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Thread: In Search of the Ancient Builders in Peru and Bolivia

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    UK Avalon Founder Bill Ryan's Avatar
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    Default Re: In Search of the Ancient Builders in Peru and Bolivia

    -------

    Fabulous thread -- thank you! This is the best and most interesting illustrated chronicle of a journey through Peru and Bolivia that I've ever seen. It's a real service to the forum.

    I've not yet traveled to Peru and Bolivia, but certainly will. Klaus Dona is a good friend, and he may visit here again before not too long.


    http://youtube.com/watch?v=XmMwo1Xzgus

    My own personal interest is in Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco), which is probably 15,000 years old: I have a connection with the place I want to explore.

    How these huge stones were laid into place so perfectly is almost impossible to understand. Klaus theorizes that something was applied to the stone to liquify the surface (rather like moist cement) -- which then solidified once in place to create the impeccable joints. Meanwhile, the Incas had legends that the stones were "floated" across deep valleys to the sound of drumming and chanting.

    If you should find yourself in Ecuador -- let me know.

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    Default Re: In Search of the Ancient Builders in Peru and Bolivia

    Thank you so much for sharing your journey to these wonderful, spectacular and mysterious places. The enigma of it all is so intriguing it is no wonder that many have dedicated their lives to finding answers to our true history.

    Much appreciated >>>>>>>thank you and continued blessings on your journey
    Love and Light Always/Sandy

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    Default Re: In Search of the Ancient Builders in Peru and Bolivia

    I agree with Bill this is a fabulous thread.

    I thought I would mention that I am one of a number of individuals that have backed a project instigated by Brien Foerster from Peru to analyse and extract the full Genome from elongated skulls in that country. The image below is one of those presently being done. The details at present are secret but I will inform members of this Forum when they become available.

    The company carrying out the study is DNA Diagnostics, a well known firm in the United States. founded by Dr. Melba Ketchum. Established in 1985, DNA Diagnostics has become a leader in all types of DNA testing including: human and animal forensics, human and animal paternity and parentage testing, disease diagnostics, trait tests, animal and human identity testing, species identification and sex determination. Most common species of animals are tested at DNA Diagnostics. Dr. Ketchum has also established a research program ranging from gene mapping to developing the VeriSNP™ (patent pending) platform for universal genetic evaluation in multiple species of animals. Other research includes genetics of disease, population genetics and other genetically important traits such as coat color in animals. Dr. Ketchum is a past three-term Chairperson of the International Society for Animal Genetics Equine Genetics Standing Committee. She has also been Dog Map Chairperson and a Committee member on the Dog and Cat Parentage Committee. She is a former Treasurer for AFDAA, The Association of DNA Analysts and Administrators. She aided in the analysis of the DNA sequences from the World Trade Center Disaster.

    A study not connected to this thread but worth listening to is about their research into the Genome on the Bigfoot.
    An interview on Coast to Coast am was conducted with the head geneticist, Dr. Melba Ketchum, on the 23rd December 2012, about their research which they hope to be published on the Bigfoot in one of this years Science Journals. This research has discovered that the mother of Bigfoot was homo sapien, but they do not know what species the male progenitor was. This can be heard at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uf1izGPvA4g

    I hope you enjoy hearing about this fascinating research.
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    Default Re: In Search of the Ancient Builders in Peru and Bolivia

    Quote Posted by Bill Ryan (here)
    -------

    Fabulous thread -- thank you! This is the best and most interesting illustrated chronicle of a journey through Peru and Bolivia that I've ever seen. It's a real service to the forum.

    I've not yet traveled to Peru and Bolivia, but certainly will. Klaus Dona is a good friend, and he may visit here again before not too long.


    http://youtube.com/watch?v=XmMwo1Xzgus

    My own personal interest is in Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco), which is probably 15,000 years old: I have a connection with the place I want to explore.

    How these huge stones were laid into place so perfectly is almost impossible to understand. Klaus theorizes that something was applied to the stone to liquify the surface (rather like moist cement) -- which then solidified once in place to create the impeccable joints. Meanwhile, the Incas had legends that the stones were "floated" across deep valleys to the sound of drumming and chanting.

