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Thread: The gut of most disease... NOT what you think!

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    Default Re: The gut of most disease... NOT what you think!

    Thanks Hervé. I just read your thoughts and widespread information.
    As I followed the Monsanto Tribunal this year in Den Haag via internet
    I want to give you ONE information of highest interest.
    The speaker Nicolas DEFARGE (works with Gilles Eric SERALINI), academic research, France said something like this:
    Roundup ist 20.000 - to 30.000 times more toxic than other pesticides and Glyphosate is just one of the toxic ingredients BUT!!!
    there are other additives in Roundup that are more than 1000 x more toxic, but research just doesn't matter all the other ingredients.
    https://vimeo.com/188139814

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    Default Re: The gut of most disease... NOT what you think!

    The Type of Probiotic That Reverses Depression

    PsyBlog
    Wed, 15 Mar 2017 12:29 UTC


    Depression has been reversed in mice by feeding them probiotic bacteria, new research reports.

    Lactobacillus is a type of 'good' bacteria found in yogurt, among other foods.

    The role of the gut microbiome - the bacteria which live in our gut - has become a focus of research interest recently.

    Dr Alban Gaultier, who led the study, said:
    "The big hope for this kind of research is that we won't need to bother with complex drugs and side effects when we can just play with the microbiome.

    It would be magical just to change your diet, to change the bacteria you take, and fix your health - and your mood."
    The scientists found that when mice in the study were put under stress, the bacteria in their gut changed.

    The main change was a reduction in Lactobacillus, which was linked to depressed behaviour in the mice.

    Feeding them Lactobacillus almost completely stopped their depressive behaviours.

    The researchers found a mechanism for how this change in the gut led to depression (it is through a metabolite called kynurenine).

    First author, Ms Ioana Marin said:
    "This is the most consistent change we've seen across different experiments and different settings we call microbiome profiles.

    This is a consistent change.

    We see Lactobacillus levels correlate directly with the behavior of these mice."
    The researchers plan to continue investigating kynurenine's role in depression, Ms Marin said:
    "There has been some work in humans and quite a bit in animal models talking about how this metabolite, kynurenine, can influence behavior.

    It's something produced with inflammation that we know is connected with depression.

    But the question still remains: How?

    How does this molecule affect the brain?

    What are the processes?

    This is the road we want to take."
    The study was published in the journal Scientific Reports (Marin et al., 2017).
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    Default Re: The gut of most disease... NOT what you think!

    Ah.... HA! Now this is starting to make more sense too. I've had the sneaking suspicion for quite some time that it's not the gluten..

    People are developing allergies at an alarming rate, look at all the peanut allergies. Peanuts are GOOD FOOD and people are developing allergies to it, what the heck. Also lactose intolerance is another one, my friend developed that in his 20's and I always thought it was something people were born with.

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    Default Re: The gut of most disease... NOT what you think!

    The Health & Wellness Show: Interview with Brilliant Researcher Dr. Stephanie Seneff

    Sott.net
    Fri, 09 Mar 2018 16:00 UTC



    In this interview, Dr. Stephanie Seneff traces back the many ailments the world is suffering from, from autism, Alzheimer, Parkinson to chronic inflammations and autoimmune reactions to the poisoning of bodies by one sole ingredient:

    GLYPHOSATE

    Running Time: 01:17:33

    Download: OGG, MP3



    Listen live, chat, and call in to future shows on the SOTT Radio Network!
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    Default Re: The gut of most disease... NOT what you think!

    Quote Posted by Hervé (here)
    The Health & Wellness Show: Interview with Brilliant Researcher Dr. Stephanie Seneff

    Sott.net
    Fri, 09 Mar 2018 16:00 UTC



    In this interview, Dr. Stephanie Seneff traces back the many ailments the world is suffering from, from autism, Alzheimer, Parkinson to chronic inflammations and autoimmune reactions to the poisoning of bodies by one sole ingredient:

    GLYPHOSATE

    Running Time: 01:17:33

    Download: OGG, MP3



    Listen live, chat, and call in to future shows on the SOTT Radio Network!
    OOps, I started in French, must change language

    The reseach of that scientist are absolutely fascinating. I understood 3/4 of what she says, calling on my very old courses in biology and chemistry in high school and little in college, and it is really good.
    She describes the probable causes of autism, alzheimer, arthritis, and some having to do with the pancreas and of course the intestine.
    Of course, the culprit would be glycophase (Monsanto pesticides) which is even found in vitamins and more.

    Glycophase would inhibit hundreds of functions and would render metals such as iron toxic (which should not be) and aluminium of course as well (found in vaccines as an adjuvant to stimulate the immune system)

    I highly recomment this MP3, I sent it to my daughter's boyfriend who is actually making the same studies that woman has, but with 30 years apart lol He will understand and translate to me the scientific jargon.

    Now in French for the Frenchies here, since I started to write in French, I will not erase it.

    les recherches de cette scientiste sont absolument captivantes.

    J'en comprend le 3/4, faisant appel à mes très anciens cours de biologie et de chimie au secondaire (lycée) et un peu à l'université, mais elle décrit les causes probables de l'autisme, de l'alzheimer, de l'arthrite,
    et le terrible agent pathogène serait le glycophase (pesticides de Monsanto) rendant mêmes les métaux tels que le fer toxiques et aussi l'aluminium,
    wow, quelles histoires fascinantes
    Last edited by Flash; 13th March 2018 at 17:48.

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    Default Re: The gut of most disease... NOT what you think!

    Interview with Dr. Stephanie Seneff: Glyphosate herbicide and how to detox it

    Wendy Myers, FDN-P, CHHC myersdetox.com
    Tue, 13 Mar 2018 14:46 UTC


    Dr. Stephanie Seneff © Stephanie Seneff


    Dr. Stephanie Seneff discusses one of the most important health issues of our time - glyphosate toxicity. It's in most non-organic foods and is ruining your health, causing autism, gut dysbiosis, problems detoxing and even cancer.

    This podcast will have your abandon non-organic foods forever! But even if you eat organic, the glyphosate is still in the water and sprayed on most parks to kill weeds. Learn what you can do to protect your health and how glyphosate may be contributing to your fatigue and health issues.

    Tune in to hear all about:
    • 02:37 About Dr. Stephanie Seneff
    • 08:10 Glyphosate
    • 14:20 Avoiding Glyphosate Exposure
    • 19:17 Glyphosate, Aluminum and Sleep Disorder
    • 23:27 How Glyphosate Disrupts Health
    • 33:15 Glyphosate and Diseases
    • 36:06 Oxalates
    • 38:30 Detoxing Glyphosates
    • 43:42 Glyphosate and Hormones
    • 46:05 Vitamin C Deficiency
    • 47:56 Glyphosate and MTHFR
    • 54:27 Glyphosate and the Liver
    • 61:14 Detoxing Glyphosates with Near Infrared Sauna
    • 63:43 Final Tips: Avoiding Exposure and Detoxing Glyphosate
    • 70:10 The Most Pressing Health Issue in the World Today
    • 76:38 Where to Find Dr. Stephanie Seneff

    [Podcast at Link]

    Full transcript is available here.

    About Dr. Stephanie Seneff
    Dr. Stephanie Seneff is a Senior Research Scientist at MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory in Cambridge, Massachusetts. She has a BS degree from MIT in biology and a PhD from MIT in electrical engineering and computer science.

    Her recent interests have focused on the role of toxic chemicals and micronutrient deficiencies in health and disease, with a special emphasis on the pervasive herbicide, Roundup, and the mineral, sulfur. She has authored over two dozen peer-reviewed journal papers over the past few years on these topics.
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    Default Re: The gut of most disease... NOT what you think!

    Probiotics: Will they ever live up to the hype?

