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    Unhappy Within the Next Million Years Red Giant Betelgeuse Will Apparently Generate a Type-II Supernova

    READY FOR A BIG BANG OF A DIFFERENT COLOR?

    An Avalon poster made a nice thread today about the Grand Canyon:
    http://projectavalon.net/forum4/show...-Grand-Canyon-

    It will have to be verified.

    The threads mentions a probability that some formerly-touted "natural monuments" in the Grand Canyon were actually constructed by humans (or another sentient species?) -- and furthermore, they center on the constellation Orion.



    I went and was reading some of this stuff, and I saw in the star chart linked to one of the Grand Canyon video sites that the star Betelgeuse correlates to a location referred to as the "Tower of Set". (In the YouTube video.)

    In one of the conspiracy research threads, some of us have been talking about the Egyptian demigod Set and this entity's relation to the formation of the American culture and country.

    Also see "The Wisdom of the Egyptians" by Brian Brown.

    On a somewhat unrelated note, but maybe not, while reading about the Red Giant Betelgeuse, Wikipedia stated that:
    Betelgeuse

    "...Currently in a late stage of stellar evolution, the supergiant is expected to proceed through its life cycle before exploding as a type II supernova within the next million years.

    An observation by the Herschel Space Observatory in January 2013 revealed that the star's winds are crashing against the surrounding interstellar medium.
    Also:
    "... If human eyes were sensitive to radiation at all wavelengths, Betelgeuse would appear as the brightest star in the sky..."
    This led me to google "what happens to earth when Betelgeuse goes supernova", which yielded:

    http://www.space.com/22009-betelgeuse.html

    Quote Reference:
    Betelgeuse: The Eventual Supernova
    Elizabeth Howell, SPACE.com Contributor | July 18, 2013 04:14am ET



    Betelgeuse is a star nearing the end of its life. Because it is creating heavier and heavier elements in its core that could be used for stars after it dies, a NASA story once dubbed the red giant a workaholic.

    The star is a famous one among amateur astronomers not only for its size and brightness, but also because it is part of Orion, a bright winter constellation in the Northern Hemisphere.

    Professional astronomers also keep a close eye on the star, as it is notoriously variable: its diameter changes from anywhere between 550 to 920 times the sun's diameter. In 2013, astronomers said Betelgeuse is likely to crash into a "cosmic wall" of interstellar dust in a few thousand years.
    And please look closely at:

    Quote The coming supernova

    When astronomers say Betelgeuse is expected to explode soon, they mean shortly in astronomical terms: within a million years, according to several sources. Predicting exactly when it will turn into a supernova is difficult, however, as it depends on precise calculations of its mass as well as an understanding of what is going on inside the star.

    Betelgeuse is so vast — its size would extend beyond Jupiter's orbit if it were placed in the sun's position in the solar system — that several telescopes have captured images of the star and spotted it shedding mass. Starting in 1993 and continuing for at least 15 years, its radius shrank by 15 percent, an astonishing amount for so short a time.

    "We do not know why the star is shrinking," said Edward Wishnow, a research physicist at UC Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory, in 2009.


    "Considering all that we know about galaxies and the distant universe, there are still lots of things we don't know about stars, including what happens as red giants near the ends of their lives."
    Within 5,000 years:

    Quote Nearing the wall

    As the star prepares for what could be a large explosion, another challenge awaits: it is expected to crash into a wall of interstellar dust in the next few thousand years.

    An infrared Herschel Space Observatory image released in 2013 suggested it would crash into the dust at a speed of 66,960 miles per hour (107,761 kilometers per hour.)

    The crash would take a while to complete: the solar wind is expected to touch the line around 5,000 years from now, with the heart of the star crashing into the bar 12,500 years after that.
    These are looking more and more like "human terms of reckoning" than "stellar terms of reckoning".

    Where are the poles on such a strange object facing, when NASA doesn't even know how far it is, or how big it is, and the brightness varies?

    Quote Arthur Yagudayev · Top Commenter · Volunteering at WATD 95.9 FM

    Yes, the star will go supernova anytime between now and a perhaps a million years from now, but luckily the poles are not pointing at Earth, which means we will escape the Gamma ray burst, so we won't get fried, but we will enjoy briefly seeing another bright object, perhaps as bright as the full moon in the night sky for a few weeks, other than that we should be safe. The worse-case scenario is that satellites in space may get knocked out by the cosmic rays from the supernova, but the magnetosphere should protect us and we will likely get spectacular a Aurora Borealis display, also some cities may lose power, but that is only a worse-case scenario.
    Reply · · October 23, 2013 at 6:47am
    Like a Second Sun:

    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencete...night-day.html

    Quote Earth 'to get second sun' as supernova turns night into day
    By DAVID GARDNER
    UPDATED: 15:12 EST, 10 March 2011

    The Earth could soon have a second sun, at least for a week or two.

    The cosmic phenomenon will happen when one of the brightest stars in the night sky explodes into a supernova.

    And, according to a report yesterday, the most stunning light show in the planet’s history could happen as soon as this year.



    Earth will undoubtedly have a front row seat when the dying red supergiant star Betelgeuse finally blows itself into oblivion.

    The explosion will be so bright that even though the star in the Orion constellation is 640 light-years away, it will still turn night into day and appear like there are two suns in the sky for a few weeks.

    The only real debate is over exactly when it will happen.

    In stellar terms, Betelgeuse is predicted to crash and burn in the very near future. But that doesn’t necessarily mean you have to rush out and buy sunglasses.

    Brad Carter, Senior Lecturer of Physics at the University of Southern Queensland in Australia, claimed yesterday that the galactic blast could happen before 2012 – or any time over the next million years.

    ‘This old star is running out of fuel in its centre,’ Dr Carter told te Austalian website news.com.au.

    ‘This fuel keeps Betelgeuse shining and supported. When this fuel runs out the star will literally collapse in upon itself and it will do so very quickly.


    This is the final hurrah for the star. It goes bang, it explodes, it lights up - we’ll have incredible brightness for a brief period of time for a couple of weeks and then over the coming months it begins to fade and then eventually it will be very hard to see at all,’ he added.



    The Internet is abuzz with doomsday theories linking the supernova to the Mayan calendar’s prediction of an Armageddon in 2012, fueled by the association of the word ‘Betelgeuse’ with the devil.

    But experts claimed that even if the big bang is looming, it will still happen way too far from Earth to do us any harm.

    ‘When a star goes bang, the first we will observe of it is a rain of tiny particles called nuetrinos,’ said Dr Carter.

    ‘They will flood through the Earth and bizarrely enough, even though the supernova we see visually will light up the night sky, 99% of the energy in the supernova is released in these particles that will come through our bodies and through the Earth with absolutely no harm whatsoever.’

    When it happens, the Betelgeuse supernova will almost certainly be the most dramatic ever seen.

    It is the ninth brightest star in the night sky and the second brightest in the constellation of Orion, outshining its neighbour Rigel – or Beta Orionis – only very rarely.
    It’s distinct orange-red colour makes it easy to spot in the night sky.

    If it was at the centre of our solar system, its surface would extend past the asteroid belt, wholly engulfing Mercury, Venus, Mars and the Earth.


    Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencete...#ixzz2ur6QAl5s
    Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook
    Please see:

    http://earthsky.org/brightest-stars/...xplode-someday

    Quote By Larry Sessions in
    TONIGHT | BRIGHTEST STARS on Jan 26, 2014
    Betelgeuse will explode someday



    What will happen when Betelgeuse goes supernova? Fortunately for us, it appears that there will be few, if any, adverse affects to Earth when Betelgeuse goes supernova.

