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Thread: Nemesis, Tyche, Nibiru, Planet X, Brown Dwarf & Binary System: Myths & Realities

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    France Administrator Hervé's Avatar
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    Default Re: Nemesis, Tyche, Nibiru, Planet X, Brown Dwarf & Binary System: Myths & Realities

    With respect to that previous post, this does indeed seem like a very valid candidate for our Sun's binary twin:

    Scholz's star disturbed prehistory's solar system's comets

    Phys Org
    Wed, 21 Mar 2018 18:43 UTC


    At a time when modern humans were beginning to leave Africa and the Neanderthals were living on our planet, Scholz's star approached less than a light-year. © José A. Peñas/SINC

    About 70,000 years ago, during human occupation of the planet, a small, reddish star approached our solar system and gravitationally disturbed comets and asteroids. Astronomers from the Complutense University of Madrid and the University of Cambridge have verified that the movement of some of these objects is still marked by that stellar encounter.

    At a time when modern humans were beginning to leave Africa and the Neanderthals still thrived, Scholz's star-named after the German astronomer who discovered it-approached less than a light-year from the sun. Today, it is almost 20 light-years away, but 70,000 years ago, it entered the Oort cloud, a reservoir of trans-Neptunian objects located at the confines of the solar system.

    This discovery was made public in 2015 by a team of astronomers led by Professor Eric Mamajek of the University of Rochester (USA). The details of that stellar flyby, the closest documented so far, were presented in The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

    Now, two astronomers from the Complutense University of Madrid, the brothers Carlos and Raúl de la Fuente Marcos, together with the researcher Sverre J. Aarseth of the University of Cambridge (United Kingdom), have analyzed for the first time nearly 340 solar system objects with hyperbolic orbits (very open V-shaped, rather than elliptical) They have concluded that the trajectories of some of these were influenced by the passage of Scholz's star.

    "Using numerical simulations, we have calculated the radiants or positions in the sky from which all these hyperbolic objects seem to come," explains Carlos de la Fuente Marcos, a co-author of the study now published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
    "In principle," he adds, "one would expect those positions to be evenly distributed in the sky, particularly if these objects come from the Oort cloud. However, what we find is very different-a statistically significant accumulation of radiants. The pronounced over-density appears projected in the direction of the constellation of Gemini, which fits the close encounter with Scholz's star."
    The period in which this star passed through the Oort Cloud and its position during prehistory coincide with the data of the new investigation and in those of Mamajek and his team. "It could be a coincidence, but it is unlikely that both location and time are compatible," says De la Fuente Marcos, who points out that their simulations suggest that Scholz's star approached even more than the 0.6 light-years pointed out in the 2015 study as the lower limit.

    The close fly-by of this star 70,000 years ago did not disturb all the hyperbolic objects of the solar system, only those that were closest to it at that time.
    "For example, the radiant of the famous interstellar asteroid 'Oumuamua is in the constellation of Lyra (the Harp), very far from Gemini, therefore it is not part of the detected over-density," says De la Fuente Marcos.
    He is confident that new studies and observations will confirm the idea that a star passed close to us in a relatively recent period.

    Scholz's star is actually a binary system formed by a small red dwarf with about 9 percent of the mass of the sun, around which a much less bright and smaller brown dwarf orbits. It is likely that human ancestors saw its faint reddish light during prehistorical nights.

    More information: Carlos de la Fuente Marcos et al. Where the Solar system meets the solar neighbourhood: patterns in the distribution of radiants of observed hyperbolic minor bodies, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters (2018). DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/sly019


    Also posted (here) (<---)
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    Default Re: Nemesis, Tyche, Nibiru, Planet X, Brown Dwarf & Binary System: Myths & Realities

    Love it when old threads like this get bumped, had no idea it was here. Bookmarked for later reading.

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    France Administrator Hervé's Avatar
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    Default Re: Nemesis, Tyche, Nibiru, Planet X, Brown Dwarf & Binary System: Myths & Realities

    ...


    Wait for it...


    TA-DAAAH!


    Here it is:


    Mysterious gigantic rogue planet seen moving outside our solar system

    RT
    Fri, 03 Aug 2018 14:54 UTC


    Artist's impression of the enormous object known as SIMP J01365663+0933473 © Chuck Carter, NRAO/AUI/NSF

    A mysterious large object is floating around outside our solar system and researchers aren't sure exactly what it is - although it could be a rogue planet.