    Rachel Gutman The Atlantic
    Thu, 07 Jun 2018 13:11 UTC


    © TIBRINA HOBSON / GETTY
    Changing your microbiome takes more than just taking a pill full of bacteria.
    "Altering someone's microbiome is as complicated as changing a rainforest or a coral reef," The Atlantic's Ed Yong told an audience at the National Institutes of Health on Tuesday. "It's not easy."

    In conversation with Francis Collins, the director of the NIH, Yong discussed the future of microbial medicine. He argued that doctors should focus on an "ecological type of thinking" instead of the more simplistic approach behind "medically underwhelming" probiotic treatments. "It's not just thinking of microbes as a pill that you could give to someone to fix a lack of something," Yong said.

    One recent study that Yong praised for taking a "careful" and "clever" approach to probiotics involved preventatively treating newborns in India with a carefully selected cocktail of bacteria along with sugar to help the microbes colonize their new environment in the infants' guts. That two-pronged approach-called a synbiotic-was extremely successful. Rates of sepsis among the babies after just a week of daily doses were 40 percent lower than in the control group. Yong called the trial "an important step in the right direction."

    Probiotics that are less attentively designed, Yong said, are likely to have little effect on the balance of bacterial strains living in your gut. "Taking probiotics," he said, "is a little bit like raising a small number of captive, zoo-born animals and then releasing them into the jungle and hoping that they'll do well." For this reason, as Yong has written in his recent book, I Contain Multitudes, haphazard probiotic treatments are like a breeze blowing between two open windows: "It might rattle some objects," but the introduced bacteria won't stick around long enough, or in high enough numbers, to make much of a difference.

    To see robust effects in randomized, controlled studies, researchers may have to invest more thought and resources into treatments that give bacteria some of the tools they need to survive, like the one in the Indian study, or into personalized probiotics. As Yong told the audience at the NIH, "the arithmetic around microbial medicine is not going to be that simple."

    Watch the full interview below:

    SOTT Comment: Learn more about the gut microbiome and probiotics. Listen to the SOTT Radio Health and Wellness Show - Gut Health

    Also read: The benefits of probiotics
    Everybody's talking about the benefits of probiotics. Probiotics are the "it" girl of the day. And like that supermodel who can be found on every magazine cover in the world--until she's replaced by the next "it" girl--it's hard to find any product that doesn't now have a probiotic enhanced version. There are probiotic: toothpastes1,gum2, flavored waters3, milk4, cookies, candies, and ice creams5, soap6, shampoo7.

    You name it and companies are now "probiotisizing" it. How useful any of these products are is open to question; and the FDA, of course, has not approved probiotics for the treatment of any disease or condition. So in fact, most claims for the benefits of "probiotisized" products fall outside the law.8 Then again, just because some claims fall outside the law, doesn't mean they're necessarily untrue. But really, for the most part, isn't that the entire basis of alternative health: factual claims that are ahead of the law? So, despite the lack of support from the FDA and the FTC, it is pretty much known that probiotics offer a number of demonstrable benefits.
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    Default Re: The gut of most disease... NOT what you think!

    99.9% of People Don’t Knowthis Cause of Depression! (Candida)
    http://myemail.constantcontact.com/9...id=PSuImhvxZQg
    Quote Depression is now the #1 leading cause of disability worldwide, and there is a little known reason that many practitioners will overlook when trying to help.
    With the recent sad celebrity deaths, MILLIONS are debilitated by depression, brain fog, fatigue, insomnia and other related issues that leave them unable to take care of themselves or their families.
    What 99.9% of people don't know: the root cause of depression could be CANDIDA overgrowth.
    Second, this is a another really good reason to register for
    -->>The Candida Summit today!
    https://candidasummit.com/?idev_id=2...m_source=22168
    So, you might ask, how the heck does bacteria cause depression?!
    When one drinks alcohol, one's liver converts it into acetaldehyde. The literature shows that genetic mutations can cause some people to have extreme sensitivity to alcohol's effects, which makes them even more susceptible to cognitive issues from candida. (1)
    Women have a much higher level of acetaldehyde when drinking alcohol than men, especially those who drink during their high estrogen phase and who take oral contraceptives. (2)
    Excess acetaldehyde is what causes hangovers.
    Candida also produces acetaldehyde!
    Candida is able to use both alcohol and sugar for its fuel source. So, it probably makes sense that alcohol is even MORE important to avoid if you have candida.
    Alcohol causes leaky gut. So does candida.
    Due to the acetaldehyde production from candida, you literally "get drunk" from the overgrowth of yeast in your gut.
    Evan Brand, host of The Candida Summit, has had clients come to his clinic slurring their speech as they talk -- it’s a true and immediate sign that something is NOT right in the gut.
    Further testing almost always reveals the culprit: candida overgrowth.
    --->>Learn to overcome candida and reclaim your health at The Candida Summit!

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    1. http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/3106030
    2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?...h&term=8904969
    Forbidden knowledge
    Each breath a gift...
    _____________

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    Default Re: The gut of most disease... NOT what you think!

    Stephanie Seneff: How Glyphosate poisoning explains the peculiarities of the Autism gut

    Stephanie Seneff Greenmedinfo.com
    Thu, 07 Jun 2018 21:18 UTC



    Children with autism have a peculiar digestive system disorder, as was recently eloquently described by Dr. Arthur Krigsman at the AutismOne conference. How might glyphosate (Roundup) cause this?


    In May of 2018 I had the opportunity to attend the AutismOne conference in Chicago, Illinois [1]. As in previous years, it was an exciting event where many experts, mostly alternative medicine practitioners, gave impassioned presentations offering their latest insights into various features of autism or biometrics linked to autism or treatment programs that they found to be beneficial. As in the past, I came away with increased optimism that we might finally solve the autism puzzle, along with many new leads on research topics that I needed to dig into more thoroughly, and renewed hope that autism can in fact be reversed.

    One talk in particular really grabbed my attention, a presentation by Dr. Arthur Krigsman providing a detailed depiction of the distinct pathology that characterizes the autism gut. I took copious notes, and I was thrilled to see how well his observations matched my predictions in terms of how glyphosate could be predicted to affect the gut. Glyphosate is the active ingredient in the pervasive herbicide Roundup. It is used extensively on the core Roundup Ready crops of the processed food industry -- corn, soy, canola, sugar beets - and also sprayed on many other common crops right before harvest as a desiccant or ripener -- wheat, oats, legumes, sugar cane, etc. The United States government has not considered it to be necessary to test for the levels of glyphosate in food, because they consider it to be nontoxic to humans. An ever increasing body of research by independent scientists, however, has proven otherwise [2]. In fact, I now believe that glyphosate is the main factor causing the autism epidemic.

    Myosin and the Gut
    Dr. Krigsman's findings have been published in the research literature, and two recent publications provide considerable detail about the unique features of the gut dysbiosis linked to autism [3, 4]. In his talk, Dr. Krigsman said that 50% to 80% of autistic children have gut symptoms, and they seem to have a unique form of enterocolitis, characterized by a peculiar kind of constipation that is entirely not due to an obstruction. Their feces can pile up over days or even a week as soft stools that comes out after an accumulation of enough water eventually allows the contents to be flushed as diarrhea. As the feces pile up, their abdomen becomes bloated and tender to the touch. They are often described as experiencing alternating constipation and diarrhea, which seems contradictory at first but makes sense if you describe it this way. He explained it mostly as a motility problem: impaired peristalsis causes the feces to remain stagnant rather than being slowly pushed forward through the radial contractions of smooth muscle cells lining the abdominal wall that propagate in a wave down the tube. All I could think of was that the gut appeared to be paralyzed. Of course, this also leads to the build-up of excessive bacteria in the upper gut feasting on the immobilized feces, explaining a condition linked to autism called Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO).

    I was very excited when I heard this, because I had been predicting that glyphosate would cause impaired peristalsis, if in fact my theory that it substitutes by mistake for glycine during protein synthesis is correct. I had supportive evidence from a paper describing a case study of a woman who tried to kill herself by drinking a glyphosate-based formulation. She survived the ordeal, but a striking observation by the team who treated her was that her gut became paralyzed [5].

