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Thread: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    Quote Posted by Tesla_WTC_Solution (here)
    That photo of the Crimean-Congo virus looks similar to pictures of anthrax infection (skin type). Very horrible!


    Anthrax - Cutaneous


    Melanoma - Cutaneous


    Ebola


    Tularemia Skin Lesion (also bio-weaponized by the Soviets)


    Meningococcal disease - also weaponized


    Tuberculosis of the skin - also weaponized


    SmallPox - weaponized


    Hemorrhagic Dengue cutaneous (rash and blood bleeding under the skin)



    Last edited by Bob; 10th October 2015 at 16:22.

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    Lightbulb Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    Let's review the Haemorrhagic fever viri to understand more of how they are categorized and, where they occur.

    Note: When they show up in a different place, that should be suspect of a bioweapon (mass outbreak potential), or a traveler carrying the disease from one location to another.

    Etiology:

    Hemorrhagic fever viruses belong to four taxonomic families, only one of which, Filoviridae, has been assigned to an order (Mononegavirales):

    Filoviridae
    Arenaviridae
    Bunyaviridae
    Flaviviridae

    Filoviridae - Origin of family and genus names from Latin "filo" for "thread" - branched, circular, "6" or "U"-shaped (the hook)
    — Ebola virus
    ~Five species (Zaire, Sudan, Cote d'Ivoire, Reston, and Bundibugyo) with varying degrees of antigenic cross-reactivity
    — Marburg virus
    ~Virus strains primarily fall into one major class, with less genetic diversity than Ebola virus

    Arenaviridae — Viral particles contain host ribosomes, which appear as dense granules 20–25 nm in diameter and give viruses "sandy" appearance and have a distinct club-shaped or spike projections on viral envelope

    — "Old World" arenaviruses:
    ~Lassa virus — Lassa fever viruses exhibit 4 genetic lineages (3 in Nigeria and 1 in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone)

    — New World arenaviruses that cause disease in humans:
    ~Junin virus (Argentine hemorrhagic fever)
    ~Machupo virus (Bolivian hemorrhagic fever)
    ~Chapare virus (also found in Bolivia)
    ~Guanarito virus (Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever)
    ~Sabia virus (Brazilian hemorrhagic fever)
    ~Whitewater Arroyo virus (found in North America)

    Bunyaviridae — Filamentous nucleocapsid, helical symmetry
    — Phlebovirus (includes Rift Valley fever virus)
    — Nairovirus (includes Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus)
    — Hantavirus (includes Sin Nombre virus [SNV] and agents that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome)

    Flaviviridae — Virions covered with surface projections, Origin of family name from Latin "flavus" for "yellow" (yellow fever virus)
    —Yellow fever virus
    —Kyasanur Forest disease virus
    ~Alkhumra virus (identified in Saudi Arabia in 1995; considered a variant of Kyasanur Forest disease virus)
    ~Nanjianyin virus (identified in China; considered a variant of Kyasanur Forest disease virus)
    — Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus
    — Dengue virus (primary infection, the first exposure rarely causes hemorrhagic fever, secondary exposures with antibody induced enhancement can lead to serious conditions)

    Note: The Sabia Virus has been noted as the virus which causes the Brazilian and Venezuela variants of Haemorrhagic fever outbreaks in those parts of South America.

    ref: http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/infectious-disease-topics/vhf

    Bio-weapon potentials

    In 2000, the CDC published a list of Category A agents (ie, those that are most likely to cause mass casualties if deliberately disseminated, can be released as small aerosols, and require broad-based public health preparedness).

    The list included New World arenaviruses and Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa viruses (CDC 2000:Biological and chemical terrorism).

    According to the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense (Johns Hopkins university), Hemorrhagic fever viruses that pose serious threats as potential biological weapons include the following (Borio 2002):
    • Ebola virus
    • Marburg virus
    • Lassa virus
    • New World arenaviruses
    • Machupo (Bolivian hemorrhagic fever)
    • Junin (Argentine hemorrhagic fever)
    • Guanarito (Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever)
    • Sabia (Brazilian hemorrhagic fever)
    • Rift Valley fever virus
    • Yellow fever virus
    • Kyasanur forest disease virus
    • Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus

    Several other hemorrhagic fever viruses have been identified as human pathogens:

    Examples include -
    • Chapare virus (a New World arenavirus found in Bolivia),
    • Whitewater Arroyo virus (a New World arenavirus found in the western United States),
    • Alkhumra virus (a variant of Kyasanur forest disease virus found in Saudi Arabia), and
    • Nanjianyin virus (a variant of Kyasanur forest disease virus found in Yunnan province, China).
    The role of these viruses as potential bioterrorism agents is unknown.

    The working group determined that several important hemorrhagic fever viruses are less likely than those mentioned above to be used as biological weapons.

    These agents are not discussed further in this overview; they include:
    • Dengue virus (is not transmissible by small-particle aerosol, requires mosquito-vector transmission, and primary dengue infection only rarely causes hemorrhagic fever)
    • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (does not replicate to high concentrations in currently available systems [a barrier to mass production])
    • Hantaviruses (do not replicate to high concentrations in currently available systems)

    ref: http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/infectious...f#overview&1-3

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    The Rift Valley Fever virus of East Africa - "RVF"

    ref: http://www.cdc.gov/onehealth/in-action/rvf-vaccine.html

    In late 1997, a disease outbreak began in East Africa. In three months, 90,000 people became sick and almost 500 people died.

    Many animals in the region also died, causing economic difficulties for the people who relied on these animals for milk, meat, and as a trading commodity.

    The loss of human lives and animals was devastating for the communities.

    This virus was discovered in 1930, and the RVF virus has caused multiple outbreaks in Africa and the Middle East.

    The virus can cause severe disease in both animals and humans. People can be infected from the bite of a mosquito or through direct contact with the blood and tissues of infected animals.

    Observations:

    Most people infected with the RVF virus do not have any signs of disease, but some people will become very sick.

    When symptoms happen, they can develop blindness, encephalitis (brain swelling), and hemorrhagic fever (unusual bleeding), and some die from the disease.

    RVF can also cause disease in many species of livestock, such as sheep, goats, cattle, and camels. Many infected animals, especially young animals, die from the disease. Almost all pregnant animals will miscarry if they are infected with the virus.

    Rift Valley fever virus is an Arbovirus (any of a group of viruses that are transmitted by mosquitoes, ticks, or other arthropods) - classed within Bunyaviridae — appearance is of a Filamentous nucleocapsid, with a helical symmetry subclassed as a "Phlebovirus". The Phleboviri are not just found in Africa, but have been found in Missouri, USA. They are of a genus of viruses that can cause fever, encephalitis, or haemorrhagic fever. In the USA it is called the "Heartland virus". ref: http://www.ajtmh.org/content/early/2.../ajtmh.13-0209 - The "Heartland Virus" was primarily transferred by TICK BITES.

    from ref: http://www.cbwinfo.com/Biological/Pathogens/RVFV.html - what is it, symptoms, use as a bio-weapon potential

    "The disease has an incubation period of 3-12 (typically 2-6) days followed by a sudden onset of headaches, muscle and back aches. This lasts for 3-4 days and can be accompanied by a loss of sense of taste, appetite, and weight. For most patients, this is the end of the disease.

    "Approximately 1-2 weeks after the fever has broken an encephalitis that can be lethal or that can leave significant residua may develop. Other complications can include hemorrhage and jaundice leading to a fulminant hepatitis that often kills and at 2-3 weeks an acute retinitis (inflammation of the retina of the eye) that can lead to blindness in 1-10% of victims can result.

    "Approximately 1% of all victims die. The disease primarily affects livestock with much higher fatalities, including the abortion of fetuses."

    The virus most likely would be used to create "economic terrorism" focusing on livestock used as food sources.

