Differential effects of resveratrol and its naturally occurring methylether analogs on cell cycle and apoptosis in human androgen-responsive LNCaP cancer cells.
Stilbenes are phytoalexins that become activated when plants are stressed. These compounds exist in foods and are widely consumed. Resveratrol is a grape-derived stilbene, which possesses a wide range of health-promoting activities, including anticancer properties. Several other stilbenes structurally similar to resveratrol are also available in food, but their biological activities remain largely unknown. In this study, we compared the effects of resveratrol and its natural derivatives pterostilbene, trans-resveratrol trimethylether, trans-pinostilbene and trans-desoxyrhapontigenin on androgen-responsive human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. We found that these compounds exert differential effects on LNCaP cell growth, cell cycle and apoptosis. Trans-resveratrol trimethylether appeared to be the most potent compound among the stilbenes tested. Treatment of LNCaP cells with trans-resveratrol trimethylether resulted in G2/M blockage while other compounds, including resveratrol, induced G1/S arrest. Moreover, different from other compounds, trans-resveratrol trimethylether induced apoptosis. At the molecular level, the effects of these compounds on cell cycle correlated with induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A and B mRNA levels. Additionally, these compounds also inhibited both androgen- as well as estrogen-mediated pathways. These results provide mechanistic information on how resveratrol and its methylether analogs may act to contribute to potential antiprostate cancer activity