    The protein in the smooth muscle cells lining the gut that is responsible for contraction is called myosin. Myosin molecules typically are assembled from heavy chains and/or light chains, but the type of myosin in smooth muscle cells is made up only of heavy chains. The myosin heavy chain has a highly conserved glycine residue at location 699 in the sequence. Elegant experiments have shown that, if this glycine is replaced by alanine, the protein loses 99% of its ability to contract [6]. Glycine is the simplest amino acid with no side chains. Alanine has just a methyl group as its side chain, and is the amino acid that is most similar to glycine. So this is a very small change, but it has a dramatic effect on the protein's function.

    Glyphosate is also an amino acid, and, in fact, it is a complete glycine molecule except that a hydrogen atom normally attached to the nitrogen atom in glycine has been replaced by a much bulkier methyl phosphonyl group. Substituting glyphosate at location 699 would have a much more dramatic effect, due to the bulky side group as well as its characteristic negative charge. It would almost certainly destroy any ability to contract. In the experiment, they showed that if only 2% of the molecules of myosin in a muscle fiber had alanine in place of glycine, the muscle could only contract to 50% of its normal capacity.

    What is even more intriguing is that the gall bladder also depends on myosin to contract in order to release bile acids. Bile acids are essential for the digestion of fats. Bile also acts as a detoxifying surfactant and it has antimicrobial properties [7]. Dr. Krigsman showed many photos illustrating the very pale color of stool samples from autistic children, and he pointed out that this implied low levels of bile acids. I have previously written about defective production of bile acids in the liver due to impairments in cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes that are essential for bile synthesis [8]. CYP enzymes all contain a highly conserved short peptide motif FxxGxRxCxG that always has two and often has three glycine residues, with the amino acids indicated as "x" representing wild cards (many different possibilities) [9]. Glyphosate's disruption of CYP enzymes could be due to substituting for glycine in this motif. But the release of bile acids can also be impaired if glyphosate is getting inserted into the myosin molecules in the gall bladder. This would also predictably cause cholestasis and the build-up of gall stones, eventually requiring the gall bladder to be removed.

    Another feature that Dr. Krigsman talked about is that the autism stools often contained clear evidence of undigested food particles. This can easily be explained through glyphosate's expected impact on digestive enzymes, particularly trypsin, pepsin and lipase. Trypsin and pepsin digest proteins, and lipase digests fats. My colleague Anthony Samsel ordered samples of porcine trypsin, pepsin and lipase from a lab and had them tested for glyphosate. All three were found to have high levels of glyphosate contamination [10]. Trypsin has three highly conserved glycine residues that form "glycine hinges," each of which is critical for trypsin activation [11]. Undigested proteins induce an inflammatory response in the gut that opens up the tight junctions, leading to leaky gut syndrome [12], and subsequently opening up the brain barrier as well, allowing toxic metabolites to enter the brain and cause a neuroinflammatory response. A recent study has shown that glyphosate disrupts the tight junctions in the gut epithelial wall and opens up the gut barrier [13]

    Dr. Krigsman also said that the older autistic children had evidence of skeletal muscle wasting, particularly their upper arms and upper legs, which were abnormally thin, almost resembling what's seen in kwashiorkor, the protein malnutrition condition that afflicts starving children in Africa. With an impaired ability to digest food, as seen from the food particles showing up in the stool, the body starts to break down its own muscle tissue as a source of energy, processing glutamate, derived from muscle breakdown, through the citric acid cycle to generate ATP. A study on 18 adults with autism found that they had abnormally high levels of glutamate in their blood, with high statistical significance (p < 0.001) [14]. Glutamate is neuroexcitotoxic, and the levels found in the autistic patients were found to correlate with autism severity. The skeletal muscles might also be disturbed by glyphosate poisoning in the same way as the smooth muscles in the gut: myosin is the most common protein in skeletal muscles. This would cause the muscles to be very weak due to an inability of myosin to contract.

    Does Glyphosate Substitute for Glycine During Protein Synthesis?
    Protein synthesis is a fascinating "manufacturing" process that works by assembling "coding" amino acids like beads on a string, according to the famous four-letter DNA code (AGCT). Each three letter sequence codes for a particular amino acid, choosing among 20 or so options. The amino acids "join hands" like paper dolls through peptide bonds. When the synthesis machinery sees "GGC," for example, it "knows" to look for a glycine unit. Glyphosate is a complete glycine molecule with an extra attachment on the nitrogen atom, which the matching program could overlook because it sits outside of the pocket where glycine fits snugly. Protein synthesis is inherently an errorful process, and the strategy is to fully assemble the protein, let it go through its sophisticated folding process, and then discard it if it appears to be defective once completed.

    If it can be proven that glyphosate substitutes by mistake for glycine during protein synthesis, it is "game over" for glyphosate. Anthony Samsel suggested to me that this might be happening in December of 2015, and we published our first paper on this idea the following March [15]. I have since published several other papers, together with colleagues, showing how this concept can elegantly explain the disease process in multiple diseases and conditions whose rate is rising alarmingly in the past two decades. These include diabetes and obesity [15], Alzheimer's disease [15], autism and multiple sclerosis [10], amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) [16], anencephaly (child born with a missing cerebral cortex) [17], and Mesoamerican Nephropathy, the life-threatening kidney disease that is now rampant among sugar cane workers in Nicaragua and El Salvador [18]. In each case, specific proteins whose defective function is linked to the disease are shown to have strong glycine dependencies that would lead to dysfunction if glyphosate substitutes for these critical glycine residues.

    Glyphosate is not unique in its property as an analogue of a coding amino acid. Actually, there are several naturally produced amino acids that are insidiously cumulatively toxic like glyphosate, that work their destruction through substitution by mistake in place of a specific coding amino acid. You can read more about these other toxins in several of the papers mentioned above and the references therein. They cause debilitating diseases like ALS and multiple sclerosis. In fact, glufosinate is a natural non-coding amino acid analogue of glutamate [19], and it is used as an herbicide that is gaining popularity now that so many weeds are becoming resistant to glyphosate. As the use of glufosinate accelerates, we can expect to see a growing incidence of a new list of currently unidentified diseases and conditions that will be due to disruption of critical highly conserved glutamate residues in various proteins.

    It is a straightforward process to search the research literature looking for highly conserved regions of specific proteins where glycines are absolutely required for proper protein function, similar to the situation with myosin as described above. Again and again, you find that displacement of these glycine residues with glyphosate, a bulkier and negatively charged molecule, can explain the pathology of a specific disease or condition that is currently on the rise.

    Most people are inclined to believe that this can't possibly be true, since glyphosate has been on the market for such a long time and we are repeatedly assured by governmental regulators that it is perfectly safe for human consumption. The highly significant correlations between the rise in glyphosate usage on core crops and the rise in a long list of debilitating neurological and autoimmune disorders[20] are often dismissed with the convenient adage, "correlation does not necessarily mean causation." Yet there is no other chemical being used in agriculture today that comes anywhere close to matching as well as glyphosate does. The fact is that all these diseases are alarmingly on the rise, and, I would rather ask the question, "If not glyphosate, what?"

    Much of the Research has already been Done
    It is widely acknowledged that some if not much of glyphosate's toxicity comes from its property as an amino acid analogue of glycine. For example, it is known that glyphosate excites NMDA receptors, probably by mimicking glycine, which normally binds to and excites these receptors [21]. But most experts are assuring us that it is not possible that it could actually substitute for glycine during protein assembly. However, such a substitution within the protein EPSP synthase is by far the most plausible explanation for how it disrupts this critical enzyme in the shikimate pathway in plants. Disruption of this enzyme is acknowledged by Monsanto as being the most damaging effect that it has on weeds.