    In the first radio-telescope detection of a planetary-mass object beyond our solar system, astronomers have found the strange celestial body has 12.7 times the mass of Jupiter. It doesn't appear to orbit a parent star, however, and is only 20 light-years away from Earth.
    "This object is right at the boundary between a planet and a brown dwarf, or 'failed star,' and is giving us some surprises that can potentially help us understand magnetic processes on both stars and planets," study lead astronomer Melodie Kao said.
    A brown dwarf is an object too large to be a planet, but isn't big enough to sustain the nuclear fusion of hydrogen in its core that is vital to stars.

    The object, which has been named SIMP J01365663+0933473, was first detected in 2016, but was thought to be a brown dwarf. The latest data reveals it's younger than first thought at a relatively youthful 200 million years old, and its mass is smaller, so it could be classified as a planet. Its temperature is also far cooler than the sun, at 825 degrees Celsius. It also has a strong magnetic field, 200 times the strength of Jupiter.

    The researchers were able to pick up on the object's magnetic activity using a powerful radio astronomy observatory called the Very Large Array, a National Science Foundation facility in New Mexico.

    The methods used suggest the researchers may have "a new way of detecting exoplanets, including the elusive rogue ones not orbiting a parent star," researcher Gregg Hallinan said.
    "La réalité est un rêve que l'on fait atterrir" San Antonio AKA F. Dard

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    UK Avalon Founder Bill Ryan's Avatar
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    Default Re: Nemesis, Tyche, Nibiru, Planet X, Brown Dwarf & Binary System: Myths & Realities

    Quote Posted by Hervé (here)
    ...and is only 20 light-years away from Earth.
    Yes... but that's 4.5 times more distant than Alpha Centauri. It's a very interesting neighbor, but it's nothing to do with our own solar system. (Which is kind of a shame! )

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    France Administrator Hervé's Avatar
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    Default Re: Nemesis, Tyche, Nibiru, Planet X, Brown Dwarf & Binary System: Myths & Realities

    Quote Posted by Bill Ryan (here)
    Quote Posted by Hervé (here)
    ...and is only 20 light-years away from Earth.
    Yes... but that's 4.5 times more distant than Alpha Centauri. It's a very interesting neighbor, but it's nothing to do with our own solar system. (Which is kind of a shame! )
    Right... back to cosmic watch...

    Nonetheless, what can be retained from the discovery:
    • Such bizarre planetoid/Brown Dwarf objects do exist in our vicinity
    • The detection of such object can be done via their magnetic signature/disturbance
    Considering the apparent influence of the Sirius system (8.6 light years away) on Earth's speed of rotation, there may be something about that "Electric Universe."
    Last edited by Hervé; 4th August 2018 at 15:19.
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  11. Link to Post #46
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    Default Re: Nemesis, Tyche, Nibiru, Planet X, Brown Dwarf & Binary System: Myths & Realities

    "The Goblin": New, distant dwarf planet bolsters evidence for "Planet X"

    Mike Wall, Space.com
    Wed, 03 Oct 2018 08:24 UTC


    The orbits of the newfound extreme dwarf planet 2015 TG387 and its fellow Inner Oort Cloud objects 2012 VP113 and Sedna, as compared with the rest of the solar system. © Roberto Molar Candanosa and Scott Sheppard, courtesy of Carnegie Institution for Science

    Scientists have discovered yet another marker on the trail toward the putative Planet Nine.

    That clue is 2015 TG387, a newfound object in the far outer solar system, way beyond Pluto. The orbit of 2015 TG387 shares peculiarities with those of other extremely far-flung bodies, which appear to have been shaped by the gravity of a very large object in that distant, frigid realm - the hypothesized Planet Nine, also known as Planet X.

    "These distant objects are like breadcrumbs leading us to Planet X," study leader Scott Sheppard, of the Carnegie Institution for Science in Washington, D.C., said in a statement.

    "The more of them we can find, the better we can understand the outer solar system and the possible planet that we think is shaping their orbits - a discovery that would redefine our knowledge of the solar system's evolution," he added.

    And 2015 TG387 is special among these bread crumbs, because it was found during a relatively uniform survey of the northern and southern skies rather than a targeted hunt for clustered objects in certain parts of the sky, Sheppard said. Targeted hunts can produce biased results - for example, the appearance of clustering where none may actually exist, he explained.


    The discovery images of 2015 TG387 taken at the Subaru 8-meter telescope located atop Mauna Kea in Hawaii on October 13, 2015. The images were taken about 3 hours apart. 2015 TG387 can be seen moving between images near the center while the much more distant stars and galaxies are stationary. © Scott Sheppard

    2015 TG387 has two dwarf-planet companions in the low-bias class, Sheppard said: 2012 VP113, which he and his colleague Chadwick Trujillo (who's a co-author of the new paper as well) spotted in 2014 as part of the same, ongoing long-term survey; and the relatively bright Sedna (because the whole sky has been searched to its level of brightness).

