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    Administrator Cara's Avatar
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    Default Steps towards AI and Robot Legal Status

    Some steps seem to be being taken, slowly but surely, towards the creation of some kind of legal status for robots and AIs.

    Please share any articles here that seem to indicate this.

    ~~~

    First up: a possible route for this is creating a precedent by allowing people to be married to robots. At first it might be presented as an eccentric choice but over time messaging can be shifted according to public response. Also, it is fairly well understood that the highlighting of something in media tends to lead to mimicry (I am thinking here particularly of a study in Switzerland which showed media coverage correlation with suicide rates, here: https://jech.bmj.com/content/57/4/238).

    If enough people copy the trend, there may then be calls for “something to be done to recognise this”.


    Quote Internet Enabled Consumer Devices
    Robot-Human Marriages: The Future of Marriage?


    Siobhan Treacy
    26 November 2018

    A man in Japan married a hologram earlier this month. But this is just the beginning of human-robot marriages.


    Kondo's marriage to Miku may not have any legal standing, but that doesn't bother him. Source: AFP/Behrouz MEHRI

    Apparently marrying robots and holograms is a new reality. Just how many people have married a robot or hologram? Not enough people have openly married a robot or hologram to gather exact data, but according to some technology experts, technology marriages are soon going to be a normal part of our lives.

    One Japanese man has taken the plunge into robot-human partnership. Akihiko Kondo, from Tokyo, has married his Gatebox Virtual Robot. The Gatebox Virtual Robot was designed to be a companion for people who want to give up on dating, but do not want to be lonely. Gatebox can text Kondo while he is at work, turn on lights when he is coming home, brush her teeth with him, carry on a conversation and more.

    Kondo named his hologram Hatsune Miku. Miku is a hologram of a 16-year-old female singer. Kondo and Miku “married” in early November in front of 40 guests. None of Kondo’s family attended the wedding. Kondo spent two million yen, or $17,600, on the ceremony and matching wedding rings. Kondo has a stuffed version of Miku that he sleeps with.

    “I never cheated on her, I’ve always been in love with Miku-san. I’ve been thinking about her every day I’m in love with the whole concept of Hatsune Miku but I got married to the Miku of my house.” Kondo told The Japan Times.

    While the Japanese government does not recognize this union as a legal marriage, Gatebox issued the couple a cross-dimension marriage certificate. Kondo is not the only person who has received one of these. According to Gatebox, they have issued 3,700 cross-dimension marriage certificates.

    At a 2016 conference on this subject, David Levey, author of “Love + Sex with Robots,” predicted that by 2050 legal and recognized technology marriages will exist. David Hanson, the creator of Sophia the Robot, an AI-based robot who is a legal citizen in Saudi Arabia, believes technology marriage could come earlier than that. In his research paper, "Entering the Age of Living Intelligence Systems and Android Society," Hanson says that he believes a robot civil rights movement, including the right to marry, will happen by 2045.

    Kondo is not the only man who is in a technology marriage. In 2017, Zheng Jiajia built and married a robot in China after he gave up on dating human women. His robot wife can’t do things like walk or hold a full conversation, but don’t worry. Jiajia has plans to upgrade her so she can walk, talk and help with household chores.

    Why are people marrying robots? The gender gap in China and Japan may be partly to blame. According to a 2016 World Economic Forum Global Gender Gap Report, for every 100 women born in China, 114 men were born. The report ranked Japan at 111 out of 144 countries on the gender gap scale. It also says that the average length of single life in Japan is 30 for women and 31 for men. This gender inequality results in more single and lonely men that are turning to unconventional partnerships.

    Falling population rates is another factor that will affect partnerships. Since 2015, Japan’s population rates have been dropping rapidly. According to 2010 and 2015 census reports, Japan’s population dropped by one million people in five years. In 2018, for the 37th year in a row, the number of children born in Japan has dropped. A 2015 report on aging populations predicts that 40% of Japan’s population will be defined as elderly by 2050. The rising interest in hologram and robot marriages could be linked to these population problems.

    It looks like technology marriages are not going away any time soon. There are plenty of questions that can be asked about this trend, but for now, we will just have to wait and see how this plays out.
    From: https://electronics360.globalspec.co...re-of-marriage
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    Default Re: Steps towards AI and Robot Legal Status

    Quote Posted by Cara (here)
    Hanson says that he believes a robot civil rights movement, including the right to marry, will happen by 2045
    There could be an upside to this. If a person can get married to a robot, then why can't a person marry a whale. If the whale is somebody's spouse, then it can't be slaughtered "for scientific purposes".