    A paper from 2006 by T. Funke et al. is very revealing in this respect [22]. This paper discusses the mutation in the DNA code for EPSP synthase in the microbe whose mutated code was inserted into genetically modified plants in order to afford resistance to glyphosate. The modification is very simple: it results in a substitution of alanine for glycine at residue 100 in the protein sequence. Glycine is the simplest amino acid, with no side chain. Alanine is the amino acid that is closest to glycine, and therefore the least disruptive change. It has a methyl side chain. Residue 100 is situated within a very important amino acid sequence that folds into a shape that creates a pocket where the substrate phosphoenol pyruvate (PEP) fits snugly. The currently held belief as to how glyphosate disrupts this protein is that it fits snugly into the pocket as well, displacing PEP. However, a much more plausible explanation is that it displaces glycine at residue 100, and its extra methylphosphonyl group then protudes into the space where PEP should fit, preventing it from entering the pocket.

    Alanine also disrupts the fit of PEP, causing a significant reduction in enzyme activity. But it affords remarkable protection from glyphosate poisoning, up until very high concentrations. The obvious reason for this is that it has changed the DNA code so that it no longer recognizes glycine, and therefore also no longer recognizes glyphosate. Funke et al. were particularly surprised that glyphosate stood out as having a much more damaging effect on the activity of EPSP synthase compared to all the other molecules that were tested. They wrote: "More than 1,000 analogs of glyphosate have been produced and tested for inhibition of EPSP synthase, but minor structural alterations typically resulted in dramatically reduced potency, and no compound superior to glyphosate was identified." This is because glyphosate is the only one among these modified molecules that is an amino acid, and can therefore be inserted into the peptide sequence during protein synthesis.

    Strong evidence of a very different sort supporting glyphosate incorporation into proteins comes from a paper where rabbits were exposed to glyphosate directly applied to their eyes [23]. After a period of time, the rabbits were sacrificed and their retinas were analyzed to determine the distribution of different types of folded proteins. Remarkably, glyphosate at the two highest concentrations caused a marked reduction of the percentage of the proteins in the eyes that folded into alpha helices, and a corresponding increase in the percentage that folded as beta sheets. A sharp fold referred to as a "beta turn" was also reduced in the glyphosate-exposed retinas. Multiple studies on the roles of glycine residues in proteins have shown that glycines are crucial for maintaining the stability of alpha helices, and glycine residues are also commonly found at sharp bends because it has no side chains and therefore affords flexibility. So it can be anticipated that glyphosate substitution for such critical glycine residues would cause proteins that should fold into alpha helices to instead misfold into beta sheets.

    It has been demonstrated that amyloid beta, the protein that misfolds in association with Alzheimer's disease, has a highly conserved motif in its transmembrane segment, containing a GxxxGxxxGxxxG pattern (four highly conserved glycines regular spaced by "wild cards"). It has been discovered that this transmembrane alpha helix misfolds into a water-soluble beta sheet that eventually precipitates out as the fibrils that build up in the Alzheimer's brain. Such misfolding can easily be expected if glyphosate substitutes for glycine within this motif. Amyloid beta is also present in the retina, and its misfolding there is linked to macular degeneration[24]. Macular degeneration is one of the most common causes of blindness, and it affects nearly 50 million people worldwide.

    Finally, a completely different type of experiment involving radiolabelled glyphosate has provided strong evidence that glyphosate is incorporating into proteins, and such an experiment was carried out by Monsanto researchers in an unpublished report from 1989 [25]. Anthony Samsel gained access to this report through the Freedom of Information Act, and we summarized its findings in our Glyphosate VI paper on amyloidoses and autoimmune neurological diseases [10]. These authors exposed bluegill sunfish to radiolabelled glyphosate and then measured the amount of radiolabel in various tissue samples. They also measured for glyphosate using standard techniques, and they found that the amount of glyphosate detected fell far short of the total radiolabel, accounting for only up to 20% of the radioactive carbon present in the tissue sample. They then got the idea to apply enzymes (proteinase K) to the sample, in order to break down the protein into individual amino acids, and after this the amount of glyphosate detected rose to 70% of the radiolabel. They wrote: "Proteinase K hydrolyses proteins to amino acids and small oligopeptides, suggesting that a significant portion of the 14C activity residing in the bluegill sunfish tissue was tightly associated with or INCORPORATED INTO protein." [25] (emphasis added). This comes extremely close to admitting that glyphosate incorporates into proteins by mistake in place of glycine during protein synthesis.

    It is also worth noting that this means that any foods containing significant amounts of protein will likely have hidden glyphosate contamination that will be missed if the food is not subjected to significant proteolysis prior to measurement. And even after proteolysis there was still a stubborn 30% of the radiolabel that remained undetected, suggesting that glyphosate makes proteins difficult to break down, which is not surprising to me, but is also ominous in terms of the build-up of amyloid beta plaque in association with macular degeneration and Alzheimer's disease, both of which are rising alarmingly in frequency in the industrialized world.

    Conclusion
    You have a choice. You can continue to put toxic food on your family's dinner plate, and wait to see what happens after you have randomly barraged the proteins throughout your body with glyphosate bullets, one by one. Once you or a close family member is diagnosed with a debilitating and painful disease, you can deal with all the medical expenses in a seemingly hopeless quest for recovery. Or you can make a pledge to switch to purchasing only certified organic food when you shop at the grocery story. It is satisfying to me to see the steady growth in the percentage of shelf space devoted to organic foods in grocery stores around the country over the past decade. Your choice to feed your family only organic foods will help to encourage the farmers to grow only organic food, and increased demand will drive down the prices. Together we can create a movement that can reverse the destructive path we are currently on towards a path where sustainable organic agriculture heals the soil as well as the human body. All the other organisms that share this planet with us, such as the bees and the butterflies, will be very grateful that we have finally stopped poisoning them as well.

    References

    [1] autismone.org Last accessed June 6, 2018.

    [2] Vandenberg LN, Blumberg B, Antoniou MN, Benbrook CM, Carroll L, Colborn T, Everett LG, Hansen M, Landrigan PJ, Lanphear BP, Mesnage R, Vom Saal FS, Welshons WV, Myers JP. Is it time to reassess current safety standards for glyphosate-based herbicides? J Epidemiol Community Health 2017; 71(6): 613-18.

    [3] Krigsman A, Boris M, Goldblatt A, Stott C (2010) Clinical presentation and histologic findings at ileocolonoscopy in children with autistic spectrum disorder and chronic gastrointestinal symptoms. Autism Insights 2010; 1: 1-11.

    [4] Walker SJ, Fortunato J, Gonzalez LG, Krigsman A. Identification of unique gene expression profile in children with regressive autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ileocolitis. PLoS One. 2013; 8(3): e58058.

    [5] Nakae H, Kusanagi M, Okuyama M, Igarashi T. Paralytic ileus induced by glyphosate intoxication successfully treated using Kampo medicine. Acute Med Surg 2014 Dec 11; 2(3): 214-218.

    [6] Kinose F, Wang SX, Kidambi US, Moncman CL, Winkelmann DA. Glycine 699 is pivotal for the motor activity of skeletal muscle myosin. J Cell Biol 1996; 134(4): 895-909.

    [7] Kalambaheti T, Cooper GN, Jackson GD. Role of bile in non-specific defence mechanisms of the gut. Gut 1994; 35(8): 1047-52.

    [8] Samsel A, Seneff S. Glyphosate's suppression of cytochrome P450 enzymes and amino acid biosynthesis by the gut microbiome: pathways to modern diseases. Entropy 2013; 15: 1416-1463.

    [9] Syed K, Mashele SS. Comparative analysis of P450 signature motifs EXXR and CXG in the large and diverse kingdom of fungi: identification of evolutionarily conserved amino acid patterns characteristic of P450 family. PLoS One 2014; 9(4): e95616.