    If Betelgeuse were side by side with our sun, you’d find it 10,000 times brighter than the sun in visible light. It might be surprising then to learn that the surface temperature of Betelgeuse is only about 6,000 degrees F (3,600K) in contrast to the sun’s 10,000 degrees F.

    In terms of mass, Betelgeuse is thought to be about 15 times the mass of the sun, but 600 times wider and more than 200 million times its volume! When you consider its size, as well as the infrared and other radiations it pumps out, Betelgeuse probably outshines our sun by at least 50,000 times.
    Can you imagine what it will be like to see that happen, to know that the star is gone?



    Quote Betelgeuse is enshrouded by vast clouds of gas and dust, so measuring its size is difficult. To cut through this cocoon, Charles Townes of the University of California, Berkeley, and colleagues used a set of telescopes that are sensitive to a particular wavelength of the star's infrared light.

    But the star's reach seems to be waning. New observations indicate the giant star has shrunk by more than 15 per cent since 1993. This could be a sign of a long-term oscillation in its size or the star's first death knells...

    The team used these instruments to measure the size of Betelgeuse's disc on the sky. Over a span of 15 years, the star's diameter seems to have declined from 11.2 to 9.6 AU (1 AU, or astronomical unit, is the distance from the Earth to the sun)... The cause for this reduction is unknown, as it is unclear how red supergiants behave near the end of their lives.
    The truth is, scientists don't KNOW what will happen.



    Quote http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IceCube...no_Observatory

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory (or simply IceCube) is a neutrino telescope constructed at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica.[1] Its thousands of sensors are distributed over a cubic kilometre of volume under the Antarctic ice. Similar to its predecessor, the Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA), IceCube consists of spherical optical sensors called Digital Optical Modules (DOMs), each with a photomultiplier tube (PMT)[2] and a single board data acquisition computer which sends digital data to the counting house on the surface above the array.[3] IceCube was completed on 18 December 2010, New Zealand time.[4]

    DOMs are deployed on "strings" of sixty modules each at depths ranging from 1,450 to 2,450 meters, into holes melted in the ice using a hot water drill. IceCube is designed to look for point sources of neutrinos in the TeV range to explore the highest-energy astrophysical processes.

    In November 2013 it was announced that IceCube had detected 28 neutrinos that likely originated outside of the Solar System.[5]
    Quote Galactic supernovae[edit]
    Despite the fact that individual neutrinos expected from supernovae have energies well below the IceCube energy cutoff, IceCube could detect a local supernova. It would appear as a detector-wide, brief, correlated rise in noise rates. The supernova would have to be relatively close (within our galaxy) to get enough neutrinos before the 1/r2 distance dependence took over. IceCube is a member of the Supernova Early Warning System (SNEWS).[16]
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superno...Warning_System

    Quote The SuperNova Early Warning System (SNEWS) is a network of neutrino detectors designed to give early warning to astronomers in the event of a supernova in our home galaxy or a nearby galaxy such as the Large Magellanic Cloud or the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy. Enormous numbers of neutrinos are produced in the core of a red giant star as it collapses on itself. In the current model the neutrinos are emitted well before the light from the supernova peaks, so in principle neutrino detectors could give advance warning to astronomers that a supernova has occurred and may soon be visible. The neutrino pulse from supernova 1987A was detected 3 hours before the associated photons (although SNEWS was not yet active).

    The current members of SNEWS are Borexino, Super-Kamiokande, LVD, SNO and IceCube. SNO is not currently active as it is being upgraded to its successor program SNO+.

    As of June 2013, SNEWS has not issued any SN alerts.
    Nuclear Bombs Similar to Supernovas?

    Quote Nuclear bombs also produce very large quantities of neutrinos. Fred Reines and Clyde Cowan considered the detection of neutrinos from a bomb prior to their search for reactor neutrinos; a fission reactor was recommended as a better alternative by Los Alamos physics division leader J.M.B. Kellogg.[54]



    ...Just food for thought!!! heh

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    Default Re: Within the Next Million Years Red Giant Betelgeuse Will Apparently Generate a Type-II Supernova

    This stuff interest me , our sun has only 1.5 to 2 billion years left until it dies ...the ring nebula , they eye of god is a destroyed sun ... a supernova of betelgeuse will be massive , it is a huge body , huge ... I bet it will dissrupt everything on that side of the universe ... all that energy , flowing out in all directions ... our scientist have no clue about how many large bodies of energy exsist out there ...
    Raiding the Matrix One Mind at a Time ...

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    Default Re: Within the Next Million Years Red Giant Betelgeuse Will Apparently Generate a Type-II Supernova

    Tesla_WTC_Solution, this story about the fate of Betelgeuse is told from and predicated on a mainstream understanding of the life cycle of stars that Don Scott and others in the 'Electric Universe' group have questioned with excellent reasoning, imho. Read some of these alternative 'takes' on stellar evolution to get a completely different set of consequences for our own star's involvement in these dynamics... I think Tesla himself might have found these views more compatible with his own understanding of how Universe fits together:

    http://electric-cosmos.org/hrdiagr.htm
    http://www.holoscience.com/wp/twinkl...electric-star/
    http://www.thunderbolts.info/tpod/20.../090604hot.htm
    http://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/reso...c-sky-preface/

    EnJOY!
    "There is nothing in a caterpillar that tells you it's going to be a butterfly." R. Buckminster Fuller

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    Default Re: Within the Next Million Years Red Giant Betelgeuse Will Apparently Generate a Type-II Supernova

    StandingWave ... You point out something very important and highly relevant, not just in respect to the subject of this thread, but more importantly to how we all have come to assume the universe works. For those interested in the "Electric Universe" there is a free PDF for beginners available here on Avalon:

    http://projectavalon.net/forum4/show...l=1#post789034

    As you say, StandingWave ... enjoy!
    "We should not surrender our judgement to others, we must reclaim our ability to doubt and think for ourselves."

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    Default Re: Within the Next Million Years Red Giant Betelgeuse Will Apparently Generate a Type-II Supernova

    Did you guys catch the part where Betelgeuse has lost 15 percent of its mass since 1993?

    they think this could happen SOON.

    I was wondering what would happen after the supernova, not really whether or not it will happen, that's a given.

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    Default Re: Within the Next Million Years Red Giant Betelgeuse Will Apparently Generate a Type-II Supernova

    Tesla ...

    With respect for you and for your question, and I really do mean that ... I cannot address your question in a manner which would be acceptable to my own understanding.

    This is due to my fundamental disagreement with the science of today upon which it is assumed such things as star mass can be accurately calculated, and that is only one aspect of what I consider to be wrong with the mainstream's gravity-centric standard model of the universe. What I can do, however, is courteously suggest that you take a close and open minded look at Don Scott's electric sun theory, this being one of the pillars of the Electric Universe model. An appreciation of that model will not answer directly the question you pose, but it should provide an alternative, more credible view of how stars form and how they function. As I pointed out in my previous post, there is a link here on Avalon to a free PDF book for beginners to the EU model, wherein the range of major EU theories, Don Scott's included, are described in basic form by the author, who is a layman himself.

    PanP.
    "We should not surrender our judgement to others, we must reclaim our ability to doubt and think for ourselves."

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    Default Re: Within the Next Million Years Red Giant Betelgeuse Will Apparently Generate a Type-II Supernova

    Tesla,

    In my limited understanding - which is informed by the ES model to which I linked - it all depends on whether we are on the same circuit (Birkeland current) as Betelgeuse.

