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Thread: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    Doctors without Borders, an aid organization, suspended operations for Ebola care and treatment in DR Congo.

    They did so after two treatment centers were torched, burned, and patients being treated disappeared.



    But violent attacks in the volatile region, which has been at the centre of conflict fueled by ethnic rivalries and territorial disputes for more than two decades, have made attempts to control the highly contagious disease even more difficult.

    Earlier this week, an Ebola treatment centre in the town of Katwa was partially burnt down, destroying medical equipment and patients wards and killing a caretaker, seemingly while he was fleeing the scene.

    Then in a second attack on Wednesday night in the nearby city of Butembo, assailants tried to set fire to a health centre with almost 60 patients inside - 15 of whom were confirmed to have Ebola.

    Dr Michel Yao, the incident manager for the World Health Organization, told The Telegraph he found bullet holes in the building’s walls the next morning.

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    7 April 2019 DR Congo north east (Beni and Butembo city areas)

    Currently 702 deaths

    1117 having been infected with a potential of 295 more people potentially infected.

    95,000 residents have received a dose of the rVSV-Zebov vaccine from Merck laboratories.

    339 people have recovered (long lasting damage has been present in many of those who have recovered).

    The World Health Organization has warned that "the risk of national and regional spread remains very high".

    Several armed groups, coupled with resistance of some communities to seeking treatment, has hampered the fight to stem the spread of the disease.

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    Ebola case flareup in DR Congo (east) -

    DRC, now 1,466 cases and 957 deaths. A total of 239 suspected cases are still under investigation.

    In DRC, Katwa and Butembo remain the outbreak hot spots, with Beni, Mandima, Musienene, Biena, Kalunguta, Mutwanga, and Mabalako also noting cases in the past few days.

    The cumulative number of confirmed cases or probable among health workers has now reached 92 (6.4% of all confirmed and probable cases), including 33 deaths.

    Vaccination attributed to keeping the infection count and death count low - As of today, a ring vaccination campaign with Merck's rVSV-ZEBOV continues in the outbreak region, with 107,565 people vaccinated, including 28,826 in Katwa, 21,107 in Beni, and 13,246 in Butembo.

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    Difficulty is still present in DR Congo, the NE area - the Ebola cases have topped 1600 and deaths have exceeded 1060 people.

    Another clinic was attacked, and protesters burned the triage service of Sainte Famille Mukuna hospital center in Katwa health zone.

    ref: http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-persp...-armed-clashes

    A new vaccine is probably going to be tried, manufactured by Johnson and Johnson with scheduled reductions of dose strength of the Merck vaccine which has to date shown greater than 95% effectiveness.

    Personally I would be concerned with the doctors deciding to change the technique and dosage established by the clinical and field studies.

    Insufficient immunity (lack of sufficient antibodies) could allow for the virus to mutate, and become resistant to the monoclonal antibodies which are pretty specific in the Merck vaccine..

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    More than 1,860 cases of Ebola have now been reported in North Kivu and neighbouring Ituri province, and more than 1,240 deaths.

    WHO still refuses to declare an emergency.

    Neighbouring countries of Uganda and Rwanda and southern Sudan are concerned that travelers from DR Congo may bring the disease with them - nearly one million people travel each month from DR Congo into Uganda - An estimated 100,000 people cross the border each month into Rwanda.

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    From AP

    It's over 2000 currently..

    The Ebola Zaire outbreak in north-eastern Congo has surpassed 2,000 cases and is increasing in the speed of persons infected.

    The number of confirmed cases reached the milestone three times as quickly as it took to reach 1,000, experts said Tuesday.

    Potential under-reporting -


    Because of the mistrust many Ebola cases are not being counted and the number of confirmed cases is likely “an underestimate and not a realistic picture of the number of cases out there,” the IRC said in a separate statement. Many people, frightened, are still dying at home instead of presenting themselves at health centers for treatment. (IRC: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies).

    More than 129,000 people have received the new experimental effective Ebola vaccine in its first widespread use.

