is my inspiration on that score. With my father’s coming demise, I am going to be freed to write far more frankly about my journey with Dennis, as my father’s role was greater than I have publicly disclosed so far. We’ll see when I can.

    Best,

    Wade
    My big essay, published in 2014, is here.

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    Default Re: WADE FRAZIER : A Healed Planet

    So sorry to hear about your Father, Wade! Looks like you are fulfilling your True Purpose in Life!

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    Default Re: WADE FRAZIER : A Healed Planet

    Thanks Foxie:

    Well, as far as my purpose goes, that voice in my head never let me in on the joke, but pursuing the biggest event in the human journey seems worthwhile. If God or some other entity had different plans in store for me, well, too bad!

    Best,

    Wade
    My big essay, published in 2014, is here.

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    Default Re: WADE FRAZIER : A Healed Planet

    Quote Posted by Wade Frazier (here)
    The mastery of language was the first human Internet, the city was the second, literacy was the third, close behind the city, and now we have the true Internet.

    For many years, it has been well known that you can very cheaply bring up the most critical human development stats close to Western levels. Reducing infant mortality, eradicating hunger and its related diseases, raising literacy, and the like can be done globally for a tiny fraction of what the Pentagon spends each year.
    Going even farther than language, fire increased life spans which allowed for the cultural transmission of knowledge

    Human Development is cheap in energy terms but not that cheap Wade. I saw estimates of $40 billion shortfall for high school education all over the world. There are other goals . So I assume it will take a significant fraction of the Pentagon budget. Definitely the entire budget is enough. And also the requirement would reduce to zero within 20 to 40 years.

    Sorry to hear about your father.

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    Default Re: WADE FRAZIER : A Healed Planet

    Thanks Krishna:

    Ah, you might be about to show me that my information is dated again! I’ll see if I can dig it up, about those sustainable development goals. Here is one that I found in my Ralph Hovnanian quotes.


    "Since the end of WWII, 25 million people have died in war somewhere in the world. War has been fought in as many as 12 countries at one time. ...In 1981 the world spent about $22 for military purposes for every $1 it spent on development aid to poor countries." - War vs. Development, Oxfam America News, Winter 1983.


    I have seen other stats, again, going back 30 years ago or so, of how the infant mortality, hunger, illiteracy, and other basic human development measures could be globally brought to close to Western standards for something like 10% of the Pentagon budget. It likely is a more circumscribed list than that sustainable development list that you had. I’ll see if I can dig it up, and I might have to update it. However, in the Fifth Epoch, that kind of arithmetic becomes meaningless.

    Best,

    Wade
    My big essay, published in 2014, is here.

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