    If you should find yourself in Ecuador -- let me know.
    Thanks Bill , thats very much appreciated .
    It's funny that the next post i'm putting together is on Tiwanaku and then Puma Punka which i'm still collecting data on , as for Klaus i met him at Glastonbury last year and my claim to fame is i got to introduce Micheal Cremo to Klaus and then i became a fly on the wall so to speak as they swapped info with each other......priceless.
    As for Ecuador , and South America i would go back tomorrow money allowing ,so you never know.


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    Default Re: In Search of the Ancient Builders in Peru and Bolivia

    Thank You for more sharing, Iceni Tribe
    I visited, at good length... and connected strongly at the sites, Pisaq and Moray.
    Wonderful to see Your pictures and sharing. Brought me there again.

    http://projectavalon.net/forum4/show...l=1#post620088

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    Default Re: In Search of the Ancient Builders in Peru and Bolivia

    Tiwanaku

    There’s a lot of controversy over Tiwanaku, its age and its function, and many experts have spent many years trying to interpret the ruins, so realistically all I can do with a one day visit is share my photographs with hopefully a couple of insights.

    This is what academia has to say about the site.
    Tiwanaku in Bolivia is an impressive archaeological site housing the capital of pre-Inca empire. Much about Tiwanaku remains a mystery and the subject of on-going academic debate.
    Over the course of the first century, Tiwanaku developed and, by 550 BC, it was a thriving capital of a vast empire with a presence throughout much of the Americas.

    At its peak, Tiwanaku had around 20,000 inhabitants. The city remained prosperous over the coming centuries and satellite towns were built, altogether with a population of up to 175,000 people.
    The people of Tiwanaku built a magnificent city spanning approximately 2.3 square kilometres with monuments, temples, homes and public buildings. Constructed using the adobe method, this feat was all the more impressive when one considers that Tiwanaku is located approximately 3.5 kilometres above sea level, requiring many of their materials to be transported over long distances.

    Tiwanaku was still flourishing in 900 AD, however by the time it was discovered by the Incas in the mid-fifteenth century, it was entirely abandoned, probably having declined in the twelfth century. Yet, the legacy of the Tiwanaku Empire remains today, albeit in ruins.

    That which remains is incredible and has resulted in much excited speculation over the years. For example, the many carved heads on the “Templete” or Small Semi-Subterranean Temple were probably meant to represent humans, but have been said to resemble aliens. This has led to some 'alternative' theories as to who – or what - built Tiwanaku.

    One of Tiwanaku’s most famous structures is its Akapana temples, which would once have been a pyramid, but has since been significantly eroded, both by looters and by nature. However, its 16 square metre base does allude to the former grandeur of this structure. Today; Tiwanaku is a popular tourist site and a UNESCO World Heritage site. Visitor can view its many monuments, gates – such as the well-known Gateway of the Sun - and statues, all of which attest to the importance of this once ceremonial city.

    One of the most puzzling aspects of the Tiwanaku pyramids is the lack of nearby quarries. Analysis of the red sandstone places one quarry 10 kilometres away, an incredible distance considering that one of the stones alone weighs over 130 tons. The source of the green andesite stones, the material from which the most elaborate carvings and monoliths are made, is on the Copacabana peninsula, across Lake Titicaca. One theory is that these giant andesite stones (the largest weighing 40 tons) were transported some 90 kilometres across Lake Titicaca on reed boats, and then laboriously dragged another 10 kilometers to the city.

    http://interactive.archaeology.org/t...xperiment.html

    Tiwanaku church was built between 1580 and 1612 using the abundant blocks from the nearby ancient ruins.



    This is the front entrance to the church, were quite clearly we can see a re cycled block with a key stone cut ,this one was most probably from Puma Punka ,also the block has magnetic qualities as you can see the magnets in the image.



    Quite clearly a bowl with the Virocoucha emblem has no place in the courtyard of a Catholic church.



    Around the town square another key stone block again green andersite so most probably from Puma Punka.