    Reports are the vaccine has resulted in less active infections and deaths - over 95% effectiveness has been reported for the new Canadian developed vaccine based on the VSV vector.

    vaccine report on effectiveness: https://www.who.int/csr/resources/pu...april-2019.pdf
    Last edited by Bob; 5th June 2019 at 16:02.

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    Dimitri Orlov, in his latest post World’s Biggest Problems Solved, has a different take on the Ebola epidemic:

    ===============
    The Ebola virus has been known since 1976 but gained notoriety in 2014 when 2258 cases of Ebola infection were recorded in Equatorial Guinea. Later it spread to neighboring Liberia and Sierra Leone, but it was at that early moment that Western mass media started ramping up their fearmongering, claiming that an Ebola pandemic is about to engulf the world. The explanation for this running start soon followed and was freely offered by its main beneficiaries: two Western pharmaceutical companies, US transnational Merck and British THK GlaxoSmithKline. Serendipitously, both of these companies both developed and stockpiled mass quantities of their respective Ebola vaccines just in time for the scare campaign. The effectiveness of these vaccines proved to be ineffectual, but they sold a lot of them anyway.

    And then, at the height of the epidemic, a large group of specialists arrived, set up field hospitals and conducted a massive operation that ranged over the entire affected region looking for signs of infection. In a short period of time, these specialists developed a new vaccine, Gam-Evac Combi, which turned out to be orders of magnitude more effective than the American or the British ones. The epidemic was quickly ended. It was at that point that the entire episode vanished from Western media. But it would have been very interesting to find out more. For instance, was the epidemic spontaneous, or was its ground zero specifically chosen? There have been reports from the affected region of militants targeting Western medical teams; are they beginning to suspect something? In any case, where did these other, non-Western specialists come from, and who developed the effective Ebola vaccine? Who were they? It was… the Russians, again.
    ===============

  8. The Following 3 Users Say Thank You to Paul For This Post:

    Blacklight43 (4th June 2019), Franny (5th June 2019), onawah (4th June 2019)

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported -
    accident,
    natural or
    bio-weapon?

    Possibly a 4th question could be asked - like with computer viruses being engineered by anti-virus companies that sprung up, was it engineered not as a bio-weapon but a commercial product sales tool? (vaccines being the sales ... )

    ¤=[Post Update]=¤

    As one can eradicate a virus or perform an inoculation on a computer so to speak, the virus never the less exists, is documented, and there are now treatments. How it came into play was the subject of this thread, where did it start, how did it start, why did it start (and re-occur now and then).. Those are valid questions

    the 'effective vaccine' was developed in Canada, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5662448/

    Quote The development of an effective Ebola vaccine by Canada’s National Microbiology Laboratory is a great Canadian contribution to global public health. A linked study in CMAJ reports on a phase 1 trial of a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) Ebola vaccine developed in Canada.1 This is the story of its development.

    Ebola, a hemorrhagic fever filovirus, endemic in parts of Africa, was first recognized in 1976 in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo and first isolated at the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp.2,3 In 1996 Jack Rose described a reverse genetics system for VSV (an animal virus that infects humans but does not cause much in the way of human disease),4 showing that recombinant VSV could act as a gene expression vector and, subsequently, that exogenous proteins could be incorporated into the membrane of the virus particles. In 2001 Rose’s group showed that HIV Env and Gag proteins could be expressed using the recombinant VSV vector with potential to be effective vaccine vectors.

    In 1997, Yoshihiro Kawaoka created a new tool for the study of Ebola virus. He developed a replication-incompetent VSV5 vector that had a green fluorescent protein gene in place of the VSV glycoprotein; Ebola virus glycoprotein was supplied to the virus as it formed in cell culture from a separate expression system. Kawaoka’s group successfully used this pseudotyped replication-deficient virus as a research tool to study the structure and function of the Ebola virus glycoprotein (EBOV).