    There is a prediction from an NDE about the significance of Orion at this time referenced by John J. Harper in this piece:

    Quote In summary, in the Apocalypse of John, also known as the Book of Revelation, we are warned that our world will be cast into a solar furnace, a "lake of fire" at the end-of-time. This scenario is in fact what Lou Famoso saw during his near-death, out-of-body experience to be true from the perspective of the Orion Nebula. He saw two balls of fire roar past him headed for our Sun. Then a HUGE CME erupted from it and headed straight for Earth. The result is an estimated 45-degree Pole Shift with simultaneous cataclysmic earthquakes, tsunamis, the sinking of old and rising of new continents, and the explosion of volcanoes on the Ring of Fire. So that we are not caught unawares, blind and dumb, an Angel he identified as Gabriel gave Mr. Famoso the following message to take back to us, and in closing I share that with you now:

    "Look to Orion and you will know when the new world will come."
    If we are connected to Betelgeuse via galactic circuits then any changes to Betelgeuse might herald changes in our own environment. We are definitely seeing something change in our local system and on this planet at this time, perhaps this is the connection? The Giza pyramids are also seemingly a mirror of the 'belt' stars of Orion... so Orion has played a strong role in the thinking of the past.
    "There is nothing in a caterpillar that tells you it's going to be a butterfly." R. Buckminster Fuller

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    Default Re: Within the Next Million Years Red Giant Betelgeuse Will Apparently Generate a Type-II Supernova

    Hi guys! Sorry for delay in replying. Was gone part of today.

    Yes, I am not excited about Orion losing a star, and the big one, too??

    Hopefully this won't happen, but thanks to MSM is just "another thing to worry about" etc.

    I will check out the electric universe thing.

    P.s. have you looked into the relationships (electric) between stars (suns) and comets?
    I think that's interesting, the idea that a comet absorbs dust etc. while moving away,
    then while moving toward the star (if it's orbiting one), I guess scientists were noticing very large arcs of electricity passing from the comets toward the Sun!

    So we know that comets (although very small) are part of the system that keep some stars going strong, heh
    They return some of the particles blown out into space by the solar winds, I suppose.

    I think it's very interesting stuff, the idea that stars and whatnot might be linked to one another in ways we don't understand.

    But of course,
    I do believe in a certain measure of disorder and waste in our material universe...

    Do you think anything special will be noticed re: the Pyramids if the nova does occur?
    I.e. did any of the megalithic civilizations know when Betelgeuse might go bye bye?

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    Default Re: Within the Next Million Years Red Giant Betelgeuse Will Apparently Generate a Type-II Supernova

    Tesla ... I feel I should leave you in no doubt as to where my own allegiance lies, for that is unshakably with the Electric Universe model. That being the case, and in reference to your question about possibly having looked into the electrical relationship(s) between stars and comets, I can tell you that those celestial bodies, along with every other celestial body and every event that takes place out there, should not and indeed cannot, be considered in isolation. This is because all bodies and all events in the cosmos have links to the past and present actions and dynamic influences of the powerful electromagnetic force, which by the way, at its fundamental level, is one thousand, billion, billion, billion, billion times more powerful than the force of gravity. That's a one with 39 zeros after it, or 10^39.

    Actually, it may well be the study and observed behaviour of comets that shatters the idea of them being dirty snowballs; that being patent nonsense to anyone who studies the subject closely and who has an inkling of what the electromagnetic force and plasma are about. So, in respect to comets, or as I should say, the electric comet theory, I would like to point you to the work of Wallace Thornhill HERE and specifically to an introduction to the electric comet theory he promotes HERE.

    I know little about the real purpose of megalithic structures, the pyramids included, although I do allow my thoughts to wander on such things. I therefore have no fixed ideas or opinions regarding if or how they have been or may in future be influenced by external forces from the cosmos. I'll leave these things for others to speculate openly upon.

    PanP.
    "We should not surrender our judgement to others, we must reclaim our ability to doubt and think for ourselves."

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    Default Re: Within the Next Million Years Red Giant Betelgeuse Will Apparently Generate a Type-II Supernova

    Hello guys!



    I went for a long walk tonight.
    Part of it was spent looking down at the flooded creek (lol!) that runs through town.
    On Main Street there is a spot where you can look into a scary freaking hole,
    with a rickety metal fence (well sort of) the only barricade. It's neat as heck and pigeons live in there if the town doesn't send someone down there to shoot 'em.
    XD

    Anyhow.

    I went to a different part of the creek where it's completely uncovered for a stretch, and was looking down over the bridge that's built at that spot.
    I looked up at the stars, and Orion was the constellation immediately overhead as I looked out from the bridge. It was easy to see Betelgeuse.

    I was thinking about what that article said, that 15% of the star's mass has been spent since, what was it, 1993?

    I am not sure at what % collapse and supernova occurs... but at the present rate, it's going to be... um. Soon?

    Perhaps in 100 years or less. A reason for such things as D.U.M.B.S., the Seed Vault, jumpstarting the commercial space race, etc.
    It may be harmless to Earth, but if it's not, we're looking at a situation not entirely unlike:
    Cradle of Saturn (1999)
    (The first book in the Cradle of Saturn series)
    A novel by James P Hogan

    Awards
    Prometheus Award (nominee)
    The Kronian colony on the moons of Saturn discovers that the Solar System has repeatedly undergone cataclysms, a claim that is attacked by the scientific establishment. Then Jupiter emits a protoplanet as large as the Earth, which is hurtling sunwards like a giant comet that will obliterate civilization.

    Genre: Science Fiction

    ________________________________

    Not fiction:

    http://astronomy.nju.edu.cn/~lixd/GA...ML/AT42103.htm

    Quote We can now understand the differences between Type I and Type II supernovae. Figure 21.9 summarizes the processes responsible for them. The explosion resulting from the detonation of a carbon white dwarf, the descendant of a low-mass star, is a supernova of Type I. Because this conflagration stems from a system containing virtually no hydrogen, we can readily see why the spectrum of a Type I supernova shows little evidence of that element. The appearance of the light curve (as we will soon see) results almost entirely from the radioactive decay of unstable heavy elements produced in the explosion itself.

    The implosion–explosion of the core of a massive star, described earlier, produces a Type II supernova. Detailed computer models indicate that the characteristic shape of the Type II light curve is just what would be expected from the expansion and cooling of the star’s outer envelope as it is blown into space by the shock wave sweeping up from below. The expanding material consists mainly of unburned gas—hydrogen and helium—so it is not surprising that those elements are strongly represented in the supernova’s observed spectrum. See Discovery 21-1 for an account of a well-studied Type II supernova that confirmed many basic theoretical predictions while also forcing astronomers to revise the details of their models.


    Quote SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    We have plenty of evidence that supernovae have occurred in our Galaxy. Occasionally, the explosions themselves are visible from Earth. In many other cases we can detect their glowing remains, or supernova remnants. One of the best-studied supernova remnants is known as the Crab Nebula, shown in Figure 21.10. Its brightness has greatly dimmed now, but the original explosion in the year a.d. 1054 was so brilliant that manuscripts of ancient Chinese and Middle Eastern astronomers claim that its brightness greatly exceeded that of Venus and—according to some (possibly exaggerated) accounts—even rivaled that of the Moon. For nearly a month, this exploded star reportedly could be seen in broad daylight. Native Americans also left engravings of the event in the rocks of what is now the southwestern United States.
    Quote The Crab Nebula certainly has the appearance of exploded debris. Even today, the knots and filaments give a strong indication of past violence (and continuing activity—see Discovery 21-2). In fact, astronomers have proved that this matter was ejected from some central explosion. Doppler-shifted spectral lines indicate that the nebula—the envelope of the high-mass star that exploded to create this Type II supernova—is expanding into space at several thousand kilometers per second. A vivid illustration of this fact is provided by Figure 21.11, which was made by superimposing a positive image of the Crab Nebula taken in 1960 and a negative image taken in 1974. If the gas were not in motion, the positive and negative images would overlap perfectly, but they do not. The gas moved outward in the intervening 14 years. Running the motion backward in time, astronomers have found that the explosion must have occurred about nine centuries ago, consistent with the Chinese observations.