    [10] Samsel A, Seneff S. Glyphosate pathways to modern diseases VI: Prions, amyloidoses and autoimmune neurological diseases. Journal of Biological Physics and Chemistry 2017; 17: 8-32.

    [11] Gombos L, Kardos J, Patthy A, Medveczky P, Szilágyi L, Málnási-Csizmadia A, Gráf L. Probing conformational plasticity of the activation domain of trypsin: the role of glycine hinges. Biochemistry 2008; 47(6): 1675-84.

    [12] Shen L, Turner JR. Role of epithelial cells in initiation and propagation of intestinal inflammation. Eliminating the static: tight junction dynamics exposed. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2006; 290: G577-G582.

    [13] Gildea JJ, Roberts DA, Bush Z. Protective effects of lignite extract supplement on intestinal barrier function in glyphosate-mediated tight junction injury. J Cin Nutr Diet 2017; 3:1.

    [14] Shinohe A, Hashimoto K, Nakamura K, Tsujii M, Iwata Y, Tsuchiya KJ, Sekine Y, Suda S, Suzuki K, Sugihara G, Matsuzaki H, Minabe Y, Sugiyama T, Kawai M, Iyo M, Takei N, Mori N. Increased serum levels of glutamate in adult patients with autism. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2006; 30(8): 1472-7.

    [15] Samsel A, Seneff S. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases V: Aminos acid analogue of glycine in diverse proteins. J Biol Phys Chem 2016; 16: 9-46.

    [16] Seneff S, Morley W, Hadden MJ, Michener MC. Does glyphosate acting as a glycine analogue contribute to ALS? J Bioinfo Proteomics Rev 2016: 2(3): 1-21.

    [17] Seneff S, Nigh G. Glyphosate and Anencephaly: Death by A Thousand Cuts. J Neurol Neurobiol 2017 3(2).

    [18] Seneff S, Orlando L. Glyphosate substitution for glycine during protein synthesis as a causal factor in Mesoamerican Nephropathy. Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology 2018; 8(1): 100541.

    [19] Hoerlein G. Glufosinate (phosphinothricin), a natural amino acid with unexpected herbicidal properties. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 1994;138:73-145.

    [20] Swanson NL, Leu A, Abrahamson J, Wallet B. Genetically engineered crops, glyphosate and the deterioration of health in the United States of America. Journal of Organic Systems 2014; 9(2): 6-37.

    [21] Cattani D, de Liz Oliveira Cavalli VL, Heinz Rieg CE, Domingues JT, Dal-Cim T, Tasca CI, Mena Barreto Silva FR, Zamoner A. Mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity induced by glyphosate-based herbicide in immature rat hippocampus: involvement of glutamate excitotoxicity. Toxicology 2014; 320:34-45.

    [22] Funke T, Han H, Healy-Fried ML, Fischer M, Schönbrunn E. Molecular basis for the herbicide resistance of Roundup Ready crops. PNAS 2006; 103(35): 13010-13015.

    [23] Morsy SA, Aly EM, Ibrahim AM, Mahmoud SS, Kamala GM. Potential hazards of glyphosate on rabbit retina. J Arab Soc Med Res 12:92-98.

    [24] Ratnayaka JA, Serpell LC, Lotery AJ. Dementia of the eye: the role of amyloid beta in retinal degeneration. Eye 2015; 29: 1013-1026.

    [25] Ridley WP, Chott KA. Uptake, depuration and bioconcentration of C-14 glyphosate to bluegill sunfish (Lepomis machrochirus) Part II: Characterization and quantitation of glyphosate and its metabolites. St Louis, Missouri: Monsanto Agricultural Company (unpublished study) August, 1989.
    About the author

    Stephanie Seneff is a Senior Research Scientist at the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. She received the B.S. degree in Biophysics in 1968, the M.S. and E.E. degrees in Electrical Engineering in 1980, and the Ph.D degree in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science in 1985, all from MIT. For over three decades, her research interests have always been at the intersection of biology and computation: developing a computational model for the human auditory system, understanding human language so as to develop algorithms and systems for human computer interactions, as well as applying natural language processing (NLP) techniques to gene predictions. She has published over 170 refereed articles on these subjects, and has been invited to give keynote speeches at several international conferences. She has also supervised numerous Master's and PhD theses at MIT. In 2012, Dr. Seneff was elected Fellow of the International Speech and Communication Association (ISCA).
    "La réalité est un rêve que l'on fait atterrir" San Antonio AKA F. Dard

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    Default Re: The gut of most disease... NOT what you think!

    If you have reached this present post of mine, and not vowed to minimize glyphosate in the diets of yourself or those you care for ... you have not read and understood Hervé's previous post, just above.

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    Default Re: The gut of most disease... NOT what you think!

    THE INVISIBLE ORGAN: THE MISSING PIECE IN HEALTH AND LONGEVITY EPISODE 1:
    (The gut is the missing piece. I've watched some of these recent series of videos about alternative health, and they tend to be rather tedious and much too long, but there is usually some good info if you have the time to pick it out, and they are free if you sign up.)
    https://www.interconnectedseries.com...d-98251831d549

    The introduction in email today from: "Dr. Tom O'Bryan info@thedr.com via infusionmail.com

    "Most of you have heard me talk about the organ that ‘modulates’ (great Scrabble word that means ‘has its hands on the steering wheel of your health’s direction’), modulates every system of your body. No, it’s not the brain, which I had always assumed. It’s the microbiome (the environment of your gut). I just read a study this morning that identifies if mom does not have a particular bacteria in adequate concentrations in her microbiome during pregnancy, baby is born with a higher risk of developing Type 1 diabetes. That means the developing baby, while still inside of mom, the developing baby’s organs are affected by moms microbiome. There are many studies like this. This is revolutionary information that’s just now coming out. The world of learning of the microbiome and it’s effect on health is one that you will never regret putting time into studying.

    Now, a cutting-edge interview series with world authorities is about to launch. My wonderful friend and colleague, Pedram Shojai (author of The Urban Monk) has offered my community 1st access to his exclusive, 9-day documentary screening, which captures a revolution in science that’s leading us to new and miraculous cures.

    If you’re suffering from a chronic disease or struggling with low energy (even just one or two days a week), you may find an answer here.

    Remember what I’ve shared SO often - it can take up to 17 YEARS for cutting edge information to trickle down to your doctor. So please... Clear some time and space to learn this - because your doctor doesn’t know this stuff yet.
    (Like so many things I bring to my community, this is offered FOR FREE.)

    All my best,
    Dr. Tom O’Bryan"

    At the link (where you sign up for the free series):https://www.interconnectedseries.com...d-98251831d549

    "TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE NEXT FRONTIER OF MEDICINE:
    NATURALLY HEAL CHRONIC DISEASE, SHARPEN YOUR THINKING AND BOOST YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM WHEN YOU DISCOVER HOW TO FEED, NURTURE, AND CONTROL YOUR GUT’S MICROBIOME
    WHAT’S THE MICROBIOME?
    It’s the vast community of bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and other lifeforms that live in our bodies that are our friends. In fact, science has recently learned that we couldn’t even function without them. We need them just as much as they need us. This understanding changes everything.