    Fifteen years before the 2014–2015 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, in 1999, Heinz Feldman, newly recruited to the National Microbiology Laboratory, set out to study the pathogenic effects of the EBOV, believing the glycoprotein to be key to the severity of Ebola infection. In collaboration with Ute Ströher, the team developed a replicating recombinant VSV vector in which the VSV glycoprotein was functionally replaced with the EBOV.

    Early experiments to test its predicted pathogenicity saw mice inoculated with the EBOV using the VSV viral vector and then challenged with the mouse-adapted Ebola virus. The mice did not develop Ebola as expected; they were completely protected, which was essentially a failure, but this turned out to be an important breakthrough in Ebola vaccine research.6

    The vaccine was shown to be highly protective even when used postexposure in animal models, and that it was possible to immunize orally and intranasally and protect against a systemic challenge.7

    In 2001, the Public Health Agency of Canada’s National Microbiology Laboratory began to work on developing a vaccine. The risk that a virulent agent like Ebola could spread quickly from small community outbreaks to a major global epidemic was well appreciated and Ebola was widely regarded as a bioterrorism threat.

    However, many systemic failures slowed progress from early observations of an immune response in mice to a safe, injectable Ebola vaccine for humans. It took several years to convince funding agencies of the value of spending the National Microbiology Laboratory’s limited resources on Ebola vaccine research over other pressing public health issues in Canada.

    In 2005, a change in funding body leadership, an increasing body of efficacy data and strong advocacy by scientists resulted in the research team securing half the requested funding for development of the Ebola vaccine. There followed the dogged work of building the vaccine program, putting contracts in place and securing sign-off from Ottawa.

    The goal of the vaccine development program was to develop current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) virus stocks that would be suitable for phase 1 and 2 clinical trials, as well as being suitable for emergency use; e.g., in the event of a laboratory exposure. The team partnered with IDT Biologika GmbH in Dessau-Rosslau, Germany, although there were obstacles to placing a vaccine development contract with a German manufacturer.

    At the National Microbiology Laboratory, all the reverse genetics system plasmids were recloned and sequenced, and the viruses were rescued again using cell lines with safety provenance, necessary for regulators.

    Initial safety and efficacy trials were repeated in animals using the new cGMP vaccine. IDT then began the process of increasing production of the VSV-Ebola vaccine to industrial scale.

    By 2015, there was enough human-grade material on hand that Canada could offer 1000 doses of the vaccine to the World Health Organization (WHO) at the height of the 2014–2015 Ebola outbreak. The total time from project approval and partnering with IDT Biologika, awarding of the contract and delivery of the final cGMP vaccine materials was more than six years.

    Because the market for an Ebola vaccine was considered to be small, stockpiling by the US, UK and Canadian militaries, and civil protection, comprised the main focus early on. There was little interest in the vaccine from the pharmaceutical industry.

    A licence for what was now known as VSV-EBOV was eventually granted to a small American company, with which the team from the National Microbiology Laboratory worked to seek funding and push the development of the cGMP vaccine through safety and efficacy studies.
    During the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, Merck purchased the rights to develop VSV-EBOV and brought it into large-scale production for clinical trials.

    Given the uncertain intellectual property of the VSV-EBOV, ensuring that the government of Canada had rights to use and develop the vaccine took substantial work.

    The National Microbiology Laboratory’s director of business development negotiated a licence for use of the vaccine in the viral hemorrhagic fever field and Canada obtained a licence to develop vaccines for Ebola, Marburg virus and Lassa fever.

    The 2014–2015 Ebola outbreak in West Africa garnered unprecedented support for clinical trials.

    In addition to donating over 1000 clinical trial vaccine lots to the WHO, Canada provided funding though the Canadian Institutes of Health Research for phase 1 safety trials and more than $100 million over a six-week period to the WHO through the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development (now Global Affairs Canada) and the International Development Research Centre for phase 3 trials and other Ebola countermeasures.