    The nighttime sky harbors many relics of stars that blew up long ago. Figure 21.12 is another example. It shows the Vela supernova remnant, whose expansion velocities imply that its central star exploded around 9000 b.c. It lies only 500 pc away from Earth. Given its proximity, it may have been as bright as the Moon for several months. We can only speculate what impact such a bright supernova might have had on the myths, religions, and cultures of Stone Age humans when it first appeared in the sky.
    Quote Although hundreds of supernovae have been observed in other galaxies during the twentieth century, no one has ever observed with modern equipment a supernova in our own Galaxy. A viewable Milky Way star has not exploded since Galileo first turned his telescope to the heavens almost four centuries ago. Now known as Tycho’s supernova, this last supernova observed in our Galaxy caused a worldwide sensation in Renaissance times. The sudden appearance and subsequent fading of this very bright object in the year 1572 helped shatter the Aristotelian idea of an unchanging universe.

    Based on stellar evolutionary theory, astronomers calculate that an observable supernova ought to occur in our Galaxy every 100 years or so. Even at a distance of several kiloparsecs a supernova would (temporarily) outshine Venus, the brightest planet in our sky, so it seems unlikely that astronomers could have missed any since the last one nearly four centuries ago. Our part of the Milky Way seems long overdue for a supernova explosion. However, a truly nearby supernova—within a few hundred parsecs, say—would be a very rare event, occurring only every 100,000 years or so. Humanity may be destined to see all supernovae from a distance.
    http://www.souledout.org/cosmology/keys/betelgeuse.html

    Quote At the junction point where the Orion Spur meets with the larger galactic arm can be found one of the vastest stars known in the galaxy, Betelgeuse. A supergiant radiating unbelievable amounts of heat and energy at a distance of, fortunately for us, 520 light years, Betelgeuse knows no equal in sheer volume or area of influence. Over 160 million suns could nestle themselves within its stellar body during its most expansive period (like all variable stars, it fluctuates in size and luminosity).

    Seen by the naked eye as an orange-red color, closer observation reveals these colors as well as crimson, pink, violet and indigo. Noisily broadcasting itself via radio waves, it’s the "loudest" star we know of, due in large part to the tremendous amount of magnetic force emanating from its fiery heart.
    Quote The previous is the most current understanding modern astronomers have of our portion of space. This information is however, not new to humanity. Author of the Alice Bailey books, the Tibetan Dhjwal Khul began writing in 1919 about the nature of God. In doing so, he outlined a story so strange, so bizarre, it exceeded the best science fiction of any age. He taught that humanity and the entire solar system are influenced by conditioning "rays" that come from the stars, and that the Big Dipper registers paramount effect on all forms of life here on Earth. He also mentioned the "potent forces" reaching us from the star Betelgeuse. Modern science verifies his claims — it’s now common knowledge that our planet is being constantly bombarded with high-energy particles (radiation) from outer space. This information was not available in 1919 ... from where did this man derive his understanding? It's likely his insights came via meditation and contemplation.


    In Space the Earth's Energy Body Appears as a Great Being

    The Big Dipper, he further explained, is in fact the head center of a stupendous being whose subtle or etheric body is composed of seven solar systems, each acting as an energy center. Sirius makes up the third eye to this great being, the Pleiades its throat center and the Sun is connected to its heart center. This incredibly vast being is the prototype for the human form, in keeping with the ancient truism "As above, so below." Our human bodies are tiny miniature models of this great being (GOD) in whom we live. What the soul is to the human, Betelgeuse is to this solar entity.

    Our ancestors, perhaps understanding this reality, evidenced they held these star groups as sacred to humanity through the alignment of certain of their temples. A number of Greek temples were oriented to the rising or setting of the Pleiades. In ancient Aztec and Mayan tradition, the midnight culmination of the Pleiades was an event of great and ominous significance. In early Egypt and Sumeria, Sirius was considered the paramount god for thousands of years, and the Pleiades, an associate of that God. Certain African tribespeople even today hold Sirius as supreme entity for planet Earth and its people. The stars of the Big Dipper, prominent in the star lore of all lands, were referred to by the ancient Chinese as the "celestial palace of the Lord on High" and the "Star God of Longevity." The Hindus identified them as the Seven Rishis or Kumaras (Gods) of Heaven. Did these early stargazers correctly realize the relationship between these heavenly bodies and themselves?

    One might ask, "How could a star as far away as Betelgeuse have an effect on us?" Good question! Undoubtedly, through its far-reaching magnetic field — flowing out from behind it like the trailing tentacles of a stupendous jellyfish. Astronomers, just beginning to understand the magnetic world we live in, realize space is filled with magnetic lines of force given off from the stars and that smaller stars are encased within ever greater and larger magnetic fields of more dynamic stars. From our home world, here’s how it works:

    The Earth and its magnetic field encase the much smaller field of the moon; the Sun and its magnetic field encase all the planets extending well beyond the orbit of Pluto. Sirius A and B, with the white dwarf star generating a magnetic field about one billion times that of our sun, easily contain and envelop this entire solar system as well as likely many others; the progression is undetermined at this point. Indeed, it feels like the immense stars in the Big Dipper generate a field great enough to envelop our solar system as well.



    Is it really that far-fetched to believe that cosmic forces affect life in our world? As one studies ancient teachings, it becomes apparent this idea is not a new one. The Hindus believe the Earth is a living being animated by spiritual "currents." The Tibetan teacher Dhjwal Khul has written volumes about the innumerable forces and emanations we encounter as we spin through space. The Mayans, who spoke of "stabbing beams that penetrate from the heavens," had an exquisite understanding of these realities with their amazing knowledge of wave harmonics and resonance theory — perhaps even more so than scientists today. They based their calendar, unsurpassed by even today’s super-computers, on the core number of 52, claiming it to be in resonance with and of major significance to our world. (The principle of resonance ensures that when two objects have the same natural frequency, as one object emits a sound wave, the other will begin to vibrate in accordance with it.) A bit of research into the processes of certain stars and planets verified that indeed 52, give or take a few digits, repeatedly occurs in the cycles of things: Here are a few examples:

    1. The Earth’s orbital period (one year) is divided into weekly periods, of which there are 52.

    2. The variable cycle of Betelgeuse (its period of growing bright, then dim) occurs every 5.2 to 5.5 years.

    3. The Sun’s magnetic field reverses itself every 11 years; the mid-point of this cycle is 5.5 years.

    4. The orbital period of Jupiter is 11.86 years — its midway point is 5.93 years.

    5. The orbital period of the two stars in the Sirian system is almost 50 years (49.9).

    6. The Shoemaker-Levy comet, first discovered 5.5 years ago, took exactly that amount of time to connect with Jupiter. The impacts themselves lasted a period of 5.5 days.

    7. The distance from our sun to Betelgeuse is 520 light years (52 x 10).

    8. The distance from our sun to Antares, another supergiant of immense proportion, is also 520 light years, but in the opposite direction. (This is intriguing — that our tiny little sun should find itself positioned exactly between two of the largest, most powerful supergiants yet known, is a great mystery!)

    _______________________________________

    The many synchronicities listed above are what prompted this research. Clearly something is afoot. It looks like the same frequency is involved, although stepped down to ever slower and slower vibrations. Just as well, really; if we were to receive the frequencies from Betelgeuse directly, probably life as we know it could not exist. (In fact, each magnetic field may buffer our world like an insulating blanket from the torrid passion of this great star.) Has Betelgeuse imprinted its cycle of 5.2 on everything within its vast reach, literally laying down the resonant code to which all other stars in the Spur and their planets must adhere?