    “The microbiome is the next frontier in medicine. Understanding it and optimizing it is going to be critical to solving so many of our healthcare issues.”
    – Mark Hyman, MD, Cleveland Clinic Center for Functional Medicine
    Here's a peek at what you'll discover inside INTERCONNECTED: The Power to Heal From Within...
    EPISODE 1: THE INVISIBLE ORGAN: THE MISSING PIECE IN HEALTH AND LONGEVITY
    Researchers are just discovering Obesity, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease, Autoimmune Diseases, Celiac, IBS, Crohn’s, Skin Disease, Allergies, Neurological Conditions, Autism, Cancer... all these chronic and terminal diseases START in the gut. The great news is they can also be HEALED in the gut. This docuseries reveals how...
    Research around the world reveals that only in industrialized countries do people suffer from these chronic diseases. Indigenous hunter-gatherer tribes (South America, Australia, Africa, India) do not get these diseases! The clue? Their microbiomes are very different; there are greater numbers of microbes and much more diversity.
    Leading scientists, researchers, physicians and patients have now come together for this revealing documentary, sharing the latest breakthroughs, discoveries and findings about this “new interconnected pathway” to good health and healing chronic disease...
    Using new diagnostic and exploratory tools, this “new interconnected pathway” is quickly becoming the new foundation of allopathic medicine.
    Imagine a time not to distant from today, a healthcare system based upon predictive, personalized, preventive and participatory (meaning you can heal yourself) tools. It’ll be all about YOU individually--and what’s (really) going inside your gut...

    EPISODE 2: THE HUMAN MICROBIOME: THE RAGING BATTLE FROM WITHIN
    Microbiome data has been sourced globally and studied for over a decade by private and university labs all over the country. Digital technology and AI makes it possible to study and compare the microbiota of millions of people-- and the findings are rocking the scientific world…
    The unholy trinity of autoimmune diseases… what causes them and how to protect yourself against them
    Various historical systems of medicine, from Sun Si Miao to Avicena, Ayurveda, even Hippocrates implicitly knew the microbiome was THE KEY to health but this ancient wisdom was pushed aside in the name of “progress” and almost forgotten. Now we look it for clues to modern healing…
    Leaky gut: how do you know if you have it… and how you can repair it.
    Today’s functional medicine is treating patients based on their microbiome. You’ll hear personally from doctors who have been healing chronic diseases based on the microbiome...
    EPISODE 3: THE TRUTH ABOUT PROBIOTICS
    There’s a literal zoo of microbes living in the linings of your gut and it promises to help heal you of the first diseases known to man...
    Ever wonder why new diet books come out every month? By now, shouldn’t we have found the one that works for all? It’s because no one diet works for everyone because everyone is different. Like our fingerprints, our gut microbiome is unique and it demands unique solutions to healing...
    You’ll sit in on individual Doctor/patient case studies-- in-progress reports on integrated medical treatments that includes patient’s Microbiome...
    What dysbiosis looks like (unbalanced families of bacteria residing in one’s microbiome.) And how it’s contributing to chronic disease...
    "If you have a toxic body of water, simply adding more fish will lead to more dead fish." We learn how toxicity needs to be resolved before adding probiotics to the gut.
    EPISODE 4: THE TROUBLE WITH TOXINS: STAYING ALIVE IN A TOXIC WORLD
    Diet = Disease? why we’re seeing ‘hockey stick’ rises in certain diseases (and what we can do about it)
    The environmental toxins in your home that are killing off your microbiome day by day… and how to protect against them...
    The truth about detoxing: Your body may be blocked from naturally eliminating disease-spreading toxins…
    The real cause of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and how ‘feeding’ your gut good bacteria can put a stop to emergency trips to the bathroom...
    EPISODE 5: THE KIDS AREN’T ALRIGHT: LEAKY GUT - LEAKY BRAIN - LEAKY KIDS
    Your gut is about a lot more than digestion. Gut microbiota are hardwired into our very neurobiology, reproductive systems, longevity, cardiovascular health, and all the body’s major systems and organs.
    How nourishing the gut can send positive, stress-relieving messages to your brain...
    Why mindful eating could help prevent and fight neurological disease as we get older…
    The Unhealthy Brain: does Parkinson’s actually begin in the gut?
    An entirely new roadmap, a new GPS, for treating disease...
    EPISODE 6: THE MICROBIOME SOLUTION: THYROID, OBESITY, AND DIABETES
    Hippocrates said it best over 2000 years ago. It’s holds true today--our greatest way to help shape a balanced, healthy microbiome is by what we eat and drink. Here’s how...
    Food 2.0 and how to escape a broken food system devoid of fiber, vitamins, minerals, and nutrients...
    Fermentation: nature’s probiotic. Top 3 recommendations for good bacteria-rich, fermented foods you can store at home…
    We are what we eat and we are what we grow… inside of us. How your health is controlled by the type of bacteria you host in your gut…
    The fermented cauliflower shaped food… smuggled into the western world by a Buddhist monk… that will help grow health-enhancing bacteria in your body...
    EPISODE 7: THE MICROBIOME SOLUTION: CANCER, IMMUNITY, AND HEART DISEASE
    3 tell-tale signs of an underactive thyroid...
    How the care and feeding of your microbiome can help your body rebalance, combat and reverse Hashimoto’s disease…
    Why trendy, restrictive diets are triggering chaos in your gut flora...
    Craving chocolate cookies at 10pm? Here’s why your microbiome is triggering your weight gain (and how to fix it so you can melt fat away simply, quickly and easily)
    Surprising everyday items to stay away from (in addition to microbiome-killing antibiotics)...
    EPISODE 8: ANCIENT WISDOM AND MODERN TECHNOLOGY: THE KEYS TO PERSONALIZED, INDIVIDUALIZED, MADE-FOR-YOU MEDICINE
    Can we really PREDICT cancer by analyzing our gut microbes? These scientists say “YES!”...
    The big breakthrough: Artificial Intelligence and sophisticated microbiome testing that allows individualization of medicine, creating a perfect healthcare system...
    Why chemotherapy is NOT the only answer...
    PLUS: How balancing your microbiome can soothe away skin problems. Suffering with acne or eczema? What’s happening on the outside is a direct reflection of what’s going on INSIDE…
    How the loss of this one friendly bacteria may be responsible for the sudden rise in childhood asthma...
    EPISODE 9: HEALING YOURSELF: A BRIGHT FUTURE
    The big breakthrough: Artificial Intelligence and sophisticated microbiome testing that allows individualization of medicine, creating a perfect healthcare system...
    Independent vs interdependent: now we understand that we need and rely on all life around us and are far more dependent on it than we thought...
    Little did we realize life (seen and unseen realms all around you) is part of who we are and naturally becomes a part of our gut’s biome...
    Ways to wean yourself off the chronic disease-causing Standard American Diet…
    Why the future isn’t about running and hiding from the next super bug--it’s about building your own unique “force field”. Find out how... "
    Each breath a gift...
    _____________

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    Default Re: The gut of most disease... NOT what you think!

    Science is nothing more than the gradual progress and discoveries based on previous work, and we can describe the source of our current understanding of science as the product of a collective mind of scientists working together, but in different timelines. Not all science is right, how do you know genetically modified foods are bad for you?

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    Default Re: The gut of most disease... NOT what you think!

    The Curious Bidirectional Link Between Gut Health and Sleep
    11/14/19
    https://articles.mercola.com/sites/a..._rid=749968084

    "STORY AT-A-GLANCE
    Mounting research suggests your gut microbiome helps regulate not only your mood but also your sleep cycle through what’s known as the gut-brain axis — a bidirectional communication “highway” that links your central and enteric nervous systems
    Your gut microbiota affect brain function through the immunoregulatory pathway, the neuroendocrine pathway and the vagus nerve pathway, all three of which have this bidirectional flow
    Research shows the microbiota in your gut are under circadian control, which means disruptions in sleep can affect the composition and health of your microbiome, which can have significant impact on your overall health
    The microbes in your gut can also affect the actual quality of your sleep. Total microbiome diversity is positively correlated with increased sleep efficiency and total sleep time
    Recent research shows the composition of your gut microbiome, the quality and quantity of your sleep, your immune function and cognition are all connected
    Sleep plays an integral role in your immune function, and one of the surprising mechanisms behind this link has to do with how sleep impacts your gut microbiome. Two recent studies shed light on this connection between sleep and your gut health.

    The first, published in the December 2018 issue of Frontiers in Psychiatry,1 focused on the microbiome's role in insomnia and depression. As noted by the authors:

    "Numerous studies have suggested that the incidence of insomnia and depressive disorder are linked to biological rhythms, immune function, and nutrient metabolism, but the exact mechanism is not yet clear.