    Apparently this statue has turned up quite recently, the figure on the back looks similar to the one found at Göbekli Tepe.



    I suspect the sculptor of this statue is in the picture.



    Map of the main site


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    Default Re: In Search of the Ancient Builders in Peru and Bolivia

    The Akapana pyramid.




    Front of the Akapana



    Left hand side of the Akapana. We can see that nearly all of the original blocks forming the terracing have been removed leaving only the artificial mound and poorly reconstructed adobe plastered walls that have been so badly done that in 2009 the state-sponsored restoration work on the Akapana pyramid was halted due to a complaint from UNESCO.

    http://interactive.archaeology.org/tiwanaku/360_1.html

    here is a 360 view from the top of the Akapana

    As you can see there is a huge hole on top of the pyramid, which is now thought to be a sunken water temple or for just storing water with intricate water channels leading to the bottom of the pyramid.



    Water channel seen here in the centre and far left bottom terrace.





    As seen from above showing the near complete destruction of the pyramid.

    The Kalasasaya



    Photo taken from the top of the Akapana 2012 looks impressive but ………………..



    ‘Kalasasaya’ according to Arthur Posnansky who spent a lifetime studying the site, simply means ‘standing stones’. When he investigated Tiwanaku the stone pillars had more of the appearance of a 'Stonehenge', there was no wall there as there is today, most of the wall was assumed to have been carried off so in the 1960’s as part of a reconstruction project the spaces between the pillars were filled in to form a wall.


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    Default Re: In Search of the Ancient Builders in Peru and Bolivia



    1903 image



    2012 restored



    2012 front wall off the Kalasasaya



    LOST CALENDAR OF THE ANDES the calendar of Tiwanaku and of the Muisca by Jim Allen is a interesting article explaining how the calander works.

    http://www.atlantisbolivia.org/lostcalendarandes.htm






    View from the field showing the reconstructed wall, the position of the missing pillar can be easily seen, just behind where the person appears to be running.



    Here’s the missing block 200 metres to the west of the wall.

    1908 image


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    Default Re: In Search of the Ancient Builders in Peru and Bolivia

    Sub terrain temple

    Semi sub terrain Temple was discovered in 1903 by a French mission led by Crecqui Montfort
    It is a building of two meters of depth, slightly square, limited by four walls of contention and 45 visible sustaining pillars. In the inside the walls are adorned by 175 built in and worked on lime stone and tuff ball heads.
    At the foot of the temple, a system of channels that can provide a perfect drainage are to be found. In the inside the biggest anthropomorphous stele was found, known as Pachamama or Bennett Monolith, after the name of the discoverer. Inside the temple one can see the monolith Barbado or Kontiki.







    Every sculpted head is different.



    In 1932, Wendell Bennett found in the centre of the temple, a stele that bears his name, Barbado monolith. The temple was fully excavated and restored by the Center for Archaeological Investigations in the mid-60s.



    The story of the Bennett monolith is an interesting one, found in the early 30’s in the sunken temple it made its way to La Paz where it stood in the Bolivian capitol for 70 years only to be repatriated back to Tiwanaku in 2002 under great fanfare.

    https://segue.atlas.uiuc.edu/uploads...ttMonolith.pdf

    The pdf above gives a good insight into what has happened to Tiwanaku

    Theirs been cultural divide between the indigenous Indians and the ruling Spanish right from the start, the Spanish on one hand, have tried to ignore Tiwanaku while the indigenous political parties have used Tiwanaku as a political tool to generate nationalism. Since the revolution in Bolivia in 1952 where the indigenous Indians rose up against the Spanish upper class, Tiwanaku became a prominent feature and in the early 1960’s to reflect national pride and celebrate indigenous roots the site was “restored “for want of a better word.



    Subtarrian temple 1908



    Date unknown



    Other moniliths at Tiwanaku


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    Default Re: In Search of the Ancient Builders in Peru and Bolivia

    PUTUNI

    It is known as the Palace of the Sarcophagues and Putuputuni that means where there are ports. With a rectangular foundation on its inner walls funeral chambers or priest living quarters which have an access to the central patio are found.