    Additional research indicates that what scientists call magnetic fields are possibly synonymous to what occultists call the etheric body. Let’s review what earlier teachings say about this subtle body, said to underlay all matter.

    The etheric body is composed of fine interlacing strands of high-vibrational material upon which the denser, physical forms are constructed. All living things possess this energetic gridwork composed of interlacing energy threads (lines of force) that unify matter and create organized forms. Because the threads are magnetic in nature, when enough of them intersect, vortexes of energy are set up. These whirlpools of magnetic currents attract particles to themselves, thus providing the "blueprint" or foundation upon which matter is build. The Hindu teaching calls small vortexes "nadis." When greater amounts of lines of force intersect, "chakras" or polarised centers of energy occur.


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    Default Re: Within the Next Million Years Red Giant Betelgeuse Will Apparently Generate a Type-II Supernova

    Hm.

    For all the interest in ET there seems precious little interest in space events.

    How can I make this thread more interesting?

    So NO ONE believes the MSM reports of this giant star collapsing inward/losing its mass?

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    Default Re: Within the Next Million Years Red Giant Betelgeuse Will Apparently Generate a Type-II Supernova

    I don't know a n y t h i n g about "view zone" but I thought you ladies and gentlemen of Avalon would like to read the following article:


    http://www.viewzone.com/gravitywavesx.html




    by Dan Eden for ViewZone
    As usual, viewzone gave me an assignment that seemed literally out of this world. They asked me to investigate the theory that some major earthquakes can be caused by explosions far, far away in the universe. Although I'm not entirely convinced that this can happen, the evidence is pretty convincing.

    The Earthquake in Chile (8.8)

    Before we discuss the material below we need to mention the earthquake that happened in Chile on February 27, 2010. There are now many reports coming in that strange lights were seen in the sky a few hours before the event [below].





    This was what people saw i the evening sky in Chile -- just hours before the earthquake.



    [above:] This image was taken just hours before the powerful 7.9 earthquake in Sechuan, China, on May 12, 2008.

    This was recorded in Tianshui, Gansu province, about 450km northeast of epicenter, by someone using a cell phone. The Chinese earthquake killed about 70,000 people.

    In February 2009, a growing number of American and Chinese scientists openly proclaimed that the calamity was triggered by a four-year-old reservoir built too close to the earthquake's geological fault line. A Columbia University scientist who studied the quake has said that it may have been triggered by the weight of 320 million tons of water in the Zipingpu Reservoir less than a mile from this well-known major fault. His conclusions, presented to the American Geophysical Union in December, coincide with a new finding by Chinese geophysicists that the dam caused significant seismic changes before the earthquake.

    Strange lights in the sky have been reported for many years in regions where earthquakes follow by a few hours. Until now the link between these lights and the earthquakes has been a mystery. Now scientists may have a clue about what is producing both phenomenon. The following theory suggests that some of these powerful earth moving events may have their origin in space, while others may be man made. However in both circumstances, the strange lights may serve as an efficient warning of underground stress and impending danger.

    Earthquakes from Space



    The idea started with one of the most powerful earthquakes that was ever recorded -- the magnitude 9.3 earthquake that occurred in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Sumatra in Malaysia on December 26th, 2004. It caused a powerful tsunami which devastated coastal regions of many countries leaving over 240,000 people either dead or missing. It was the worst tsunami to affect this area since the 1883 explosion of Krakatao. The earthquake that produced it was so strong that it exceeded by a factor of 10 the next most powerful earthquake to occur anywhere in the past 25 years.

    Just 44.6 hours later, scientists were shocked to see that gamma ray telescopes orbiting the Earth picked up the arrival of the brightest gamma ray burst ever recorded! The Gamma ray burst (or GRB) arrived from deep space on December 27, 2004 at 21 hours 36 minutes (Universal Time) and was 100 times more intense than any burst that had been previously recorded. It equaled the brightness of the full Moon but radiated most of its energy at gamma ray wavelengths. The blast temporarily changed the shape the Earth's ionosphere, distorting the transmission of long-wavelength radio signals.

    Was there a relationship between these two dramatic events? Perhaps.



    When stars die, they typically expand and give off a lot of energy. If a star is large enough, the core will collapse and a tremendous amount of energy will be released in a supernova explosion. This is so powerful that a single supernova will be brighter than an entire galaxy full of hundreds of billions of stars! But the very brightest supernovae, the biggest stars that explode, can produce ultra-powerful jets that shoot out in opposite directions. If one of those jets (which are really narrow, only about one degree wide) is pointed directly at us, we get bathed in a whole lot of extra energy even beyond what a supernova can do, and that's called a gamma ray burst.

    Gamma rays are the most lethal form of radiation. These are the kind of rays that kill people from an atomic blast. The gamma rays can penetrate deep inside biologic tissue and alter molecular structures and rip apart the very basis of life. We are extremely lucky that we have not experienced a close encounter with a gamma ray burst -- most have been many light years away -- because if we had, you would not be reading this.

    Gamma ray bursts are detected frequently in our universe. Most of the bursts are outside our Milky Way Galaxy, far, far away. Satellites detect these bursts and report on their position and strength, often allowing astronomers to look at the sources and try to understand what causes them. Although most are thought to be collapsing stars or black holes, others remain a mystery.

    Gamma Rays and Gravity waves

    Astronomers have theorized that gamma ray bursts might travel in association with gravity wave bursts. The same events, such as a rapidly collapsed star, which cause the release of gamma rays also is thought to make a "ripple" in the time-space continuum that is manifested as a gravity wave.




    The "Crab Nebula" is the remnant shell of a star that exploded many years ago. At the time it collapsed on itself, it would have sent out powerful gamma ray bursts and gravity waves.

    In the course of their flight through space, gamma rays would be deflected by gravitational fields and would be scattered by dust and cosmic ray particles they encountered, so they would be expected to travel slightly slower than their associated gravity wave burst which would pass through space unimpeded.

    In this analogy, if space were a liquid, gamma rays would be energy traveling through the liquid whereas the gravity wave would be the waves of the liquid itself.

    After a 45,000 year light-speed journey, a gamma ray burst arrival delay of 44.6 hours (as in the case of the December 2004 earthquake/gamma ray burst) would not be unexpected. It amounts to a delay of just one part in 9 million.

    So if the gravity wave traveled at the speed of light (c), the gamma ray burst would have averaged a speed of 0.99999989 c, just 0.11 millionths slower. There is also the possibility that at the beginning of its journey the gravity wave may have had a superluminal (greater than velocity of c) speed.

    But the gravity waves are not always created at the same instant as the gamma ray bursts. The rapid collapse of a star produces a gravity wave and may precede the formation of the gamma ray beams which originate from the poles of the collapsed star. So it is possible that the gravity waves get a "head start" in advance of the GRBs.

    Still with me on this? Here's what's going on so far:

    Collapsing stars release massive amounts of energy that travel outward in the form of powerful gamma rays, called gamma ray bursts. These huge explosions last only minutes but can be detected from orbiting satellites. These violent explosion also causes a ripple in the very fabric of space-time -- like a stone thrown in a pond -- and travel outward as a gravity wave. Both the gamma rays and gravity wave propagate outward at different speeds, often reaching the earth at different times.
    So What is a Gravitational Wave?

    Most scientists describe gravitational waves as "ripples in space-time." Just like a boat sailing through the ocean produces waves in the water, moving masses like stars or black holes produce gravitational waves in the fabric of space-time. A more massive moving object will produce more powerful waves, and objects that move very quickly will produce more waves over a certain time period.