    There is considerable evidence showing that the gut microbiome not only affects the digestive, metabolic, and immune functions of the host but also regulates host sleep and mental states through the microbiome-gut-brain axis.

    Preliminary evidence indicates that microorganisms and circadian genes can interact with each other. The characteristics of the gastrointestinal microbiome and metabolism are related to the host's sleep and circadian rhythm."

    Your Gut Microbiome's Role in Insomnia and Depression
    Previous studies have shown your gut microbiome can play a significant role in depression and anxiety, and that your diet — which can effectively alter the bacterial composition of your gut — can raise or lower your risk of these mood disorders.

    As noted in the Frontiers in Psychiatry study,2 mounting research suggests your gut microbiome helps regulate not only your mood but also your sleep cycle through what's known as the gut-brain axis — a bidirectional communication "highway" that links your central and enteric nervous systems.3

    According to the authors of this paper, your gut microbiota affect brain function through three different pathways, all of which have this bidirectional flow:4

    1.The immunoregulatory pathway — Here, gut bacteria influence brain function via interaction with immune cells that regulate your levels of cytokines, cytokinetic reaction factor and prostaglandin E2.

    2.The neuroendocrine pathway — With more than 20 types of enteroendocrine cells, your intestine is the largest endocrine organ in your body. As explained by the authors,5 "The gut microbiome may affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the central nervous system (CNS) by regulating the secretion of neurotransmitters such as cortisol, tryptophan and serotonin (5-HT)."

    3.The vagus nerve pathway — Your enteric nervous system also plays an important role in the vagus nerve pathway. Here, gut microbiota can exert influence via sensory neurons in your intestinal myenteric plexus.

    These intestinal neurons have synaptic connections to motor neurons in the intestine that help regulate hormone secretion in the gut and intestinal motility. Synaptic connections also exist between the intestinal nervous system and the vagus nerve, which connects your brain and intestine.

    The authors note that neurotoxic metabolites produced by various gut microbiota can also enter into your CNS via your vagus nerve, "thereby affecting brain function, stress responses and sleep structure."

    As mentioned, the information flow through these three pathways is bidirectional, so your CNS can also regulate the composition of your gut microbiome through these pathways.

    As one example, through its ability to alter the function of epithelial cells in your intestine, the HPA axis can affect the bacteria's living environment, and in so doing, influence the composition of your gut microbiome.6
    Circadian Genes Affect Your Gut Microbiome
    In 2017, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine went to three biologists for their discovery of master genes that control your body's circadian rhythms. Your body contains not just one biological clock, but a vast array of clocks that regulate everything from metabolism to psychological functioning.

    While the master clock in your brain synchronizes your bodily functions to match the 24-hour light and dark cycle, each and every organ, indeed each cell, has its own biological clock.

    Half of your genes are also under circadian control, turning on and off in cyclical waves. As you might expect, the microbiota in your gut are also under circadian control, which means disruptions in sleep can affect the composition and health of your microbiome as well. As reported in Frontiers in Psychiatry:7

    "Evidence suggests that Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, and Bacteroidales, which account for ~60% of the microbiota, show significant diurnal fluctuations that result in time-of-day-specific taxonomic configurations.

    Liang et al. found that the two primary components of the mammalian intestinal microbiota, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, showed cyclical changes in abundance from day to night that are related not only to rhythmic food intake and dietary structure but also to the biological clock and gender of the host.

    Recent studies showed that circadian clock misalignment, sleep deprivation, and shift experience changes circadian clock gene expression and microbial community structure.

    Interfering with the sleep patterns of mice can also change the structure and diversity of the intestinal microbiota. These findings suggest that circadian genes might affect the intestinal microbiota."

    So, to summarize the findings of this Frontiers in Psychiatry, there's a bidirectional connection between your gut microbiome, your sleep and your risk of depression, and endocrine hormones and clock genes play important roles in these processes.

    Microbiome Diversity Linked to Sleep Quality
    The second study8,9 addressing the curious link between your gut health and sleep was published in PLOS ONE in 2019. Here, the researchers investigated how the microbes in your gut affect the actual quality of your sleep — which we already know can have far-reaching effects on your general health.

    Poor sleep and/or lack of sleep has been linked to a wide variety of ailments and health conditions, ranging from poor cognitive performance and neurological dysfunction to an increased risk for Type 2 diabetes,10 heart disease,11 cancer12 and Alzheimer's disease.13

    On the other hand, high-quality sleep is associated with improved health, cognition and increased creativity, as discussed in "Using Sleep as a Tool for Creativity."

    Using advanced sleep measuring devices, the researchers were able to measure the quality of participants' sleep, which was then compared to the composition of their gut microbiome to see if a correlation could be made. As reported by the authors:14

    "We found that total microbiome diversity was positively correlated with increased sleep efficiency and total sleep time, and was negatively correlated with wake after sleep onset. We found positive correlations between total microbiome diversity and interleukin-6, a cytokine previously noted for its effects on sleep.

    Analysis of microbiome composition revealed that within phyla richness of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were positively correlated with sleep efficiency, interleukin-6 concentrations and abstract thinking.

    Finally, we found that several taxa (Lachnospiraceae, Corynebacterium, and Blautia) were negatively correlated with sleep measures. Our findings initiate linkages between gut microbiome composition, sleep physiology, the immune system and cognition. They may lead to mechanisms to improve sleep through the manipulation of the gut microbiome."

    The Role of Cytokines
    As mentioned at the beginning, sleep is known to influence your immune function, and cytokines, produced in response to an antigen, are multifunctional chemical messengers that help regulate your innate and adaptive immune systems.15

    Interestingly, cytokines also appear to act as a "critical interface between sleep physiology and gut microbiome composition," according to this study. As explained by the authors:16

    "The acute phase pathway cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 in particular are strongly associated with sleep physiology. IL-1β is a major somnogenic factor. IL-1β administration in human and non-human animals increases spontaneous sleep and fatigue, and IL-1β increases with ongoing sleep loss.

    Unlike IL-1β, IL-6 is not a direct somnogenic factor, but sleep loss results in increased IL-6 levels. In the gut, IL-6 and IL-1β mediated-inflammation fluctuate in response to stress and disease.

    For example, intestinal mucositis results in increased expression of IL-6 and-IL-1β in the small intestine and in serum and colon tissue in mice. In humans, chronic stress alone increases IL-6 and-IL-1β.

    Despite the close relationship between cytokine activity, gut microbiome activity and sleep, only a handful of studies have examined sleep and gut-microbiome composition ... In humans, previous research has shown that partial sleep deprivation can alter the gut microbiome composition in as little as 48 hours …

    A more recent study showed that high sleep quality was associated with a gut microbiome containing a high proportion of bacteria from the Verrucomicrobia and Lentisphaerae phyla, and that this was associated with improved performance on cognitive tasks."

    So, in summary, what this PLOS ONE study reveals is that the composition of your gut microbiome, the quality and quantity of your sleep, your immune function and cognition are all connected.

    Lack of Sleep Makes Chronic Health Problems Extra Risky
    The finding that poor sleep and lack of sleep can deteriorate your gut health helps explain why sleeping too little when you're struggling with a chronic health issue could be a downright deadly prescription. As reported by CNN Health:17

    "If you're a middle-aged adult with high blood pressure, Type 2 diabetes or existing heart disease and you typically sleep less than six hours each night, you could be setting yourself up for cancer or an early death from heart disease."

    The study18,19,20 CNN is referring to was published in the October 2019 issue of the Journal of the American Heart Association (JAHA). In it, researchers sought to determine whether short sleep duration would increase the risk of death associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

    Data from 1,654 adults from the Penn State Adult Cohort were evaluated. Using Cox proportional hazard models, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality among those who slept less than six hours and had cardiometabolic risk factors (high blood pressure, elevated glucose or Type 2 diabetes) was 2.14 times higher than those who regularly slept six hours or more.