    Agent Properties and Potential Bio-Weapon Uses

    "The virus is unusual for a Bunyavirus in that it is known to be transmissible by aerosols. Lethality is low at about 1% of casualties, but there can be complications leading to blindness.

    "Until the virus crossed the Sahara and entered Egypt in 1977 it was not considered lethal to man.

    "The virus can be transferred to the eggs of its mosquito vectors and these can survive in dry soil for years to hatch when the soil becomes moist.

    "The virus attacks livestock with higher death rates than in humans and so could be used as an economic weapon."

    Is Missouri a home to any bio-labs? Yes.

    http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/...53777693_x.htm

    0/2/2007

    WASHINGTON (AP) —

    "The spread of a deadly livestock disease from a laboratory in Britain has not stopped U.S. officials from considering where to build a new animal disease research lab in this country.

    "The Aug. 3 outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in Britain was tied to a government laboratory and a private vaccine manufacturer in Pirbright, England. Initial tests show a second outbreak, which is still under investigation, was the same strain as the lab-related outbreak.

    "Still, the Homeland Security Department is moving ahead with plans to consider relocating a similar lab isolated on Plum Island, N.Y., to one of five sites in the U.S. The final site for the lab should be announced next year, with the lab operating by 2014.

    "The possibilities include Athens, Ga.; Manhattan, Kan.; Madison County, Miss.; Granville County, N.C., and San Antonio.

    "No matter where we put it it's going to be safe and secure," said James Johnson, Homeland Security's director of national labs and the program manager for the planned lab.

    "Some cattlemen are skittish about building a lab near their livestock operations.

    "The recent situation at Pirbright does give us some concerns," said Ross Wilson, chief executive of the Texas Cattle Feeders Association. His group represents 5,000 cattle feeders in Texas, New Mexico and Oklahoma, an area the group says is the largest cattle feeding region in America.

    "The Missouri Cattlemen's Association opposed efforts to persuade Homeland Security to pick a site in Columbia, Mo., as one of the finalists for the new lab.

    "We thought it posed too many risks," said Jeff Windett, the group's vice president.

    "The livestock association in neighboring Kansas supports its state's effort to bring the lab there but wants assurances it will be built and operated safely, spokesman Todd Domer said.

    "The existing lab's former research facility director, Roger Breeze, said moving the lab to any state with a sizable livestock industry would be the worst place for it because of the risks to animals there."

    ref biolab Missouri - http://www.campussafetymagazine.com/...io-lab/Default

    http://dailyfreepress.com/2012/01/25...g-in-february/ - what goes on in a "bio-lab"


    Ref biocontainment lab: University of Missouri-Columbia Regional Biocontainment Laboratory, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO - http://www.fas.org/programs/bio/map/umcrbl.htm

    Ref understanding bio-labs, safety, containment - http://www.fas.org/programs/bio/biosafetylevels.html


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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    Sabia virus is a member of the Arenavirus family, of the New World group.

    It was isolated from a fatal case of hemorrhagic fever in 1990 in Sao Paulo Brazil.

    Because of extensive liver necrosis (kills the liver cells), it was often mistaken for yellow fever. Brazil is one of the countries that require a Yellow Fever Vaccination card (yellow card) showing one has been inoculated within the last 10 years if one has traveled to countries where there are outbreaks of yellow-fever. ref: http://chicago.itamaraty.gov.br/en-u...ertificate.xml

    Sabia is an arbovirus having an incubation period of normally about 12 days and causing fever, rashes, and other infection-like symptoms as well as hemorrhagic bleeding from internal organs, mouth, nose, and other mucous membranes.

    The virus infected a virologist at Yale in 1994 when he broke a test tube with a sample of the virus over a centrifuge.

    After only an 8-day incubation period, his symptoms included myalgias, a mild headache, a stiff neck, and fever.

    Then he had a prolonged course with hemorrhagic (bleeding) symptoms.

    It was transmitted to him by aerosolized droplets in the lab due to the high-speed centrifugation of a sample of the virus. (A virus which can travel and infect via an aerosol is a consideration of deployment methods with bio-weapons).

    He was put on Ribavirin and recovered.

    The natural reservoir remains unknown, although it is suspected that it to be a rodent found near the small community of Sabia outside of San Paulo Brazil. (Rodent feces, urine. etc.)

    It is assumed that it has a high morbidity and mortality. Hepatocellular (liver cell) damage and hepatitis (symptoms of liver failure) have been described with Sabiá virus and other arenaviruses.

    Why are these diseases (viral hemorrhagic fevers, or VHF's) considered possible weapons? http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/i...s/vhf/vhf.html

    Some VHF viruses – including Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, yellow fever and some New World arenaviruses – can be prepared in liquid form (aerosolized).

    Then they can be released into the air and used to infect people. Other VHFs – including Rift Valley fever – have caused infection when released into the air in the laboratory.

    The former Soviet Union developed the Marburg virus for use as a weapon, and conducted research on Ebola, Lassa, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever and New World arenaviruses.

    The U.S. has done research on all of these viruses, except Marburg and Ebola which were considered too horrible, too uncontrollable.

    North Korea is believed to have developed the yellow fever virus as a weapon.

    ref: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC88979/ - VHF's as WMD's

    People seem to think Ricin, Anthrax, Botulism, the "pox's, i.e smallpox" are candidates for bio-weaponization, and eventually the potential for bio-terrorism. VHF's though are more sinister and able to spread across the population and damage whole regions, or countries, or even the world if the disease rapidly mutates or spreads and the immune system has little or no ability to fight back.

    "The most efficient method of delivering biological agents is thought to be the air-borne route, "spraying" with agents dispersed in aerosols.

    "Wide dissemination of infectious agents and even toxins can be achieved with this method. Low-cost, easily obtainable equipment (as employed in the agricultural industry) can be used to produce aerosols with particle sizes of 1 to 10 μm." - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC88979/

    Soviet development of bioweapons - Lenin had recognized the strategic value of biological agents, and he insisted that experimental work had was carried out in the late 1920s. Each of the Soviet leaders considered bio-weapons strategically useful. The organization known as Biopreparat created 52 key locations scattered through-out the Soviet empire and continued to call it "civilian biotechnology research". As of 2001: "The organization was headed by a general and scientist, Yuri T. Kalinin. “General Kalinin has headed Biopreparat since its inception in 1973, and Western officials say he is the focal point of concern among American and British analysis about whether Moscow has fully given up research into germ warfare."

    "The world center of knowledge for biological warfare agents was and probably still is the former Soviet Union."

    Treatment - supportive for secondary infection and organ failure - use of Ribavirin for the Arenaviruses and Nairovirus (Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus) appears to be useful.
    ref: Merck Manual - http://www.merckmanuals.com/professi...disorders.html


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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    Can Haemorrhagic fever outbreaks happen in a "developed" place like the USA ?

    Apparently such happens. Why is yet to be determined.

    (good to see all the other threads appearing about trying to come up with treatment solutions for the "untreatable (by conventional medicine) viruses" )

    TEXAS
    ref: http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/...3/11/18/16685/ - Dengue Fever Reemerges in Texas November 2013 Scientific American article


    "Late last week Texas public health officials confirmed a new wave of dengue fever has cropped up in the southernmost tip of Texas, marking the first outbreak the state has seen since 2005.

    "The news came on the heels of reporting in Scientific American about how scientists are trying to uncover why the mosquito-borne infection is cropping up in Florida but not in other regions of the nation that host the same Aedes aegypti species of dengue-carrying mosquitoes."

    So what we see is that in Missouri a TICK vectored (see post 23 above) the so called, "Heartland Virus" (Phleboviri) are not just found in Africa, but have been found in Missouri, USA. And in the SA article, there is mention that the Aedes Aegypti mosquito that carries the fevers had been showing up in Florida (such has also shown up in Colorado, and Kansas carrying West Nile Virus).

    "Texas public health officials announced that the same area that saw an outbreak almost a decade ago now has 18 confirmed cases of the disease.