    Where Do Gravitational Waves Come From?

    Gravitational waves are usually produced in an interaction between two or more compact masses. Such interactions include the binary orbit of two black holes, a merge of two galaxies, or two neutron stars orbiting each other. As the black holes, stars, or galaxies orbit each other, they send out waves of "gravitational radiation" that reach the Earth. However, once the waves do get to the Earth, they are extremely weak. This is because gravitational waves, like water waves, decrease in strength as they move away from the source. Even though they are weak, the waves can travel unobstructed within the 'fabric' of space-time. This how they are able to reach the Earth and provide us with information that light cannot give.

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    Default Re: Within the Next Million Years Red Giant Betelgeuse Will Apparently Generate a Type-II Supernova

    continued from above:

    Gravitational waves have two important and unique properties. First, there is no need for any type of matter to be present nearby in order for the waves to be generated by a binary system of uncharged black holes, which would emit no electromagnetic radiation. Second, gravitational waves can pass through any intervening matter without being scattered. Whereas light from distant stars may be blocked out by interstellar dust, for example, gravitational waves will pass through unimpeded. These two features allow gravitational waves to carry information about astronomical phenomena never before observed by humans.



    What are the effects of a passing gravitational wave?
    [Top Right]The effect of a plus-polarized gravitational wave on a ring of particles.

    [Bottom right]The effect of a cross-polarized gravitational wave on a ring of particles.



    Imagine a perfectly flat region of spacetime, with a group of motionless test particles lying in a plane. Then, a weak gravitational wave arrives, passing through the particles along a line perpendicular to the plane of the particles. What happens to the test particles? Roughly speaking, they will oscillate in a "cruciform" manner, as shown in the animations. The area enclosed by the test particles does not change, and there is no motion along the direction of propagation. In the animation at the right, the wave would be passing from you, through the screen, and out the back.

    The foregoing animation is the result of a pair of masses that orbit about each other (e.g., black holes) on a circular orbit or a rotating rod or dumbbell. In this case the amplitude, A, of the gravitational wave is a constant, but its plane of polarization changes or rotates (at twice the orbital or rotating-rod rate) and so the time-varying gravitational wave size or periodic spacetime strain h, exhibits a variation as shown in the animation. If the orbit is elliptical or the rotating rod's centrifugal-force change varies during rotation, then the gravitational wave's amplitude (that is, the amplitude of the periodic spacetime h), A, actually also varies with time according to an equation called the "quadrupole".




    The effect of Gravity Waves on the Earth

    In his 1983 Ph.D. dissertation, Paul LaViolette called attention to terrestrial dangers of Galactic core explosions, pointing out that the arrival of the cosmic ray superwave they produced would be signaled by a high intensity gamma ray burst which would also generate a strong gravity wave that might be expected to travel forward at the forefront of this superwave and might be the first indication of a superwave's arrival. He pointed out that such gravity waves could induce substantial tidal forces on the Earth during their passage which could induce earthquakes and cause polar axis torquing effects.

    If a gravity wave can distort the space between matter, even on a small scale, the cumulative effect of the earth's core, with its dense mass, and the mantle could result in movement of the crust. The result would be an earthquake.

    While we still do not know the relationship of the arrival on earth of the gamma ray burst and the gravity wave, we would expect that they should coincide within several hours of eachother for near sources, to many days of eachother if the source is distant. Sometimes we would expect an observed GRB to follow a seismic event by as much as 48 hours (for very distant yet powerful objects) and they may precede seismic events by as much as a few days or a week, owing to the time needed for mantle and core stress to affect the faults.

    To test this hypothesis, we have researched the most notable gamma ray bursts from 1967 to the present.


    Quote GRB 041227 -- This gamma ray blast, on December 27, 2004, was 100 times more intense than any burst that had been previously recorded, equaling the brightness of the full Moon, but radiating most of its energy at gamma ray wavelengths. Gamma ray counts spiked to a maximum in 1.5 seconds and then declined over a 5 minute period with 7.57 second pulsations. The blast temporarily changed the shape the Earth's ionosphere, distorting the transmission of long-wavelength radio signals. It is thought that gravity waves might have preceded the gamma rays.




    On December 26, 2004 a magnitude 9.3 earthquake occurred in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Sumatra in Malaysia. It caused a powerful tsunami which devastated coastal regions of many countries leaving over 240,000 people either dead or missing. It was the worst tsunami to affect this area since the 1883 explosion of Krakatao. The earthquake that produced it was so strong that it exceeded by a factor of 10 the next most powerful earthquake to occur anywhere in the past 25 years.
    What causes the strange lights in the sky?

    If this theory is correct, the gravity waves cause the earth to stretch and contract at points where it is vulnerable -- like at certain fault lines. This movement causes sudden friction that generates enormous energy. As this energy reaches the surface it is in the form of plasma, a very unique form of energy that usually forms a toroid or donut shape. The plasma then energizes the surrounding atmosphere as it dissipates and this is seen as a glow or illumination.

    So what's the verdict?

    It appears that there is a link between the gamma ray bursts and the strong earthquakes. But this link assumes that the gamma ray bursts were associated with strong gravity waves. Unfortunately we do not have a record of gravity waves as they are felt on earth. In fact, they are still only theoretical.

    In 1918, Albert Einstein predicted that cosmic events, such as collapsing stars, would radiate a propagating distortion of space and time -- gravitational waves. But after spending hundreds of millions of dollars to detect them, scientists have still come up empty.

    Physicists worldwide have been fine-tuning enormous, multimillion-dollar machines to filter out background noise so they can observe the unique signatures of a gravitation wave. Before the decade is out, they believe they'll record the percussive crash of colliding black holes or the vibrant hum of a pulsar -- a discovery that would be the proverbial shot heard around the scientific world.



    Stefano Foffa [right] of the University of Geneva is a member of a leading gravitational-wave-detection team, which includes 33 other scientists from Switzerland and Italy. They recently submitted a report to Classical and Quantum Gravity that details their so-far fruitless attempts at observing tiny gravitational tugs and distortions on Explorer, a supercooled, 3-meter-long aluminum bar at the CERN particle physics lab in Switzerland.

    Explorer is particularly well-tuned to sense spinning neutron stars, also known as pulsars, Foffa said. He and his colleagues estimate that some 200,000 of these spinning, super-dense objects -- so dense that a just sugar cube-sized amount weighs as much as the entire human race -- are scattered throughout the Milky Way.

    But the thermal noise of even supercooled atoms is greater than the momentary twang the bar's atoms would experience when being plucked by a passing gravitational wave. So the Explorer group must use sensitive superconducting circuits to coax out a signal. It's an art that's still being perfected.



    LIGO, the Caltech-MIT observatory, is an even bigger and more ambitious project than Explorer. To someone flying overhead, LIGO looks like an unfinished oil pipeline, with two mile-and-a-half long tubes jutting in perpendicular directions from a central building. The pipes (one in Livingston, Louisiana, and the other in Richmond, Washington), contain sensitive optics in which laser light bounces back and forth 100 times, then combines, allowing physicists to compare the two beams to monitor the space-time through which the light traveled.

    The interference patterns from LIGO's two perpendicular laser beams sometimes momentarily jostle. If the same jostling happens at both LIGO's Louisiana and Washington detectors, and no earthquakes can explain the anomaly, then the source may well be a gravitational wave.

    So, it's the million-dollar moment that hasn't yet happened. Or has it?

    It could be that the effects of a relatively weak gravity wave can only be detected through the changes to some massive object, such as the earth's mantle. In that case the gravity wave theory may already have been validated by its association with earthquakes.