    They also had a 1.83 times higher risk of dying from cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases. Among those with a diagnosis of heart disease or stroke, sleeping less than six hours a night increased their all-cause mortality risk by 3.17 times. Interestingly, it also increased their risk of dying from cancer, specifically, by 2.92 times.

    All of these associations were found to be independent of age, sex, ethnicity, obesity, smoking and other health conditions that might influence the results. Conversely, sleeping less than six hours did not increase the risk of death in those that did not have cardiometabolic risk factors or a cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease diagnosis.

    Likewise, those with cardiometabolic risk factors or a cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease diagnosis who slept six hours or more were not at increased risk for death either. It was specifically the combination of chronic health problems and short sleep duration that increased the risk of death, including cancer mortality.

    Sleep Duration Plays a Role in Mortality Prognosis
    As noted by the authors:21

    "Our novel findings show that objective short sleep duration increases the mortality risk of middle‐aged adults with CMRs [cardiometabolic risk factors] and those who have already developed CBVD [cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases].

    Middle‐aged adults with CMR who slept <6 hours were at a high risk of dying from CBVD, whereas middle‐aged adults with CBVD who slept <6 hours were at a high risk of dying from cancer …

    If these findings are replicated in other large cohorts with objective sleep measures, short sleep duration should be included in the prediction of the mortality prognosis of middle‐aged adults with CMR or CBVD.

    The primary finding of the current study indicated that there was an ≈2‐fold risk for all‐cause, CBVD, and non‐CBVD mortality in participants who had CMRs at baseline and demonstrated short sleep duration in the sleep laboratory.

    Individuals who had CMRs and normal sleep duration at baseline, on the other hand, did not show a significantly increased risk on any of the mortality outcomes. This finding suggests that obtaining an adequate amount of sleep may minimize the adverse effect of CMRs on multiple mortality outcomes.

    For instance, participants with both CMRs and short sleep at baseline showed an 83% higher risk of dying from CBVD, whereas their CMR counterparts with normal sleep duration had a modest 35% nonsignificant higher risk of CBVD mortality …

    In conclusion, objective short sleep duration is an effect modifier of the mortality risk associated with CMR or CBVD. More important, our data suggest that short sleep may operate through different mechanisms on CBVD versus cancer mortality."

    General Sleep Guidelines
    Considering the massive importance of sleep for preventing the two top killers in the U.S. (heart disease and cancer), just how much sleep do you need to reap protective benefits?

    According to a scientific review of more than 300 studies published between 2004 and 2014, a panel of experts came up with the following recommendations. Keep in mind that if you're sick, injured or pregnant, you may need a bit more than normal.

    Newborns (0 to 3 months)
    14 to 17 hours
    Infants (4 to 11 months)
    12 to 15 hours
    Toddlers (1 to 2 years)
    11 to 14 hours
    Preschoolers (3 to 5)
    10 to 13 hours
    School-age children (6 to 13)
    9 to 11 hours
    Teenagers (14 to 17)
    8 to 10 hours
    Adults (18 to 64)
    7 to 9 hours
    Seniors (65 and older)
    7 to 8 hours
    Set a Nightly Alarm to Help You Get Enough Sleep
    There's simply no doubt that sleep needs to be a priority in your life if you intend to live a long and healthy life. For many, this means forgoing night-owl tendencies and getting to bed at a reasonable time.

    If you need to be up at 6 a.m., you need a lights-out deadline of 9:30 or 10 p.m., depending on how quickly you tend to fall asleep. If you find it difficult to get to bed on time, consider setting a bedtime alarm to remind you that it's time to shut everything down and get ready for sleep. For further guidance, see "Sleep — Why You Need It and 50 Ways to Improve It."

    How to Nurture Your Gut Microbiome
    As for how to improve and maintain a healthy microbiome — which might do more to improve your sleep than is currently appreciated — it isn't very complicated, but you do need to take proactive steps to encourage its health while avoiding factors known to cause harm. This includes:

    Eat plenty of fermented foods — Healthy choices include lassi, fermented grass fed kefir, natto (fermented soy) and fermented vegetables.
    Void antibiotics, unless absolutely necessary, and when you do, make sure to reseed your gut with fermented foods and/or a high-quality probiotic supplement.
    Take a probiotic supplement — Although I'm not a major proponent of taking many supplements (as I believe the majority of your nutrients need to come from food), probiotics are an exception if you don't eat fermented foods on a regular basis.
    Avoid conventionally raised meats and other animal products, as factory farmed animals are routinely fed low-dose antibiotics and GE grains loaded with glyphosate, which is widely known to kill many bacteria.
    Boost your soluble and insoluble fiber intake, focusing on vegetables, nuts and seeds, including sprouted seeds.
    Avoid chlorinated and/or fluoridated water — Especially in your bathing such as showers, which are worse than drinking it.
    Get your hands dirty in the garden — Exposure to bacteria and viruses can help to strengthen your immune system and provide long-lasting immunity against disease.
    Getting your hands dirty in the garden can help reacquaint your immune system with beneficial microorganisms on the plants and in the soil.
    Avoid processed foods — Excessive sugar feeds pathogenic bacteria.

    Food emulsifiers such as polysorbate 80, lecithin, carrageenan, polyglycerols and xanthan gum also appear to have an adverse effect on your gut flora.

    Unless 100% organic, they may also contain GMOs that tend to be heavily contaminated with pesticides such as glyphosate. Artificial sweeteners have also been found to alter gut bacteria in adverse ways.22
    Open your windows — For the vast majority of human history, the outside was always part of the inside, and at no moment during our day were we ever really separated from nature.

    Today, we spend most of our lives indoors. And, although keeping the outside out does have its advantages, it has also changed the microbiome of your home.

    Research shows that opening a window and increasing natural airflow can improve the diversity and health of the microbes in your home, which in turn benefit you.23
    Agricultural chemicals — Glyphosate (Roundup) in particular is a known antibiotic and will actively kill many of your beneficial gut microbes if you eat foods contaminated with it.
    Wash your dishes by hand instead of in the dishwasher — Research has shown that washing your dishes by hand leaves more bacteria on the dishes than dishwashers do, and eating off these less-than-sterile dishes may actually decrease your risk of allergies by stimulating your immune system.
    Avoid antibacterial soap — It kills both good and bad bacteria and contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance."
    - Sources and References
    1, 2 Frontiers in Psychiatry 2018; 9: 669
    3 Annals of Gastroenterology 2015 Apr-Jun; 28(2): 203–209
    4, 5, 6 Frontiers in Psychiatry 2018; 9: 669, The Gut Microbiome and the Gut-Brain Axis
    7 Frontiers in Psychiatry 2018; 9: 669, The Gut Microbiota, Clock Genes and Sleep + Gut Microbiota and Comorbidity of Insomnia and Depression
    8 PLOS ONE 2019; 14(10): e0222394
    9 Science Daily October 28, 2019
    10 JAMA 2005;165(8):863-867
    11 Archives of Internal Medicine 2003;163(2):205-209
    12 Sleep Medicine Reviews August 2009; 13(4): 257-264
    13, 16 PLOS ONE 2019; 14(10): e0222394, Introduction
    14 PLOS ONE 2019; 14(10): e0222394, Abstract
    15 Biology LibreTexts, Cytokines Important in Innate Immunity
    17 CNN Health October 2, 2019
    18 JAHA October 2, 2019;8:e013043
    19 Medical News Today October 3, 2019
    20 Science Daily October 2, 2019
    21 JAHA October 2, 2019;8:e013043, Discussion
    22 Scientific American March 17, 2015
    23 ISME Journal 2012 Aug;6(8):1469-79
    Each breath a gift...
    _____________

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