    "Seven are believed to have been locally acquired ."

    "Until recently only three dengue outbreaks had taken hold in the U.S. during the 21st century. Outbreaks occurred in Hawaii (2001); Brownsville, Texas, (2005); and southern Florida, beginning in 2009. In 2013 cases in southern Florida continue to rise, with a total of 23 reports of locally acquired dengue afflicting 21 Floridians and two out-of-state-residents living in Martin and Miami-Dade counties. "

    So, the question is WHY ? Why are viral diseases on the rise? In a developed country like USA?

    Statistically we could start a study, is this a trend world-wide, if so, what are the common denominators?

    Should we keep in mind, bio-terrorism, "developing nations disturbing breeding grounds in the rain-forest", travelers carrying back vectors from endemic regions?

    Awareness is the first step obviously. Determine why and come up with solutions to address a weak immune system, create a solution that the "virus" no longer has to create challenges..

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    ref - CDC - http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/omsk/ - Omsk Hemorrhagic Fever virus



    The vector is the tick. The preferred host for this tick is the MuskRat.

    Omsk hemorrhagic fever (OHF) is caused by Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHF-V), a member of the virus family Flaviviridae.

    OHF was described between 1945 and 1947 in Omsk, Russia from patients with hemorrhagic fever.

    Rodents serve as the primary host for OHFV, which is transmitted to rodents from the bite of an infected tick.

    Common tick vectors include Dermacentor reticulatus, Dermacentor marginatus, Ixodes persulcatus and common rodents infected with OHFV include the muskrat (Ondatra zibethica), water vole (Arvicola terrestris), and narrow-skulled voles (Microtus gregalis).

    Muskrats are not native to the Omsk region but were introduced to the area and are now a common target for hunters and trappers.

    When infected with the virus, muskrats can become ill and die.

    OHF occurs in the western Siberia regions of Omsk, Novosibirsk, Kurgan and Tyumen.

    Pointing out Novosibirsk Russia houses one of the most important WMD bio-labs that the ex-Soviet bloc countries ever had/has.

    Some strange coincidences (accidents, or test releases?) around Novosibirsk, Russia:
    • Trichinellosis Outbreaks (2001-2005) Novosibirsk Russia.
    • H5N1 outbreaks Novosibirsk Russia.
    • Nun moth outbreaks in the Novosibirsk and Tyumen oblasts in 1980–1982 and 1987–1989
    • Measles Cases In Highly Vaccinated Population Of Novosibirsk, Russia, 2000-2005
    • Factory and current outbreak of Shigella.. reported that the number of cases increased to 24 from 8 Oct to 14 Oct 2009, Novosibirsk Russia.
    • Mumps vaccine failure investigation in Novosibirsk, Russia, 2002–2004.
    • 1979 Sverdlovsk anthrax outbreak ..... virus research center at Novosibirsk

    There are a number of symptoms of the OHF virus. In the first 1–8 days the first phase begins. The symptoms in this phase are:
    • chills
    • headache
    • pain in the lower and upper extremities and severe prostration
    • a rash on the soft palate
    • swollen glands in the neck
    • appearance of blood in the eyes (conjunctiva suffusion)
    • dehydration
    • hypotension
    • gastrointestinal symptoms (symptoms relating to the stomach and intestines)
    • patients may also experience effects on the central nervous system

    In 1–2 weeks, some patients may recover, although others might not.

    They might experience a focal hemorrhage in mucosa of gingival, uterus, and lungs, a papulovesicular rash on the soft palate, cervical lymph adenopathy (it occurs in the neck which that enlarges the lymph glandular tissue), and occasional neurological involvement.

    If the patient still has OHF after 3 weeks, then a second wave of symptoms will occur.

    It also includes signs of encephalitis (brain swelling).

    If they recover from OHF they may experience hearing loss, hair loss, and behavioral or psychological difficulties associated with neurological conditions.

    If the sickness does not fade away, the patient will die.

    Hemorrhages occur with some patients.

    MuskRat Love, methinks not.. (a 1976 remake by Captain & Tennille)

    Note: The New York City Center for Disease Control http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/dis...fact_vhf.shtml has a webpage dealing with WMD attacks, Bio-logical weapons. OHF is on the list as a potential biological weapon that could be used. They consider it a serious threat that requires understanding, identification.

    Preventing Omsk Hemorrhagic Fever consists of avoiding activity high in tick exposure. This puts persons engaged in camping, farming, forestry, and hunting (especially the Siberian muskrat) at great risk. Those spending time outdoors should wear protective clothing and use insect repellent for protection.

    Humans can also become infected through contact with blood, feces or urine of a dead or sick muskrat (or any type of rat). The virus can also spread through milk from infected goats or sheep. The infection is highly contagious.

    Last edited by Bob; 10th October 2015 at 16:24.

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    I think most of know that a horrible disease can break out at any time. For me personally, I don't think I really want to make an intensive study of all the hideous diseases that can occur. I just like knowing about simple things like the Beck blood cleaning device and Magnet Pulser, colloidal silver, and perhaps a bit about MMS.

    But thanks for all the detailed descriptions and gory photos.

    Sort of interesting I guess.

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    Quote Posted by Dawn (here)
    I think most of know that a horrible disease can break out at any time. For me personally, I don't think I really want to make an intensive study of all the hideous diseases that can occur. I just like knowing about simple things like the Beck blood cleaning device and Magnet Pulser, colloidal silver, and perhaps a bit about MMS.

    But thanks for all the detailed descriptions and gory photos.

    Sort of interesting I guess.
    I've stated this elsewhere at appropriate times - to view it is to understand it is to discharge it.

    To ignore it is to believe "the panther sitting in the tree" is invisible - the reality is the ex-Soviet bloc were one of the foremost developers of bio-weapons, followed secondly by the US, and other countries who can't get "the atomic bomb".

    Terrorist States are what they are called - to turn the head and think bio-weapons, or strange outbreaks are going to go away is not smart IMHO. If the outbreaks are from natural causes, what are causing them?

    If the outbreaks are terrorist explorations or tests, how will people understand that could be a possibility?

    Earlier in the thread, Lifebringer in post 3 mentions a HEADS UP PEOPLE, and Selene connects the dots and mentions how the powers using espionage steal data back and forth.

    Maybe we could talk about the Bulgarian Secret Service's assassination tactics using chemical/biological weapons despite the Arms Treaties?

    This thread is about the fevers that are appearing, the nasty ones - I am specifically interested in WHY. And WHY if they were deployed were certain countries and people's targeted.

    Is there a who? I don't have the answer to that, and many people are interested in that question.

    Or is it nature? Many people are interested in that question.

    Is it infiltration of the Rain-Forests, humans exposing themselves to things in the Forest which have not been exposed before?

    It was obvious something odd happened in an area where LASSA Fever is endemic (EBOLA appeared) as well as some other unknown viruses. see also http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/m...ges/lassaf.htm

    That should be suspicious enough to have one take a look and ask WHY and what could it be, these other unknowns. There is a list of unknowns.

    If the people in the affected areas are interested in what the unknowns could be, they can ask the same questions, and find the research.

    What has been presented shows good links to the research sites, and medical sites.

    ED NOTE: I am going to do an essential reprint to cover the questions posed - IS IT BIOTERRORISM? in the next post, then get back to covering the other viral fevers on the list of "could-be's" that may have been deployed in the OP observation and questions.
    Last edited by Bob; 29th March 2014 at 02:55.

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    Is it BioTerrorism - this is the report created by by JillS13 on Jan 01, 2009 (Doctors Jill Dekker-Bellamy at the Thales Symposium)

    ref: http://www.slideshare.net/JillS13/Te...ns-Development

    This report was mentioned in the post above so that the reader will have the reference and significances.

    From the report below: We are reaching nearly 80% naiveté in total global population herd naivety.

    It has been asked, Accidental Outbreak, or deliberate, or coincidental.. ?