    The first reported phase 1 studies showed that the vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic.8 A group based in Halifax undertook further phase 1 studies, as reported in the linked study.1

    The next big step — design and implementation of a randomized controlled trial in Guinea — was led by Norway and the WHO but included important Canadian components and funding. Researchers used a unique study design, called ring vaccination,9 which randomized contacts of Ebola index cases to receive either VSV-EBOV or initial placebo with delayed vaccine. Within the rings that received the vaccine, no secondary cases were observed after the 10-day period required to generate an immune response.9 Indeed, this trial may have contributed to control of the Ebola outbreak in Guinea. The vaccine is now on the pathway to licensure and will likely be used in any future Ebola outbreaks.

    Vaccine development moved from cGMP material to a randomized controlled trial in West Africa in a matter of months following the unprecedented Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2015.

    However, this was preceded by 15 years of fundamental research — laboratory and preclinical work — and a huge effort to get cGMP vaccine produced for human use. Canada played a major role in the development of this vaccine by conducting early research, performing phase 1 clinical trials and providing essential funding.

    The vaccine may mean the end of Ebola virus infection as a global health threat, and Canada has contributed a model for global responses to new infectious disease threats.
    References
    1. ElSherif MS, Brown C, MacKinnon-Cameron D, et al. the Canadian Immunization Research Network. Assessing the safety and immunogenicity of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus Ebola vaccine in healthy adults: a randomized clinical trial. CMAJ 2017;189:E819–27. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
    2. Johnson KM, Lange JV, Webb PA, et al. Isolation and partial characterization of a new virus causing acute haemorrhagic fever in Zaire. Lancet 1977;1:569–71. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
    3. Bowen ETW, Lloyd G, Harris WJ, et al. Viral haemorrhagic fever in southern Sudan and northern Zaire: preliminary studies on the aetiologica agent. Lancet 1977;1:571–3. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
    4. Roberts A, Buonocore L, Price R, et al. Attenuated vesicular stomatitis viruses as vaccine vectors. J Virol 1999;73:3723–32. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
    5. Takada A, Robison C, Goto H, et al. A system for functional analysis of Ebola virus glycoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1997;94:14764–9. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
    6. Jones SM, Feldmann H, Ströher U, et al. Live attenuated recombinant vaccine protects nonhuman primates against Ebola and Marburg viruses. Nat Med 2005;11:786–90. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
    7. Feldmann H, Jones SM, Daddario-DiCaprio KM, et al. Effective post-exposure treatment of Ebola infection. PLoS Pathog 2007;3:e2. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
    8. Regules JA, Beigel JH, Paolino KM, et al. ; rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP Study Group. A recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus Ebola vaccine — preliminary report. N Engl J Med 2017;376:330–41. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
    9. Henao-Restrepo AM, Camacho A, Longini IM, et al. Efficacy and effectiveness of an rVSV-vectored vaccine in preventing Ebola virus disease: final results from the Guinea ring vaccination, open-label, cluster-randomised trial (Ebola Ça Suffit!). Lancet 2017;389:505–18. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
    Last edited by Bob; 4th June 2019 at 23:38.

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    Why was the Canadian recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) designed vaccine for Ebola Zaire immunization not 100% effective?

    A few items were pointed out - it takes about 10 days for full immunity to develop in healthy individuals.

    Those that proceeded to get Ebola Zaire were immune compromised individuals (AIDS, widely spread in Africa being one of the possibilities), and that exposure to an Ebola infected individual occurred within the 10 day period needed for effective full immunity.

    What data is lacking - studies on children under 2, what will the vaccine do there - it has been reported that children are part of the affected ones with the NE DR Congo current outbreak.. There have been no articles that could be found that of those affected (statistically children).. were they (the children infected) vaccinated or not with the Canadian Ebola Zaire vaccine...

    from the LANCET report on the Canadian developed Ebola vaccine based on the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) development and studies for safety and effectiveness - https://www.thelancet.com/journals/l...710-0/fulltext

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    Demographic of the outbreak in DR Congo -

    As of 2 June 2019, a total of 2008 EVD cases, including 1914 confirmed and 94 probable cases, were reported. A total of 1346 deaths were reported (overall case fatality ratio 67%), including 1252 deaths among confirmed cases.