    SAVE A WHALE. MARRY ONE.
    I am enlightened, ............ Oh wait. That's just the police shining their spotlights on me.

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    Default Re: Steps towards AI and Robot Legal Status

    Quote Posted by Orph (here)
    There could be an upside to this. If a person can get married to a robot, then why can't a person marry a whale. If the whale is somebody's spouse, then it can't be slaughtered "for scientific purposes".

    SAVE A WHALE. MARRY ONE.
    Great point! Go big:
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    Default Re: Steps towards AI and Robot Legal Status

    Does a toaster oven need legal rights? A vacuum cleaner? Please, how do questions like this even arise?!
    The quantum field responds not to what we want; but to who we are being. Dr. Joe Dispenza

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    Administrator Cara's Avatar
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    Default Re: Steps towards AI and Robot Legal Status

    Quote Posted by conk (here)
    Does a toaster oven need legal rights? A vacuum cleaner? Please, how do questions like this even arise?!
    I don’t know conk

    Your questions are the logical extension to granting some kind of personhood status to AIs and robots. At first glance this seems trivial but I think it would be very complicated and quite difficult to differentiate between different “levels” of AI.

    Another thing to consider is whether these kinds of moves have a side effect of reducing the perceived value of human life. If machines are granted similar legal status as humans does that make humans somehow less human?

    There’s lots to think about here.
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    Default Re: Steps towards AI and Robot Legal Status

    This article was shared by a website reader of Joseph Farrell’s, who in turn blogged about it here.

    Quote Scientists Are Trying to List AI as the Inventor on a New Patent
    They say rules requiring that patents go to humans are outdated.

    Dan Robitzski

    Scientists and lawyers from the U.K. are fighting with patent offices in three separate countries over who deserves credit for new inventions churned out by artificial intelligence algorithms.

    Legal experts and American engineer Stephen Thaler, the inventor of an algorithm named Dabus AI, have filed for patents in the U.K., Europe, and the U.S. in Dabus’ “name,” arguing that the algorithm deserves proper attribution for designing new products, according to BBC News. But the patent offices have pushed back, as traditionally legal rights go to humans. It’s an unusual disagreement that illustrates how our legal systems are unprepared to accommodate new, emerging technologies.

    The scientists believe that Dabus AI deserves legal credit as the inventor of the fractal-based easier-to-grasp food container that it designed, as well as a lamp that it built to flicker in a pattern that mirrors brain activity. Then, legal rights over the creation should go to whomever actually built the algorithm in question.

    As it stands, the person behind Dabus AI has no legal claim to a patent on the algorithm’s inventions.

    “So with patents, a patent office might say, ‘If you don’t have someone who traditionally meets human-inventorship criteria, there is nothing you can get a patent on,'” University of Surrey law professor Ryan Abbott told BBC. “In which case, if AI is going to be how we’re inventing things in the future, the whole intellectual property system will fail to work.”

    The problem with their case, though, is that even the world’s best AI systems are merely tools — they’re not alive or sentient, and they’re not actually “creative” as a person might be.

    A spokeswoman from the European Patent Office told BBC that it’s hesitant to grant patents to AI because doing so would likely set create unforeseen legal precedents — the office doesn’t take upending existing patent law lightly.

    The requirement for a human inventor behind every patent is meant to keep patents in the hands of inventors instead of corporations, per the BBC. But this sort of worker protection wasn’t crafted with the future of AI in mind — the human requirement in the U.K., for example, comes from a patent law written in 1977.

    “The current state of technological development suggests that, for the foreseeable future, AI is… a tool used by a human inventor,” the unnamed spokeswoman told BBC. “Any change… [would] have implications reaching far beyond patent law, ie to authors’ rights under copyright laws, civil liability and data protection. The EPO is, of course, aware of discussions in interested circles and the wider public about whether AI could qualify as inventor.”

    Abbott concedes that this is a complex legal matter that could take years to sort out; he doesn’t expect Dabus to get its patents overnight. But the fact that this argument is happening now instead of before it became a problem is a troubling sign of how the law tends to lag behind technology, a problem that tends to either give engineers too much free rein or stall them in their tracks.

    READ MORE: AI system ‘should be recognised as inventor’ [BBC News]
    From: https://futurism.com/scientists-ai-inventor-patent
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