    --------------------------

    1. Terrorists, States and Biological Weapons Development Emerging Trends Drs. Jill Dekker-Bellamy Thales Symposium

    2. For the past few years I’ve written and run a number of bio-terrorism scenarios and war games. Generally the scenarios were based on mass casualty attacks, hitting multiple European cities, with the goal, of evaluating where our gaps and vulnerabilities lie, be it in aspects of prevention, preparedness, containment or response. I’ve evaluated programmes for national strategic stockpiling, quarantine and isolation law, rapid response from civilian and military sectors and aspects related to critical infrastructure protection.

    3. Today I’ll be discussing what I view, as a serious emerging trend which will alter our concept of bio-terrorism. I’ll explain why there have been a number of recent fundamental shifts related to the scale and scope of an attack, as I believe this is important to our understanding of the future of biological weapons, used in a mass casualty attack and it should also change how we develop criteria for war games and scenarios.

    4. Weapons of Mass Destruction are typically grouped together or referred too as CBRN: Chemical, Biological, Nuclear and Radiology weapons; I will focus today on the threat of biological weapons and terrorism within Europe.

    5. Due to the severe consequences an attack with biological weapons would produce, its imperative nations ensure adequate preparation and increase their ability to identify and respond effectively; within both civilian and defence sectors. Bio-weapons have the capacity to silently infect thousands of people, impact the global economy and disrupt critical infrastructure.

    6. There are several issues related to the deliberate release of a weaponized biological pathogen which help put an attack scenario into context. Today I’d like to focus on three of these areas, which I believe will change our perception, not only of threat but vulnerability and ultimately how we conceive of the scope and scale of an attack. The first issue is that of “ state” biological weapons programmes and bio-weapons being developed in military laboratories around the world today.

    7. The second issue is that of “acquisition” of such weapons by terrorists and more specifically Al Qaeda; and finally, the Third issue is the biological weapons themselves—the types of pathogens which will be used and how we will prepare to meet a mass casualty attack in Europe. A few years ago bio-terrorism experts conceived of terrorist’s use of bio-weapon as a low probability event. Low meaning the chances of a terrorist, NOT supported by a state, being able to achieve high kill ratios or inflicting a truly mass casualty attack in an urban setting was exceptionally low. The reasons for this are numerous but I will touch on a few of them.

    8. Up until about three years ago it was considered among most bio-warfare experts that the technical obstacles a lone terrorist or small group would face in developing a weapon, adequate for a mass casualty attack, would be extremely prohibitive. That’s not to suggest that they couldn’t create a very effective low level bio-attack, but there appeared to be a technical threshold which most sub-state terrorists would have extreme difficulty overcoming.

    9. In 2002 and 2003 our concept of the threat of bio-terrorism changed. The Northern Alliance discovered an anthrax production facility at the Institute of Veterinary Vaccine Production in Kabul, Afghanistan headed up by Mullah Qari Abdullah and run by the Ministry of Agriculture. Abdullah was a high ranking member of the Taliban and he was put in charge of one of Afghanistan’s most modern Laboratories. The lab was discovered to hold a large container with concentrated anthrax spores-which the Taliban had researched extensively.

    10. The 11th volume of al-Qa`ida's 5,000-page Encyclopedia of Jihad is devoted to how to construct CBW. The cover of Mu'Askar al-Battar, an online military magazine published the Saudi branch of al-Qaida. The magazine is based in parts on the "Encyclopedia of Jihad."

    11. bacteriological production which was rather more advanced than current estimates had placed their capability at during this time, and we had better information on warfare labs in several states At the same time the discovery was made of an Al Qaeda manual on biological and who were developing dispersal technology for which there was no known military application. Meaning the labs were developing technologies for use by terrorists.

    12. Documents found in Afghanistan ostensibly reveal that al-Qaeda was doing research on using botulinum toxin to kill 2,000 people. "Al Qaeda tested germ weapons," Reuters, 1 January 2002 Ahmad Rassam, arrested in a plot to bomb LAX, testifies that Bin Laden is personally interested in using low-flying aircraft to disperse BW agents. Al-Qaeda operative Ahmad Rassam, in US custody.

    13. What we’ve witness over the last several years with the evolution of AQ, is their increasing interest in biological weapons and their association with state sponsors. Today we are looking at very sophisticated recruitment techniques employed by AQ across North Africa. In several states, notably Morocco, Algeria, Sudan and Mauritania it is known that AQ is training operatives in biological and chemical weapons and has successfully inserted terrorists into Europe through application processes for refugee status. The types of training received by terrorists are specific to state weapons programmes. It is highly probably that states such as Syria and Iran who sponsor terrorist with conventional weapons are now providing training in biological weapons.

    14. I would argue that the convergence of these formerly distinct threats: terrorists, states and bio-weapons form an emerging threat nexus in which the sum is now greater than the parts. The potential involvement of state’s, poses a significantly greater threat in terms of a successful mass casualty bio-terrorist attack within Europe and elsewhere.

    15. State supported terrorists would not need to steal, divert or buy bio-weapons as we had previously considered in other attack scenarios. Nor would they have to over-come technical obstacles related to weaponization. Bio-weapons are the ultimate deniable operation and there are states who would consider providing such weapons to terrorists-some of whom they have already trained along side their formal military establishment. Here I am talking about Hezbollah and more specifically Fatah al-Islam. There of course are a number of other-but these two top the list.

    16. Two countries have now re-designated bio-weapons as armaments within their conventional inventory. This is a major shift in doctrine and we should be extremely concern about that redesignation. Let me address our concerns regarding state sponsored terrorists and the Al Qaeda network in Europe- Generally speaking the states who maintain an offensive biological weapons programme, work on the following pathogens with the possible exception being Variola Major.

    17. Biological Agent (s) Disease Category A Variola major Smallpox Bacillus anthracis Anthrax Yesinia pestis Plague Clostridium botulinum (botulinum toxins) Botulism Francisella tularensis Tularemia Filoviruses/Arenaviruses Viral hemmorhagic Fevers Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, USA.

    18. Biological weapons in the hands of a state sponsored terrorists-would be a mass casualty event. This alters our perception of risk from a bio-terrorist attack within Europe as well.

    19. Several years ago I remember giving a talk about Al Qaeda’s Chemical and Biological Weapons Directorate—they had a programme with several scientists and we had looked into the background of those scientist –several were Ph.D’s. some were post-docs, they had several bench docs, Al Masri held a PhD in chemistry, he was considered Al Qaeda’s nuclear weapons expert; Ayman al-Zawahri was a doctor and surgeon; Abu Kabab was AQ biological and chemical weapons expert-the Camp in Jalalabad was named after him, Assadalah Abdul Rahman is also a biological weapons expert and leader of the AQ WMD directorate; Abu Bashir al-Yemeni another bio-chem expert.

    20. French Interior Minister Dominique de Villepin claimed that al-Qa'ida affiliates have produced chemical and biological weapons in Georgia's Pankisi Gorge. De Villepin told members of INTERPOL bio-terrorism conference in Lyon, France, that after the fall of the Taliban, al-Qa'ida cells moved to the Pankisi Gorge in order to continue efforts to produce anthrax bacteria, ricin, and botulinum toxin.

    21. To further our concern, previous assessments of the AQ network revealed some disturbing events in the Pankisi and Korda Gorges in S. Ossetia. AQ had infiltrated Chechnya particularly Whabbists, it appeared a couple of AQ scientists were trying to develop some kind of weaponized pathogen or chemical armament in the Pankisi Gorge using small bio-safety containment boxes. By 2003, the AQ network was much farther along than it was estimated it to be.

    22. "Al-Qaeda's biological program was further along, particularly with regard to Agent X, than prewar intelligence indicated. The program was extensive, well-organized, and operated for two years before Sept. 11, but intelligence insights into the program were limited."