    2012



    1908



    Here we can see a drainage channel that has recently been excavated, these channels run throughout the site and more are being discovered with ground penetrating radar.

    Sun gate



    Weighing in at 17 tons and carved out of a single block of andersite.



    So called experts try to convince people that this was carved with hammer stones and bronze chisels this idea is bordering on the insane.



    Image from 1877



    This is a curios slab, it’s seems too small to be of any function , I can only speculate that it may have been a working model for the builders to copy and obviously scale up.



    Image 1877

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    Default Re: In Search of the Ancient Builders in Peru and Bolivia





    Another image from 1877 with the same block and what appears to be a wall built between standing stones but whether this is the Kalasasaya standing stones I can’t be sure.



    A slab with a Neat hole and raised boss still waiting to be excavated ,guess they wouldn’t know what to do with it if they did dig it out.

    Personally I came away from Tiwanaku with a tinge of sadness , for me the integrity of the site has been somewhat diminished from the horrendous restoration work done in the 60’s but still never the less it’s still a impressive site and most of the tourists are fooled by the restoration.
    As for the age of the site which has long been a heated debate, IMHO the standing stones are far older than the carbon dating results indicate.
    How main stream archaeology can give the site a date from a piece of charcoal left in a fire or a sample of material from a mummy is extremely questionable and if you look through the carbon dating pdf below you can see that of the 130 c14 results most seem unreliable at best.

    Carbon dating results

    http://www.scielo.cl/pdf/chungara/v36n1/art03.pdf

    Tiwanku museum



    This was hidden from view behind a make shift screen



    Retired display of skulls which is rumoured to have been sold off to private collectors



    Skull dispay two years ago

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    Default Re: In Search of the Ancient Builders in Peru and Bolivia

    Puma Punku



    At its peak, Puma Punku is thought to have been "unimaginably wondrous”, adorned with polished metal plaques, brightly coloured ceramic and fabric ornamentation, trafficked by costumed citizens, elaborately dressed priests and elites decked in exotic jewellery. Current understanding of this complex is limited due to its age, the lack of a written record, the current deteriorated state of the structures due to treasure hunting, looting, stone mining for building stone and railroad ballast, and natural weathering.
    The area within the kilometre separating the Puma Punku and Kalasasaya complexes has been surveyed using ground-penetrating radar, magnetometry, induced electrical conductivity, and magnetic susceptibility. The geophysical data collected from these surveys and excavations have revealed in the area between the Puma Punku and Kalasasaya complexes the presence of numerous man-made structures. These structures include the wall foundations of buildings and compounds, water conduits, pool-like features, revetments, terraces, residential compounds, and widespread gravel pavements all of which now lie buried and hidden beneath the modern ground’s surface.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pumapunku





    Tour operator’s drive straight past puma Punku, most guide books ignore the site and most documentaries don’t give it a mention either, the latest on BBC Four, The Lost Kingdoms of South America with Jago Cooper is an example of Puma Punka not getting a mention even though he devoted an hour to Tiwanaku and the surrounding area.
    However there are many researchers and web sites that hold Puma Punka with great reverence claiming evidence of advanced technology, ancient aliens and the like and personally it was one of the sites that has intrigued me for a good many years.



    South east corner with only one tier of block work remaining.



    South water channel



    West face



    Excavated water channel on the north face and as you can see whatever they were connected to has long disappeared. They may have been used as an overflow for a sunken water temple or a flow and return for a water fountain or shrine.
    As the Akapana is now viewed as a water temple or storage tank could Puma Punka have been a sort of substation for the huge irrigation system built for maintaining the water levels on their raised bed growing system.