    "And then if you bring in some of the other extreme objects - several of them were found in our survey as well," Sheppard told Space.com. "The statistics get better and better that this planet is likely out there."

    Sheppard and his colleagues first spotted 2015 TG387 in October 2015, using Japan's 26-foot (8 meters) Subaru telescope atop the volcanic peak Mauna Kea in Hawaii. The researchers nicknamed the object "The Goblin," because of the discovery date and the "TG" in the provisional designation.

    It took the team three additional years to nail down The Goblin's orbit, which they did with the aid of observations by the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile and the Discovery Channel Telescope in Arizona.

    2015 TG387 loops around the sun on an extremely elliptical path, coming within about 65 astronomical units (AU) of the sun at its closest point (known as perihelion) and getting about 2,300 AU away at its most distant (aphelion).

    One AU is the average Earth-sun distance - about 93 million miles (150 million kilometers). So 2015 TG387 is way, way out there. Indeed, it takes about 40,000 Earth years for the newfound object to complete one lap around the sun.


    An artist’s illustration of the hypothesized but undiscovered Planet X, which could be shaping the orbits of smaller extremely distant outer solar system objects like 2015 TG387. © Roberto Molar Candanosa and Scott Sheppard, courtesy of Carnegie Institution for Science

    Only two known solar system bodies have more-distant perihelia than The Goblin does (2012 VP113 and Sedna), and only one (2014 FE72) has a greater aphelion distance. (For perspective: Pluto never gets closer to the sun than 29.7 AU, or farther away than 49.3 AU.)

    Sheppard and his colleagues think 2015 TG387 is about 186 miles (300 km) wide and probably spherical, in which case it would qualify as a dwarf planet. But that's all they can really say about The Goblin's physical characteristics.

    "It's pretty faint, so we can really just see that it's there," Sheppard told Space.com. "We don't even know the color of the object; we haven't gotten any spectroscopy on the object yet, or anything like that."

    (The 186-mile diameter is not a measurement but rather an estimate, assuming a "moderate" reflectiveness for 2015 TG387.)

    But going back to the orbit: The Goblin's is similar in key ways to those of some other extremely distant bodies - particularly in an element called "longitude of perihelion." Basically, the elongated parts of their elliptical orbits are clustered in the same part of the sky, which is consistent with gravitational shepherding by Planet X.

    The existence of Planet X was first seriously proposed in 2014 by Sheppard and Trujillo, to potentially explain oddities in the orbits of 2012 VP113, Sedna and a few other trans-Neptunian objects.

    In 2016, astronomers Konstantin Batygin and Mike Brown presented more evidence for such an unseen "perturber," which they called Planet Nine. Batygin and Brown have suggested that this world may be about 10 times more massive than Earth and orbit about 600 AU from the sun on average.

    In the new study, the researchers also performed computer simulations to test how Planet X's gravitational tug might influence the orbit of The Goblin. They found significant shepherding akin to that inferred for other distant objects - and determined that 2015 TG387's orbit remains stable for the age of the solar system nonetheless.

    "What makes this result really interesting is that Planet X seems to affect 2015 TG387 the same way as all the other extremely distant solar system objects," Trujillo, who's based at Northern Arizona University, said in the same statement. "These simulations do not prove that there's another massive planet in our solar system, but they are further evidence that something big could be out there."

    Sheppard puts the odds of Planet X's existence at around 85 percent. And he says it's not at all surprising that astronomers haven't spotted it yet.

    "Where we think the planet is - hundreds of AU away, if not 1,000 AU - something even as big as Neptune would be fainter than most telescopes could see," Sheppard told Space.com. (In case this sounds odd or incongruous: The Goblin was discovered near perihelion, at about 80 AU from the sun.)

    "And most of our surveys to date do not go that faint, do not go that deep. We've covered very little of the sky to the depth that's needed to be covered to find something this faint," he added. "You can hide a very big thing in the outer solar system very easily."
    The paper describing the discovery of 2015 TG387 has been submitted to The Astronomical Journal.

    Follow Mike Wall on Twitter
    @michaeldwall and Google+. Follow us @Spacedotcom, Facebook or Google+. Originally published on Space.com.
    "La réalité est un rêve que l'on fait atterrir" San Antonio AKA F. Dard

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