    23. I n mid 2004 the Pentagon sent a report to Congress wherein it disclosed for the first time that Al Qaeda had a sophisticated biological weapons research and development effort underway. These endeavors again were still inhibited by technological obstacles. Information we have on biological warfare labs today and the known relationships between AQ and members within the defence establishment of several countries-would obviate the need to steal, divert or buy any kind of biological pathogen or agent. So one of the primary inhibiting factors, that being acquisition of the biological pathogen and weaponization-milling or aerosolizing, is no longer an obstacle.

    24. With the capture of Khalid Shaykh Muhammad, investigators uncovered detailed information about production plans for chemical and biological weapons. According to captured documents, certain members of al-Qa`ida had plans and the requisite material to manufacture cyanide and two biological toxins, and were close to producing anthrax bacteria. Barton Gellman, "al-Qaida Near Biological, Chemical Arms Production," Washington Post, 23 March 2003.

    25. Today we are looking at a very real potential for a mass casualty event due to the stronger associations which have been forged for the last five or so years between states who sponsor terrorism and terrorists. And many of the terrorist organizations we are concerned about –are working right here across Europe—they aren’t off in Afghanistan or Uzbekistan or some remote place, they are here, in fact there are Al Qaeda cores in Brussels with ties to states running offensive BW programmes.

    26. 242 jihadists, 31 attacks, 28 networks . The UK and the Netherlands were found to be at the greatest risk during the period studied, with 12 of the networks operating in Great Britain, seven in the Netherlands, four in France and three each in Spain and Belgium.

    27. In terms of Europe, there are increasing challenges with regard to terrorists who may acquire bio-weapons to promote their goals. This past April two Dutch researcher conducted a study of Jihad networks across Europe, they found no fewer than 242 jihadists, 31 attacks and 28 networks . The UK and the Netherlands were found to be at the greatest risk, during the period studied, with 12 of the networks operating in Great Britain, seven in the Netherlands, four in France and three each in Spain and Belgium.

    28. When you have AQ recruiters like Tarek Maaroufi and Nizar Trabelsi running major opperations in Europe you need to consider the potential for these networks to use bio-weapons in cities like Antwerpen and Brussels-and of course Trabelsi is known to have targeted NATO instillations- There are around 500 hundred NATO instillations across Europe--- and should their be a multi stage, muti target attack-the scale of such an event could be catastrophic.- given that many pathogens are not only highly infective and virulent but highly transmissible.

    29. The point here being that these are very real networks, they aren’t isolated, some have state sponsors and some have been assessed as capable of acquiring and deploying sophisticated bio-weapons in multiple locations.—prior to Maaroufi and Trabelsi’s incarceration they were recruiting for AQ here in Europe and engaged in paramilitary training in Afghanistan and as I mentioned previously we know there were several biological weapons labs in Afghanistan producing both anthrax and botulinium and other agents as well.

    30. Osama bin Laden had seven full bio-chem laboratories which he’d purchased state of the art equipment for through the UAE and Uzbekistan. This is just an example of two who were caught. AQ already has established links with researchers who can produce biological weapons-up to military grade.

    31. What types of weapons are these networks likely to use? Vials: A total of 97 vials-including those with labels consistent with the al Hakam cover stories of single-cell protein and biopesticides, as well as strains that could be used to produce BW agents-were recovered from a scientist's residence.

    32. The types of pathogens or biological agents terrorists are likely to use are variable. The problem with bio-weapons, unlike chemical or nuclear, is it’s the quality and weaponization for dispersal that count not the quantity. You don’t need a stockpile and you don’t need MIRV’d ICBM’s-in fact that’s not longer optimal. Bio- weapons are silent and determining that an attack has occurred can be challenging. Failing to identify an attack at the earliest moment will lead to increased civilian mortality.

    33. To provide a couple examples: One gram of crystalline Botulinum toxin could theoretical kill a million people. It’s the most toxic substance known to man and it’s easy to transport and easy to conceal. As most people know In the 1990s, the Aum Shinrikyo cult in Japan attempted three times to use aerosolized botulinum toxins as a weapon of terror against US military personnel. They obtained the Clostridium botulinum bacteria from soil samples in northern Japan.

    34. Despite skepticism that botulinum poison could be concentrated, stabilized, and aerosolized to make an effective military weapon against a specific enemy target, a botulinum attack against civilian targets may prove disturbingly effective. An aerosol release of botulinum toxins from a single point can kill or incapacitate 10% to 0.5 miles downwind of the release.

    35. Because most warfare labs work on Category A pathogens most of these agents are likely candidates and pose a potential threat to Europe. This includes: anthrax, plague, Bot, tuleremia possibly smallpox and viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF’s), most state warfare labs work defensively on these agents with the exception being smallpox –the US has identified about 21 nations who could and may be working on these agents offensively-meaning they are trying to weaponized. Pervious estimates were put at around 17 but several African states are now considered to be working offensively with support again from other nations.

    36. There is a probability that a few warfare labs may have retained variola major when it was endemic and may be conducting work on it offensively as well.

    37. I would caution here that advances in genomics, synthetic biology, molecular biology, combinatorial chemistry and our understanding of microbial structure and replication will affect the type of weapons developments from state laboratories. This may considerably alter these strains and our ability to either prevent or treat weapons grade agents might now be inhibited, making our reliance on detection an extremely vital tool.

    38. “ Syndromic diagnosis [is] nothing but a big charade, by the time you start getting blips in emergency rooms, it’s too late.” – Dr. C.J. Peters, Former Head of the Centers for Disease Control top security lab.

    39. To give an idea of the scale of what a biological attack would look like in Europe I will briefly go over data on the last outbreak of smallpox, although there are other agents, in my opinion, which carry a significantly higher risk of release over the next few years here in Europe. There are about 48 organisms that could be used offensively--25 viruses, 13 bacteria, and 10 toxins, of these smallpox is considered to be one of the most destructive. The Soviets weaponized it specifically when they knew in 1980 that the World Health Organization had declared it eradicated. As vaccination ceased-we now have the perfect conditions for a virgin soil epidemic, if it were ever released again. We are reaching nearly 80% naiveté in total global population herd naivety.

    40. But to put the threat into context and provide some concept of what would happen if we fail to prepare for a major bio-terrorist attack, I will comment on the Yugoslav outbreak. This outbreak was well documented so it gives us tremendous insights into what we need to do now to prevent and prepare for something like this in the future. Unfortunately back in 1972 they didn’t have the capabilities we do today, which undoubtedly lead to increased spread of this disease and higher casualty rates. It’s also a very good way to understand what happens when there are no preparatory steps in place and no way to immediately respond.

    41. Variola Major or smallpox virus is considered a very reliable and effective biological weapon. The last known European outbreak in 1972, was a natural outbreak, so one would anticipate a battle strain from a defence lab, released deliberately would markedly increase the scale and scope of a planned attack. In the Yugoslav case one index case infected nearly 13 other people and the subsequent ratio of secondary cases remained at 1:13 which is exceptionally high for a natural outbreak-moreover a high proportion went hemorrhagic.

    42. At the time nearly 90 % of the population had been previously inoculated within the last 5 years- this is quite disturbing because within Europe, and it wouldn’t matter what the pathogen was we simply no longer have herd immunity in the case of smallpox but nor can we approach bio-defence as a one bug one drug endeavor there simply is no way to cover an entire population for every pathogen which might be released, so timing is everything in terms identification and containment.

    43. The United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, at Fort Detrick, has accumulated "credible evidence" that a number of terrorist groups and nations have obtained, or are trying to obtain, clandestine stocks of smallpox” and are actively trying to produce weaponized armaments based upon the virus.

    44. In the Yugoslav outbreak- the index case was initially misdiagnosed sent to two other clinics for treatment, when they realized what it was--- the entire medical staff fled the hospital-the military was called in and within three week had vaccinated the entire population; this was conducted under martial law which would not be possible in contemporary Europe. One index case took 19,000 doses of vaccine to control. So one can imagine the burden and scale of a well orchestrated attack.