    RAISED-BED IRRIGATION AT TIWANAKU, BOLIVIA

    A 32-year drought from 563-594 AD caused widespread devastation but There is evidence, however, that a lesson was learned. The rulers took the catastrophe as a warning. They revolutionized their agriculture, instituting a totally new system which, some believe, allowed the empire to prosper for an additional 400 years. In any event, Tiwanaku agricultural surpluses after the drought can be attributed to raised-bed irrigation. Water surrounded raised agricultural mounds Warmed during the day, the water kept the crops from freezing during the cold Andean nights and even extended the growing season. Raised-bed agriculture grew to encompass an immense area, at least 19,000 hectares (47,120 acres). Studies show that land cultivated in this manner could yield 20 metric tons of potatoes per hectare. Construction of the raised-bed irrigation system no doubt required major earth moving operations.

    http://www.waterhistory.org/historie...u/tiwanaku.pdf

    A c14 date has been taken from the lowest part of the infill, which has been calibrated to AD 536–600 which uncannily matches the drought dates given.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pumapunku



    Notable features at Pumapunku are I-shaped architectural cramps, which are composed of a unique copper-arsenic-nickel bronze alloy. These I-shaped cramps were also used on a section of canal found at the base of the Akapana pyramid at Tiwanaku. These cramps were used to hold the blocks comprising the walls and bottom of stone-lined canals that drain sunken courts. I-cramps of unknown composition were used to hold together the massive slabs that formed Pumapunku's four large platforms. In the south canal of the Pumapunku, the I-shaped cramps were cast in place. In sharp contrast, the cramps used at the Akapana canal were fashioned by the cold hammering of copper-arsenic-nickel bronze ingots.[8][10] The unique copper-arsenic-nickel bronze alloy is also found in metal artifacts within the region between Tiwanaku and San Pedro de Atacama during the late Middle Horizon around 600–900.

    Keystone cuts are also found at Angkor Watt, Karnak, Denderra and Ollantaytambo.



    Good footage of the water channel.

    http://interactive.archaeology.org/t...umapunku1.html

    2002 excavation report.

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    Default Re: In Search of the Ancient Builders in Peru and Bolivia



    Partially excavated top



    The Plataforma Lítica, or stone platform on the east side has the largest blocks, the heaviest being 131 tons made from red sandstone and quarried 10 km away.





    Petrographic analysis located the quarry for the abundant red sandstone 10 km away—an incredible distance considering that one of the stones alone weighs over 130 tons. The source of the green andesite stones—the material from which the most elaborate carvings and monoliths were made—is on the Copacabana peninsula, 90 km across Lake Titicaca.
    Below is a link to a 2002 experiment to extract a nine ton block, load it onto a 15 metre reed boat and sail it the 90km across the lake.

    http://penn.museum/documents/publica...ed%20Boats.pdf



    Here we can see a portion of a gate that is a match to the “gate of the sun “standing in the kalasasaya which has led some to the belief that they were part of the same structure, but which one has been moved to where I have no idea.



    There has been 10 H blocks uncovered so far made from green andersite and weighing 1.5 tons each and all nearly identical to each other.



    The craftsmanship and detail is extraordinary.





    Back of the H blocks.

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    Default Re: In Search of the Ancient Builders in Peru and Bolivia

    Although 99% of Puma Punku has vanished the fragments that are left tantalize the imagination as to how the site once would have looked.









    The right hand side block at the rear looks unfinished.



    Close up of the same block suggesting that hammer stones were used to form the recess.



    This block seems to get the most attention, as there is a perfect groove with identically spaced holes drilled along the cut.



    To achieve this, the holes may have been drilled out, abrasive sand added into the holes and then a bronze alloy saw used to make the groove.no such saw has been found yet so I’m just speculating.



    Another block with a drilled groove, this block looks like it could have been used as a mould.



    More drill holes in what was once a lintel, with extraordinary detail that is just still visible.

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    Default Re: In Search of the Ancient Builders in Peru and Bolivia





    There’s still plenty of blocks still left to be excavated.



    Nearly every block is uniform with acute angles and iconography, except this one which has what appears “fish scales” not unlike the Bennett monolith and fluting down one side.





    Two of the oldest photos of puma Punku I can find.



    H block diagram.