    So there you have it.

    _


    oh my gosh @@


    i want the data from 2011
    Last edited by Tesla_WTC_Solution; 17th February 2015 at 07:34.

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    Default Re: Within the Next Million Years Red Giant Betelgeuse Will Apparently Generate a Type-II Supernova

    http://www.istianjinelearning.org/ti...euse-explodes/

    Quote Betelgeuse Explodes
    Posted by Joon Hyup Lee

    Couple of years ago, astronomers and physicists predicted that Betelgeuse will explode in nearby future.



    Betelgeuse is the 2nd brightest star next to Rigel in the Orion’s belt, and the 9th brightest star in the sky.



    Compared to Sun, Betelgeuse’s volume and mass is incomparably immense.

    If the initial mass of a star is over the Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit, which is approximately 1.5 to 3 times the mass of our sun, the star will undergo a Supernova explosion and become a black hole.

    Mass of Betelgeuse is 15.31*10^30 kg, which is 7.7 times solar masses, so Betelgeuse will become a black hole when it explodes.

    When Betelgeuse goes through Supernova explosion, the gamma ray and the energies that is released are unbelievably high that even on earth, where we are 642.5 light years away, we’d be seeing two Suns during daytime and night for couple of weeks.

    The following video is a prediction of what it is going to look like on earth when Betelgeuse explode



    Joon Hyup


    please see the video at the bottom of his page

    http://www.istianjinelearning.org/ti...euse-explodes/

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    Default Re: Within the Next Million Years Red Giant Betelgeuse Will Apparently Generate a Type-II Supernova

    http://www.etheric.com/GalacticCenter/GRB.html

    Was the December 26, 2004 Indonesian Earthquake and Tsunami
    Caused by a Stellar Explosion 26,000 Light Years Away?
    Sound Crazy? Read Carefully Below.
    (Originally posted February 20, 2005)
    Gamma Ray Bursts, Gravity Waves, and Earthquakes
    On December 26, 2004 a magnitude 9.3 earthquake occurred in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Sumatra in Malaysia. It caused a powerful tsunami which devastated coastal regions of many countries leaving over 240,000 people either dead or missing. It was the worst tsunami to affect this area since the 1883 explosion of Krakatao. The earthquake that produced it was so strong that it exceeded by a factor of 10 the next most powerful earthquake to occur anywhere in the past 25 years.

    • Indonesian 9.3 Richter earthquake:
    December 26, 2004 at 00 hours 58 minutes (Universal Time)

    It is then with some alarm that we learn that just 44.6 hours later gamma ray telescopes orbiting the Earth picked up the arrival of the brightest gamma ray burst ever recorded!

    • Gamma ray burst arrival:
    December 27, 2004 at 21 hours 36 minutes (Universal Time)



    This gamma ray blast was 100 times more intense than any burst that had been previously recorded, equaling the brightness of the full Moon, but radiating most of its energy at gamma ray wavelengths. Gamma ray counts spiked to a maximum in 1.5 seconds and then declined over a 5 minute period with 7.57 second pulsations. The blast temporarily changed the shape the Earth's ionosphere, distorting the transmission of long-wavelength radio signals. See stories on Space.com, BBC News, NY TImes.


    http://www.space.com/806-brightest-g...its-earth.html

    Brightest Galactic Flash Ever Detected Hits Earth
    by Robert Roy Britt, Senior Science Writer | February 18, 2005 02:00pm ET



    Artist impression of the eruption streaming out in all directions through the galaxy.
    Credit: NASA


    A huge explosion halfway across the galaxy packed so much power it briefly altered Earth's upper atmosphere in December, astronomers said Friday.

    No known eruption beyond our solar system has ever appeared as bright upon arrival.

    But you could not have seen it, unless you can top the X-ray vision of Superman: In gamma rays, the event equaled the brightness of the full Moon's reflected visible light.

    The blast originated about 50,000 light-years away and was detected Dec. 27. A light-year is the distance light travels in a year, about 6 trillion miles (10 trillion kilometers).

    The commotion was caused by a special variety of neutron star known as a magnetar. These fast-spinning, compact stellar corpses -- no larger than a big city -- create intense magnetic fields that trigger explosions. The blast was 100 times more powerful than any other similar eruption witnessed, said David Palmer of Los Alamos National Laboratory, one of several researchers around the world who monitored the event with various telescopes.


    "Had this happened within 10 light-years of us, it would have severely damaged our atmosphere and possibly have triggered a mass extinction," said Bryan Gaensler of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA).

    There are no magnetars close enough to worry about, however, Gaensler and two other astronomers told SPACE.com. But the strength of the tempest has them marveling over the dying star's capabilities while also wondering if major species die-offs in the past might have been triggered by stellar explosions.

    'Once-in-a-lifetime'

    The Sun is a middle-aged star about 8 light-minutes from us. Its tantrums, though cosmically pitiful compared to the magnetar explosion, routinely squish Earth's protective magnetic field and alter our atmosphere, lighting up the night sky with colorful lights called aurora.

    Solar storms also alter the shape of Earth's ionosphere, a region of the atmosphere 50 miles (80 kilometers) up where gas is so thin that electrons can be stripped from atoms and molecules -- they are ionized -- and roam free for short periods. Fluctuations in solar radiation cause the ionosphere to expand and contract.

    "The gamma rays hit the ionosphere and created more ionization, briefly expanding the ionosphere," said Neil Gehrels, lead scientist for NASA's gamma-ray watching Swift observatory.

    Gehrels said in an email interview that the effect was similar to a solar-induced disruption but that the effect was "much smaller than a big solar flare."

    Still, scientists were surprised that a magnetar so far away could alter the ionosphere.

    "That it can reach out and tap us on the shoulder like this, reminds us that we really are linked to the cosmos," said Phil Wilkinson of IPS Australia, that country's space weather service.

    "This is a once-in-a-lifetime event," said Rob Fender of Southampton University in the UK. "We have observed an object only 20 kilometers across [12 miles], on the other side of our galaxy, releasing more energy in a tenth of a second than the Sun emits in 100,000 years."

    Some researchers have speculated that one or more known mass extinctions hundreds of millions of years ago might have been the result of a similar blast altering Earth's atmosphere. There is no firm data to support the idea, however. But astronomers say the Sun might have been closer to other stars in the past.

    A similar blast within 10 light-years of Earth "would destroy the ozone layer," according to a CfA statement, "causing abrupt climate change and mass extinctions due to increased radiation."

    The all-clear has been sounded, however.

    "None of the known sample [of magnetars] are closer than about 4,000-5,000 light years from us," Gaensler said. "This is a very safe distance."

    Cause a mystery

    Researchers don't know exactly why the burst was so incredible. The star, named SGR 1806-20, spins once on its axis every 7.5 seconds, and it is surrounded by a magnetic field more powerful than any other object in the universe.

    "We may be seeing a massive release of magnetic energy during a 'starquake' on the surface of the object," said Maura McLaughlin of the University of Manchester in the UK.

    Another possibility is that the magnetic field more or less snapped in a process scientists call magnetic reconnection.

    Gamma rays are the highest form of radiation on the electromagnetic spectrum, which includes X-rays, visible light and radio waves too.

    The eruption was also recorded by the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array of radio telescopes, along with other European satellites and telescopes in Australia.

    Explosive details

    A neutron star is the remnant of a star that was once several times more massive than the Sun. When their nuclear fuel is depleted, they explode as a supernova. The remaining dense core is slightly more massive than the Sun but has a diameter typically no more than 12 miles (20 kilometers).