    45. I would remind you it’s also the pace not the space that adds mortality burden—the quicker we can identify a biological attack the quicker we can take evasive action-and prevent spread, be this through limiting community contact, isolation, quarantine or restricting transport and air travel. The more time that elapses between identification and response the greater the threat of mass casualty.

    46. “ Our world must take bio-security much more seriously…. it would be comparatively easy for terrorists to cause mass death by using agents such as anthrax or weaponised smallpox. Let’s not wait until something has gone terribly wrong to act collectively to meet this threat .” Kofi Annan UN Secretary General (13 Feb 2005).

    47. As I wrap up this presentation, the obvious question which remains is, given all the factors which seemingly point to an attack why hasn’t it occurred yet? My personal answer to this is that the groups who are related too or sponsored by states do not yet posses the level of sophistication to run a entirely silent covert operation- security and intelligence agencies across Europe have therefore successfully intervened in a number of potential operations-however I believe this will change and they will adapt and the threshold for intervention will be higher—and the potential for a successful catastrophic release will increase.

    48. In terms of standard setting its important nations fully understand the threat of biological terrorism within the framework of catastrophic events. Its imperative nations with the resources to prepare and protect their populations against this threat do so specifically in areas related to communication, isolation and quarantine capability. If left unchecked, the silent use of disease in a major city or transportation hub will have severe consequences. The inherent threat of terrorism is that it will produce a far better orchestrated outbreak which could be of an entirely higher magnitude than a natural or spontaneous outbreak of disease.

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    Kyasanur Forest disease virus - another "outbreak" hits - this time INDIA.

    An outbreak of Kyasanur Forest Disease, or ‘Monkey fever’ in the state of Karnataka, India has prompted health officials to take action, according to a report in The New Indian Express today.

    Health authorities have recorded 74 cases of monkey fever and are stepping up preventive measures in the districts of central Karnataka.

    ref: http://www.theglobaldispatch.com/ind...y-fever-16574/ - " Kyasanur Forest Disease outbreak hits in India 22 March 2014 "

    According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) is caused by Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV), a member of the virus family Flaviviridae.

    KFDV was identified in 1957 when it was isolated from a sick monkey from the Kyasanur Forest in Karnataka (formerly Mysore) State, India.

    Since then, between 400-500 humans cases per year have been reported.

    Transmission to humans may occur after a tick bite (Hard ticks (Hemaphysalis spinigera) are the reservoir of KFD virus ) or contact with an infected animal, most importantly a sick or recently dead monkey. No direct person-to-person transmission has been described.

    The symptoms of KFD begin suddenly with chills, fever, and headache. Severe muscle pain with vomiting, gastrointestinal symptoms and bleeding problems may occur 3-4 days after initial symptom onset.

    While most people recover without complications, the illness is biphasic for a subset of patients (10-20%) who experience a second wave of symptoms at the beginning of the third week. These symptoms include fever and signs of neurological manifestations, such as severe headache, mental disturbances, tremors, and vision deficits.

    The estimated case-fatality rate is from 3 to 5% for KFD.

    There is no specific treatment for KFD; however, supportive care for patients with bleeding disorders is important.

    Along with the usual preventive measures against tick bites, a vaccine does exist for KFD and is used in endemic areas of India.

    KFDV can cause epizootics with high fatality in primates.


    Earlier in the week, on the 16th March, this report came in -

    Mangalore: Spotting of a dead monkey in the jurisdiction of the primary health centre in Venur on Saturday has increased the worries and caution about the spread of the Kyasanur Forest Disease, commonly known as 'Monkey Disease' or 'Mangana Kaayile' in local languages.

    Dr Shivakumar, district health officer, said that the carcass was found in a decomposed state. For the analysis of organisms found thereon, it has been sent to a laboratory. The disease first hits the monkeys before spreading to humans.

    Hence the health officials have taken this matter seriously.

    Residents of the area around have been asked to wear clothes fully covering their bodies as a precautionary measure. A team of health department personnel are scouring the whole area for further signs and information.

    The first case to be detected in DK was of a woman from Beluvai near Moodbidri. Currently undergoing treatment in the intensive care unit of the Wenlock hospital, she is still not out of danger. Signs of infection are still left in a part of the brain, said hospital sources.

    The second is of one Suresh from Tirthahalli of Shimoga district. First he was admitted to Meggan hospital in Shimoga. The doctors there asked him to be taken to the Wenlock hospital in the city. ref: http://www.mangalorean.com/news.php?...dcastid=467250

    A variant of KFDV, characterised serologically and genetically as Alkhurma haemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV), has been recently identified in Saudi Arabia. KFDV and AHFV share 89% sequence homology, suggesting common ancestral origin. ref: Alkhumra virus infection, a new viral hemorrhagic fever in Saudi Arabia. J Infect. 2005 Aug; 51(2):91-7. Epub 2005 Jan 11


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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    Alkhumra outbreaks reported in Saudi Arabia and southern Egypt.

    ref: CDC - http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/alkhurma/Alkhurma-FactSheet.pdf - "FACTS", related link, "TICKS" - http://www.cdc.gov/ticks/


    Quote Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever (AHF) is caused by Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV), a tick-borne virus of the Flavivirus family. The virus was initially isolated in 1995 from a patient in Saudi Arabia. Subsequent cases of AHF have been documented in tourists in Egypt, extending the geographic range of the virus and suggesting that geographic distribution of the virus is wide and that infections due to AHFV are underreported.
    The persistence of the virus within tick populations, and the role of livestock in the disease transmission process, are not well understood. The AHFV virus is a variant of Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD), a tick-borne Flavivirus found in Karnataka State and environs in India.

    Since the first description of AHFV, several hundred cases of AHF have been reported. Cases appear to peak in spring and summer. Further study of AHFV is needed to improve public health measures.

    Transmission
    Transmission of AHFV is not well understood. AHFV is a zoonotic virus, and its described tick hosts (the soft tick Ornithodoros savignyi and the hard tick Hyalomma dromedari) are widely distributed. People can become infected through a tick bite or when crushing infected ticks. Epidemiologic studies indicate that contact with domestic animals or livestock may increase the risk of human infection. No human-to-human transmission of AHF has been documented.

    Although livestock animals may provide blood meals for ticks, it is thought that they play a minor role in transmitting AHFV to humans.

    No transmission through non-pasteurized milk has been described, although other tick-borne flaviviruses have been transmitted to humans through this route.

    Signs and Symptoms
    Based on limited information, after an incubation period that could be as short as 2-4 days, the disease presents initially with non-specific flu-like symptoms, including fever, anorexia (loss of appetite), general malaise, diarrhea, and vomiting; a second phase has appeared in some patients, and includes neurologic and hemorrhagic symptoms in severe form. Multi-organ failure precedes fatal outcomes. No repeated or chronic symptoms have been reported following recovery. Evidence suggests that a milder form may exist,where hospitalization is not required.

    Thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and elevated liver enzymes are nearly always observed in patients who have been hospitalized.

    Risk of Exposure
    Contact with livestock with tick exposure are risk factors for humans, as is contact with infected ticks, whether through crushing the infected tick with unprotected fingers or by a bite from an infected tick. Slaughtering of animals which may acutely but asymptomatically infected may also be a risk factor, as it is possible that infected animals develop a viremia without obvious clinical
    signs.

    Diagnosis
    Clinical diagnosis could be difficult due to similarities between AVHF, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), and Rift Valley fever(RVF), which occur in similar geographic areas. Laboratory diagnosis of AHF can be made in the early stage of the illness by molecular detection by PCR or virus isolation from blood. Later, serologic testing using enzyme-linked immunosorbent serologic assay (ELISA) can be performed.