    Puma Punku seems to stand alone from all the sites I visited, although there is virtually nothing left what remains is an example of incredible masonry skills and even more bewildering is any trace of the tools that were used.
    What we have to bear in mind is that this masonry would have been executed under the direction of an architect, who would have designed the building before the first stone was cut and because of the complexity of the H blocks, this makes this site standalone from anything I have seen on my trip to South America.

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    Default Re: In Search of the Ancient Builders in Peru and Bolivia

    Thanks Iceni tribe more excellent photos and insights of your journey...

    I watched a BBC 4 documentry a couple days ago about the cloud people of Northern Peru and thought of your thread cheers Steve.....


    Lost Kingdoms of South America - 1. People of the Clouds

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode...of_the_Clouds/


    Jago Cooper journeys into the Peruvian Andes in search of the Chachapoya people, whose funeral traditions challenge assumptions about ancient human behaviour

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Lost Kingdoms of South America - 2. The Stone at the Centre
    Dr Jago Cooper visits the ruins of Tiwanaku in the Bolivian Andes and finds evidence of an ancient people with amazing understanding of their environment.

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    Lost Kingdoms of South America - 3. Lands of Gold
    Through the mountains and jungles of Colombia, Dr Jago Cooper goes in search of the truth behind one of the greatest stories ever told - the legend of El Dorado.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Lost Kingdoms of South America - 4. Kingdom of the Desert
    In the deserts of coastal Peru, Jago Cooper explores the rise and fall of Chimor, the first empire of South America, whose subjects transformed the landscape.
    Last edited by Cidersomerset; 7th February 2013 at 17:18.

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    Default Re: In Search of the Ancient Builders in Peru and Bolivia

    What an amazing introduction to the forum... the video material makes for a perfect follow up
    a big thank you to all concerned.

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    Default Re: In Search of the Ancient Builders in Peru and Bolivia

    Thank you for this extremely fascinating thread, iceni tribe!

    I am glad that you have included Brien Foerster, which I consider to be one of the most important researchers of the pre-Inca and Inca civilizations.

    "After studying the megalithic structures of Peru and Bolivia for years, Brien Foerster is going beyond the official version of history, bringing evidence that many of the monuments attributed to the Inca civilization, in fact, predate them. According to Brien, the Incas only replicated the original megalithic constructions (which are more technologically advanced) and the differences are visible even to the untrained eye.

    Brien and his team of experts suggest that the pre-Inca civilization possessed advanced technology which enabled them to build astonishing megalithic sites, some of them composed of stones as heavy as 120 tons (e.g. Sachsayhuaman, Cusco).

    The ancient builders used a variety of rocks for their megalithic sites, including diorite and granite, which are some of the hardest rocks on Earth.

    The stones have been transported from the quarries for miles over rough terrain, precisely polished, and fitted together so perfectly that not even a human hair can be fitted between most of the stones (e.g. the walls of Coricancha site in Cusco, Peru).

    Brien Foerster's work includes the study of the elongated skulls of South America, and the results are astonishing - to say the least. He authored 8 books and appeared 4 times in History Channel's program Ancient Aliens (season 3), and he is currently the assistant director of the Paracas History Museum in Paracas (south of Lima).
    "

    I'm subscribing to this thread. Please, keep the pictures coming.

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    Default Re: In Search of the Ancient Builders in Peru and Bolivia

    hi AlexanderLight

    i like Brien and i think he is one of the best guides in Peru and if you need a guide he is your man but i don't necessarily agree with all his assumptions/theories.....well not yet .
    Brien's theory is that all the megalithic building's in South America are possibly thousands of years old and were built by the "coneheads" he could be right but i follow my own path and have not come to a conclusion.
    the dating and DNA analysis on 10 elongated skulls was promised just after christmas but their seems to be some hold up on this .here is the latest e mail from Brien sent on the 1st March.

    Just a little note to show you that things are progressing. Samples from about 10 elongated skulls were sent in November, and the from 5 in January. The geneticists, in order to save time, money and maximize efficiency are processing all the samples at the same time.