    Of the 2008 confirmed and probable cases with known age and sex:
    • 58% (1159) were female, and
    • 29% (585) were children aged less than 18 years, and
    • 13% males (264)

    ref: https://reliefweb.int/report/democra...l-situation-59

    from BBC:
    More than 2,000 cases of Ebola have been recorded in the Democratic Republic of Congo in the last 10 months, officials have said.

    Two thirds of the cases have been fatal, the health ministry added.

    The outbreak in the east of DR Congo is the second biggest in history, with a significant spike in new cases noted in recent weeks.

    But health workers' attempts to contain the outbreak has been hindered by mistrust and violence.

    The World Health Organisation has said that the risk of a global spread is low, but it was very likely cases would spread into neighbouring countries.

    Most Ebola outbreaks are over quickly and affect small numbers of people.

    Only once before has an outbreak been still growing more than eight months after it began - that was the epidemic in West Africa between 2013 and 2016, which killed 11,310 people.

    Here is a brief video (1 min 42 seconds) from "Doctors without Borders" who are a front line organization involved with working within the outbreaks


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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    Ebola Zaire strain has spread into Uganda.

    from: https://www.africanews.com/2019/06/1...med-in-uganda/

    Quote The World Health Organization announced an emergency committee would meet Friday to determine whether to upgrade its assessment of the situation to “a public health emergency of international concern”.

    WHO, in October and again in April, held off declaring the DRC epidemic an emergency of international concern, because the outbreak was contained to one part of DRC.

    For the committee to make the emergency call, it must determine that the epidemic “carries implications for public health beyond the affected State’s national border and may require immediate international action”.
    With the spread to a neighboring country, WHO is considering now doing the "emergency declaration".

    also:
    “We can expect and should plan for more cases in DRC and neighbouring countries,” he said, adding: “There are now more deaths than any other Ebola outbreak in history, bar the West Africa Epidemic of 2013-16, and there can be no doubt that the situation could escalate towards those terrible levels.”

    The Red Cross said it was scaling up efforts to contain the spread of the virus since it was detected in Uganda.

    “This is a worrying development, but we have been preparing for this day for months now,” Robert Kwesiga, Uganda Red Cross Secretary General, said in a statement Wednesday.

    Experts noted that Uganda, which has been on high alert for possible spread of Ebola and has already vaccinated many frontline healthworkers, is relatively well prepared and should be able to limit the virus’ spread.
    Uganda has suffered regular outbreaks of Ebola and Marburg over the years, both high-fatality viral haemorrhagic fevers. Health facilities to treat the diseases are relatively robust.

    Uganda’s worst Ebola outbreak was in 2000 when 425 people were infected. More than half of them died.

    Quote Uganda has vaccinated nearly 4,700 health workers, disease monitoring has been intensified, special treatment units set up and health workers have been trained to recognize symptoms of the disease

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    Is there a danger to Texas?

    Customs Border Patrol reported this last week, that over 500 illegal aliens originating from Africa entered through the Mexico Border into the United States.

    Statistically the breakdown was this:

    Angola – 101
    Cameroon – 6
    Democratic Republic of Congo – 314 (DR CONGO current Ebola outbreak)
    Gabon – 1
    Niger – 1
    Republic of Congo – 130

    Customs and Border Patrol is NOT screening for ANY INFECTIOUS disease and most certainly not screening for Ebola..

    What else could be epidemologically getting in?

    DR Congo is experiencing 87,000 cases of measles, claiming the lives of 1,500.

    Angola and Cameroon are also experiencing measles outbreaks, according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC).

    source: https://www.conservativereview.com/n...creened-ebola/

    Quote Acting DHS Secretary Kevin McAleenan finally admitted publicly at yesterday’s Senate Judiciary Committee hearing that CBP is not screening anyone for diseases.

    “The public health risk—family units are released into our communities with unknown vaccination status and without a standard medical examination for communicable diseases of public health concern, as well as a public health risk of disease outbreak at processing facilities,” McAleenan said in his written testimony.

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