    Treatment
    There is no standard specific treatment for the disease. Patients receive supportive therapy, which consists of balancing the patient’s fluid and electrolytes, maintaining oxygen status and blood pressure, and treatment for any complications. Mortality in hospitalized patients ranges from 1-20%.

    Prevention
    Given that no treatment or specific prophylaxis is presently available, prevention and increased awareness of AHFV are the only recommended measures. Complete control of ticks and interruption of the virus life cycle is impractical; in endemic regions, it is important to avoid tick-infested areas and to limit contact with livestock and domestic animals.

    Individuals should use tick repellants on skin and clothes and check skin for attached ticks, removing them as soon as possible. Tick collars are available for domestic animals, and dipping in acaricides is effective in killing ticks on livestock. People working with animals or animal products in farms or slaughterhouses should avoid unprotected contact with the blood, fluids, or tissues of any potentially infected or viremic animals.

    GENERAL TICK INFORMATION -

    Symptoms of Tickborne Illness
    Many tickborne diseases can have similar signs and symptoms.

    If you have been bitten by a tick and develop the symptoms below within a few weeks, a health care provider should evaluate the following before deciding on a course of treatment:

    Your symptoms
    The geographic region in which you were bitten helps to understand the infection source.

    Diagnostic tests, if indicated by the symptoms and the region where you were bitten should be preformed to confirm the infection and determine if a type of treatment can be performed.

    The most common symptoms of tick-related illnesses are:
    • Fever/chills: With all tickborne diseases, patients can experience fever at varying degrees and time of onset.
    • Aches and pains: Tickborne disease symptoms include headache, fatigue, and muscle aches. With Lyme disease you may also experience joint pain. The severity and time of onset of these symptoms can depend on the disease and the patient's personal tolerance level.
    • Rash: Lyme disease, southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI), Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), ehrlichiosis, and tularemia can result in distinctive rashes:

    In Lyme disease, the rash may appear within 3-30 days, typically before the onset of fever.

    The Lyme disease rash is the first sign of infection and is usually a circular rash called erythema migrans or EM. This rash occurs in approximately 70-80% of infected persons and begins at the site of a tick bite. It may be warm, but is not usually painful. Some patients develop additional EM lesions in other areas of the body several days later.

    The rash of (STARI) is nearly identical to that of Lyme disease, with a red, expanding "bulls eye" lesion that develops around the site of a lone star tick bite. Unlike Lyme disease, STARI has not been linked to any arthritic or neurologic symptoms.

    The rash seen with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) varies greatly from person to person in appearance, location, and time of onset.

    About 10% of people with RMSF never develop a rash.

    Most often, the rash begins 2-5 days after the onset of fever as small, flat, pink, non-itchy spots (macules) on the wrists, forearms, and ankles and spreads to the trunk.

    It sometimes involves the palms and soles. The red to purple, spotted (petechial) rash of RMSF is usually not seen until the sixth day or later after onset of symptoms and occurs in 35-60% of patients with the infection.

    In the most common form of tularemia, a skin ulcer appears at the site where the organism entered the body. The ulcer is accompanied by swelling of regional lymph glands, usually in the armpit or groin.

    In about 30% of patients (and up to 60% of children), ehrlichiosis can cause a rash. The appearance of the rash ranges from macular to maculopapular to petechial, and may appear after the onset of fever.

    Tickborne diseases can result in mild symptoms treatable at home to severe infections requiring hospitalization.

    Although non-viral tick infections generally are easily treated with antibiotics, these diseases can be difficult for physicians to diagnose.

    However, early recognition and treatment of the infection decreases the risk of serious complications.

    So see your doctor immediately if you have been bitten by a tick and experience any of the symptoms described here-in.


    ALKV BACKGROUND:

    Alkhurma virus (ALKV) was discovered in Saudi Arabia in 1995 in a butcher with suspected Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. His fever developed after he had slaughtered a sheep from the city of Alkhurma. Diagnostic testing identified a flavivirus as the etiologic agent (1,2).

    Subsequently, ALKV was isolated from the blood of 6 male butchers in Jeddah, and another 4 cases were diagnosed serologically. This disease was named Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever (ALKHF) because the first case was reported from the Alkhurma governorate (1).

    After initial virus identification, from 2001 through 2003, another 37 suspected ALKHF cases, of which 20 were laboratory confirmed, were reported in Alkhumra district, south of Jeddah (3).

    Among the 20 patients with confirmed cases, 11 had hemorrhagic manifestations and 5 died.

    Among the animals raised, sheep were significantly associated with the disease.

    A similar seasonal pattern of disease (March–July) was found in western provinces (Jeddah and Makkah) among 11 case-patients who recovered during 1994–1999.

    References
    (1) Zaki AM. Isolation of a flavivirus related to the tick-borne encephalitis complex from human cases in Saudi Arabia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1997;91:179–81.


    (2) Qattan I, Akbar N, Afif H, Azmah SA, Khateeb T, Zaki A, A novel flavivirus: Makkah region 1994–1996. Saudi Epidemiology Bulletin. 1996;1:2–3.

    (3) Madani TA. Alkhumra virus infection, a new viral hemorrhagic fever in Saudi Arabia. J Infect. 2005;51:91–7.

    also: http://www.academicjournals.org/jour...t/446A6AA12568

    "New, emerging, and re-emerging infectious disease incidences have increased rapidly and frequently with significant human and financial costs. Most of the viral infectious diseases are of zoonotic nature, and public awareness of the human health risks of infections have grown in recent years, since viral epidemics such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, West-Nile virus, and Ebola virus diseases have emerged over the past two decades.

    "The Alkhumra virus, which belongs to the flaviviruses family, discovered in Saudi Arabia in the mid-1990s causes hemorrhagic fevers among cattle farmers and butchers.

    "Flaviviruses are transmitted through arthropods, and most of them are of zoonotic nature. Epidemiological data indicates that Alkhumra virus (ALKV) is transmitted from livestock animals to humans by direct contact with animals or by mosquito bites, but not by ticks.

    In the recent past the incidence of alkhumra virus infection has notably increased and to date, no specific treatment or containment strategies have been developed for Alkhumra virus infection, thus, there is a possibility of a major outbreak if appropriate prevention and control strategies are not adopted.

    "This review presents current facts and future concerns of the disease around the Gulf region."

    Key words: Alkhumra virus, hemorrhagic fever, Saudi Arabia, tick-borne infection.

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    USA WhiteWater Arroyo hemorrhagic virus


    Distribution:


    There are studies being performed by CDC to determine if the virus found in the White-Throated Wood-Rat in California, Arizona, and Colorado is the same, or a slightly modified variant of the virus. ref: http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/7/3...06_article.htm

    Background:
    The Tacaribe (New World) viral complex includes Tamiami (TAM), Whitewater Arroyo (WWA), Pichindé (PIC), Amapari, Flexal, Guanarito, Junin, Latino, Machupo, Oliveros, Parana, Pirital, Sabiá, and Tacaribe viruses.

    The assumed reservoir for WWA is the white-throated rat, Neotoma albigula.


    In Colorado the white-throated wood-rat is distributed as follows (but do not necessarily carry WWA virus)


    ref: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4931a1.htm - Fatal illness (California), similarity with Texas infection

    "The California Department of Health Services (CDHS) and the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) recently identified evidence of infection with an arenavirus in three patients hospitalized with similar fatal illnesses. This report summarizes the investigation of these cases."

    Patients had onset of illness during June 1999--May 2000. They were aged 14, 30, and 52 years; all were female. Two resided in southern California and the third in the San Francisco Bay area. The patients did not have any activities in common, and none had a history of travel outside California during the 4 weeks preceding their illness.

    Illnesses were associated with nonspecific febrile symptoms including fever, headache, and myalgias. Within the first week of hospitalization, lymphopenia (25--700 per mm3) was observed in all three patients, and thrombocytopenia (30,000--40,000 per mm3) was seen in two. All three patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome and two developed liver failure and hemorrhagic manifestations.