    Millions of neutron stars fill the Milky Way galaxy. A dozen or so are ultra-magnetic neutron stars -- magnetars. The magnetic field around one is about 1,000 trillion gauss, strong enough to strip information from a credit card at a distance halfway to the Moon, scientists say.

    Of the known magnetars, four are called soft gamma repeaters, or SGRs, because they flare up randomly and release gamma rays. The flare on SGR 1806-20 unleashed about 10,000 trillion trillion trillion watts of power.

    "The next biggest flare ever seen from any soft gamma repeater was peanuts compared to this incredible Dec. 27 event," said Gaensler of the CfA.

    Closest Known Neutron Star Races Across Sky


    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4278005.stm

    Last Updated: Friday, 18 February, 2005, 19:10 GMT

    Huge 'star-quake' rocks Milky Way

    Astronomers say they have been stunned by the amount of energy released in a star explosion on the far side of our galaxy, 50,000 light-years away.



    The position of SGR1806-20 in a radio image of the sky - 50,000 light-years away

    The flash of radiation on 27 December was so powerful that it bounced off the Moon and lit up the Earth's atmosphere.

    The blast occurred on the surface of an exotic kind of star - a super-magnetic neutron star called SGR 1806-20.

    If the explosion had been within just 10 light-years, Earth could have suffered a mass extinction, it is said.

    Quote This is a once-in-a-lifetime event
    Dr Rob Fender, Southampton University
    "We figure that it's probably the biggest explosion observed by humans within our galaxy since Johannes Kepler saw his supernova in 1604," Dr Rob Fender, of Southampton University, UK, told the BBC News website.

    One calculation has the giant flare on SGR 1806-20 unleashing about 10,000 trillion trillion trillion watts.

    "This is a once-in-a-lifetime event. We have observed an object only 20km across, on the other side of our galaxy, releasing more energy in a 10th of a second than the Sun emits in 100,000 years," said Dr Fender.

    Fast turn

    The event overwhelmed detectors on space-borne telescopes, such as the recently launched Swift observatory.

    This facility was put above the Earth to detect and analyse gamma-ray bursts - very intense but fleeting flashes of radiation.

    The giant flare it and other instruments caught in December has left scientists scrambling for superlatives.



    Twenty institutes from around the world have joined the investigation and two teams are to report their findings in a forthcoming issue of the journal Nature.

    The light detected from the giant flare was far brighter in gamma-rays than visible light or X-rays.

    Research teams say the event can be traced to the magnetar SGR 1806-20.

    This remarkable super-dense object is a neutron star - it is composed entirely of neutrons and is the remnant collapsed core of a once giant star.

    Now, though, this remnant is just 20km across and spins so fast it completes one revolution every 7.5 seconds.

    "It has this super-strong magnetic field and this produces some kind of structure which has undergone a rearrangement - it's an event that is sometimes characterised as a 'star-quake', a neutron star equivalent of an earthquake," explained Dr Fender.

    "It's the only possible way we can think of releasing so much energy."

    Continued glow

    SGR 1806-20 is sited in the southern constellation Sagittarius. Its distance puts it beyond the centre of the Milky Way and a safe distance from Earth.

    "Had this happened within 10 light-years of us, it would have severely damaged our atmosphere and would possibly have triggered a mass extinction," said Dr Bryan Gaensler, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, who is the lead author on one of the forthcoming Nature papers.

    "Fortunately there are no magnetars anywhere near us."

    The initial burst of high-energy radiation subsided quickly but there continues to be an afterglow at longer radio wavelengths.

    This radio emission persists as the shockwave from the explosion moves out through space, ploughing through nearby gas and exciting matter to extraordinary energies.

    "We may go on observing this radio source for much of this year," Dr Fender said.

    This work is being done at several centres around the globe, including at the UK's Multi-Element Radio-Linked Interferometer Network (Merlin) and the Joint Institute for VLBI (Very Long Baseline for Interferometry) in Europe - both large networks of linked radio telescopes.


    Quote http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1346532/posts

    Starburst Was One of Brightest Objects Observed on Earth
    NY Times ^ | February 18, 2005 | KENNETH CHANG
    Posted on 2/18/2005, 9:31:11 PM by neverdem

    For a fraction of a second in December, a dying remnant of an exploded star let out a burst of light that outshone the Milky Way's other half-trillion stars combined, astronomers announced today.

    Even on Earth, half a galaxy away, the starburst was one of the brightest objects ever observed in the sky, after the Sun and perhaps a few comets. The magnitude of the event caught most astronomers by surprise.

    "Whoppingly bright," said Dr. Brian Gaensler, an astronomer at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. "It gave off more energy in 0.2 seconds than the Sun does in 100,000 to 200,000 years."
    Last edited by Tesla_WTC_Solution; 17th February 2015 at 07:53.

  22. Link to Post #16
    Madagascar Avalon Member silvanelf's Avatar
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    Default Re: Within the Next Million Years Red Giant Betelgeuse Will Apparently Generate a Type-II Supernova

    Currently there is some fuss about Betelgeuse ...
    Quote Head of Physics at Uppingham School Dr David Boyce said on his Twitter account that the sudden decrease in the star’s brightness was noticeable even to a general observer’s eye and suggested that if it is about to go supernova, then the explosion would give out “more energy” in just a few hours than throughout the millions of years of its existence.
    https://sputniknews.com/society/2019...omers-believe/




  23. Link to Post #17
    Avalon Member Star Tsar's Avatar
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    Default Re: Within the Next Million Years Red Giant Betelgeuse Will Apparently Generate a Type-II Supernova

    Latest from the Orion constellation!

    Quote Posted by Star Tsar (here)
    Forbes.com

    Is Betelgeuse About To Explode?

    Published 26th December 2019



    When you take a look at the stars in the night sky, they generally appear the same regardless of time. Only a small number of stars ever appear to change on human timescales, as most stars burn through their fuel very stably, with almost no variation in their continuous brightness. The few stars that do appear to change are either intrinsically variable, members of multi-star systems, or go through an enormous evolutionary change.

    When very massive stars get close to the end of their lives, they start varying by tremendous amounts, and do so with significant irregularity. At a critical moment, most of these stars will run out of the nuclear fuel holding up their cores against collapse, and the resulting implosion leads to a runaway cataclysm: a core-collapse supernova. Could Betelgeuse, whose variability intensified in a novel way over the last few days, be about to explode? Here's what astronomers know so far.

    Read all about it here: https://www.forbes.com/sites/startsw.../#3643d1c547bf
    I for one will join in with anyone, I don't care what color you are as long as you want to change this miserable condition that exists on this Earth - Malcolm X / Tsar Of The Star

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    United States Avalon Member WhiteFeather's Avatar
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    Default Re: Within the Next Million Years Red Giant Betelgeuse Will Apparently Generate a Type-II Supernova

    This just came up on my twitter account. Supposedly some rumors Betelgeuse is dimming and perhaps may go Supernova.

    A giant star is acting strange, and astronomers are buzzing
    The red giant Betelgeuse is the dimmest seen in years, prompting some speculation that the star is about to explode. Here's what we know.
    The constellation Orion is one of the most recognizable patterns in the night sky, visible around the world. But if you’ve looked at Orion recently and thought something seemed off, you’re not wrong: The giant red star Betelgeuse, which marks the hunter’s right shoulder, is the dimmest it’s been in almost a century.

    More:
    https://www.nationalgeographic.com/s...out-supernova/
    "Although I Live On This World, I Choose Not To Live In It"
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    "The answer to every question can be found in nature, if one knows how to look and listen”
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    "Everything on the Earth has a purpose, Every disease a herb to cure it, and every person a mission. This is the Indian theory of existence".
    Mourning Dove Salish


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