    From our team in the US:

    "I am working on analyzing the data for the first samples tested over the next week or so. The teeth will all be done together simultaneously and are sand blasted and ground but now must be shattered further with liquid N2. After that, there are several days of robotic calcium removal steps and then the final cleansing of the DNA. That is a simplified version of what is going on."

    So we have to wait to see what dates come back for these skulls.

    As for dating the ancient monuments ,Robert Temple and colleague Professor Ioannis Liritzis, of the University of the Aegean at Rhodes, a former nuclear physicist who turned his expertise to the needs of archaeology, has devised the Liritzis Dating Technique, the technical name of which is optical thermoluminescence. By his technique he can date the time of construction of a stone building by taking a small sample at the join of two blocks of stone. His technique yields a date for when that stone was last exposed to sunlight, or in other words, when the stones were placed together to build the structure.

    more here

    http://www.freemasonrytoday.com/feat...-ancient-egypt

    this new process of dating has been floated about for a couple of years and i believe it's now been excepted as a legitimate dating system ,lets hope that this system makes it down to South America and we can finally put some dates onto these monuments and end the speculation one way or another.

    As for the continuation of this thread , Puma Punka was the last site i was able to see with my own eyes and photograph, from now on im working from images and archaeological reports obtained from the internet which im still trying to put into some sort of order.

    a came across this image from Tiwanaku



    in this image we can see the base of a round column and what looks like iconography on what appears to be on a standing stone , i didn't see this while i was there but i do know of a older site that has both of these features which i will post when im happy with it.

    cheers for now

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    Default Re: In Search of the Ancient Builders in Peru and Bolivia

    Caral: The Earliest known Civilization in the New World





    Early in 2001, a site located on the Pacific coast of Peru which had been known for over a hundred years made headlines all over the world. The site of Caral and the cluster of eighteen similarly dated sites located in the Supe Valley included in what is now called the Caral-Supe Civilization are important because together they represent the earliest known urban settlement in the Americas nearly 4600 years before the present



    The City of the Pyramids

    Caral was discovered in 1996 by Peruvian archaeologist Ruth Shady. Shady knew of the existence of some sandy hills near the Supe River bank and with a grant from the National Geographic and the help of two archaeologists and three students of archaeology from the University of San Marcos in Lima, began the first excavations in 1994.
    Subsequent work with government support, including the use of heavy machinery of the Peruvian Army to clear the rubble from the surface of the first hill, led to the discovery of an astonishing stone building nearly the size of four football fields and about 5 stories high. This finding gave credibility to the research and gathered new resources which allowed continuing the work. In total six gigantic pyramids were discovered. Additional 26 architectural structures of various sizes and functions have also been described including several medium and small buildings, temples, residential areas, public plazas, an amphitheater, stores, shrines and streets. It has also been established the existence of places near the city, on the south bank of the river, equipped with canals and irrigation systems presumed having been used for agriculture.


    Read more: http://digitaljournal.com/article/314935#ixzz2HyfwXi3J

    Read more: http://digitaljournal.com/article/314935#ixzz2HyflmwtD



    Further investigations

    In 1997 Ruth Shady published her work "The Sacred City of Caral-Supe at the dawn of civilization in Peru" (in Spanish) where she describes and supports the pre-ceramic origin of ancient Caral. The interest derived from her work allowed her to get in touch with researchers at the University of Chicago who worked with her to establish the age of organic objects found in the ruins using the radiocarbon dating technique. Through radiocarbon analysis it was confirmed that the city would have developed starting from around 2700 BC. Some other structures at sites near Caral gave a date of about 3000 years BC.

    Read more: http://digitaljournal.com/article/314935#ixzz2HygFIboh





    Quipu at Caral

    The recovery of quipu from the civilization of Caral, if the context and dates are correct, suggests several things. First, this is additional evidence that Caral was a precursor to the Inca civilization (since the Incas also used quipu). Secondly, quipu as a tradition dates at least 2000 years older than we recognized prior to this point. Thirdly, and most importantly, if quipu were indeed a form of written communication, they are among the earliest forms of writing in the world, only slightly younger than cuneiform, which has been identified at the Mesopotamian site of Uruk approximately 3000 years BC.

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