    All patients died 1--8 weeks after illness onset.

    Arenavirus-specific RNA was detected in one or more materials from each patient using a nested RT-PCR assay."

    "The nucleotide sequence of the PCR products amplified from the patients essentially were identical and shared 87% identity with the Whitewater Arroyo (WWA) virus prototype strain (an arenavirus recovered from a Neotoma albigula [white-throated woodrat]) from New Mexico in the early 1990s). Serologic assays (indirect fluorescent antibody assay and IgG enzyme immunoassay) for arenavirus antibody were negative for all three patients.

    Family members of the three patients were interviewed about activities and potential exposure sites during the month before illness onset. One patient reportedly cleaned rodent droppings in her home during the 2 weeks before illness onset; no history of rodent contact was solicited for the other two patients."

    WWA is found in North America among woodrats (Neotoma spp.) (1,2) and has not previously been known to cause disease in humans. Of 20 Neotoma spp. with species status, nine occur in the United States (3). The geographic range of these species incorporates most of the United States. At least five of the nine U.S. species may harbor the virus; however, complete description of its distribution requires further study (1,2). The abundance and habits of woodrats suggest that potential contact between Neotoma spp. and humans is limited.

    PREVENTION
    Preventive measures for arenavirus infections include control and exclusion of rodents in and around human dwellings.

    Direct contact with rodents, their excreta, and nesting materials should be avoided.

    Areas and surfaces potentially contaminated by rodent excreta should be wet with a disinfectant before removal.

    Rodent carcasses and materials should be double-bagged before disposal.

    Although rare, person-to-person transmission has been documented for some New World viruses; nosocomial transmission can occur through direct contact with an infected patient's blood, urine, or pharyngeal secretions.

    Standard precautions should be used during treatment of patients with suspected arenavirus infection and standard precautions plus contact/droplet/aerosol-specific precautions should be used for patients with severe clinical manifestations.
    Last edited by Bob; 10th October 2015 at 16:31.

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    DTRA - (Defense Threat Reduction Agency - Washington DC) has been working with scientists to develop a treatment (cure?) for the Ebola, possibly Marburg hemorrhagic fever viri.

    Some effective treatments are currently possible - see below and the reference(s)

    ref: http://www.scmp.com/lifestyle/techno...ly-ebola-virus

    "Much of the research has been funded by the US government. Tekmira Pharmaceuticals, for example, began its first human trial of a drug in January with backing from the Defence Department.

    "There are already candidate cocktails that can be used in an emergency," said Erica Saphire, a professor at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California, who is leading a consortium of 15 public and private institutions to develop treatments to fight the virus. "

    "Tekmira's product, known as TKM-Ebola, is being developed under a US$140 million contract with the Defence Department. Tekmira, based in Canada, this month won fast-track designation from the US Food and Drug Administration to develop the experimental treatment."

    "Stephan Guenther, head of the Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine in Hamburg, Germany, "If you count all the cases of Ebola since the discovery, it's below 10,000, so it's definitely not of commercial interest," he said.

    "Guenther led a team of researchers that showed an experimental treatment called Favipiravir, developed by Fujifilm's Toyama Chemical unit as a flu treatment, cleared Ebola virus and prevented mice from dying in a study published in February."

    "Mapp Biopharmaceutical, a closely held company in San Diego, is developing another, along with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the NIH and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, (DTRA)."

    "Mapp's product cocktail prevented 43 per cent of monkeys with symptoms of Ebola from dying in a study published last year in Science Translational Medicine. Previous studies showed the treatment, called MB-003, saved all of the monkeys when given an hour after exposure to the virus, and two-thirds of them when administered 48 hours after exposure."

    Why haven't effective treatments been developed by industry one may ask?

    Here is the answer:

    "The 'relative rarity' of Ebola outbreaks, and the fact that they are largely limited to rural areas of poor African nations, makes the disease an unattractive target for big drugmakers (can you say greed for $$$).

    "Instead, much of the research has been funded by the US government.

    "Tekmira Pharmaceuticals, for example, began its first human trial of a drug in January with backing and funds from the US Defense Department."

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    Russians are targeting specific ethnicities on the bioweapons front. Let's hope Cold War 2.0 doesn't go hot.

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    Americans and Chinese are doing the same, why don't you mention it as well?

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    Quote Posted by Flash (here)
    Americans and Chinese are doing the same, why don't you mention it as well?
    It was mentioned in a post above, that vaccine, antidotes and treatments were developed by Canada in their bioweapons/L4 labs, as well as the US labs, as well as the Japanese labs, who are producing vaccines or solutions to the diseases.

    The point is folks who have had an economic interest in profiting off disease, big Pharma, has NOT wanted to develop a solution lest it cost 8000$ a dose and maybe 100 doses required. Economics in other words..

    In another post above, the antidotes or solutions being worked on has been listed, with LINKS to their website.

    One can do a search for Bioweapons labs and get many links - for instance - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1490304/ - "After the First World War, France, the UK, the USA and the Soviet Union all suspected that the defeated Germany was secretly developing biological weapons to refine its wartime campaign of infecting pack animals with anthrax and glanders. "

    For a reference to Chinese bioweapons and other programs, this link seems particularly interesting - http://online.sfsu.edu/rone/GEessays...%20Weapons.htm - from the page:

    "The most senior defector from the Soviet germ-warfare program says in a new book that Soviet officials concluded that China had suffered a serious accident at one of its secret plants for developing biological weapons, causing two major epidemics.


    The book also reports that Soviet researchers tried to turn HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, into a weapon and that even as the last Soviet president, Mikhail Gorbachev, pursued peace openings with the West, he ordered a vast expansion of the deadly effort to turn germs and viruses into weapons of mass destruction.

    The defector, Kanatjan Alibekov, now known as Ken Alibek, says in the book that as deputy director of a top branch of the Soviet program, he knew of the disaster in China because he saw secret Soviet intelligence reports twice a month.

    Spy satellites peering down at China found what seemed to be a large biological-weapons laboratory and plant near a remote site for testing nuclear warheads, he wrote. Intelligence agents then found evidence that two epidemics of hemorrhagic fever swept the region in the late 1980s.

    The area had never previously known such diseases, which cause profuse bleeding and death.

    "Our analysts," Alibek said, "concluded that they were caused by an accident in a lab where Chinese scientists were weaponizing viral diseases." Viral scourges that cause intense bleeding include Marburg fever and the dreaded Ebola virus. Both are endemic to Africa.

    China has signed a 1972 treaty banning biological weapons. During World War II it became one of the few modern countries to experience their horrors when Japanese attackers sowed epidemics there, killing thousands of Chinese.

    U.S. intelligence agencies have long suspected that China harbors a biological-weapons program. Early in 1993, shortly after Alibek fled to the United States, the outgoing Bush administration accused Beijing of having an active germ-warfare effort, which it has denied.

    The United States unilaterally ended its own germ-weapons program in 1969.

    Last week, the Chinese Embassy in Washington did not return several telephone calls seeking comment, and an American expert who tracks germ intelligence said he did not know of any such epidemics in China.

    The allegation is one of several in Alibek's new book, "Biohazard," which was written with a journalist, Stephen Handelman, and is being published by Random House this week. It was made available to The New York Times in advance.

    U.S. intelligence officials who know what Alibek said in secret debriefings after his defection in 1992 give his new account considerable credence. They have called him highly believable about the subjects he knows firsthand, like the Soviet biological-weapons program from 1975 to 1992, when he served as one of Moscow's top germ warriors. (He is less reliable, they say, on political and military issues that he knows secondhand.)

    ED NOTE: - I pointed out in an earlier post in this thread, that the Soviets caused the azo-dyes, known to kill/interfere with major viral infections such as the AID retroviri to be blocked, and sidetracked researchers from coming up with effective treatments and antidotes to the deadly viri.

    The book asserts that Gorbachev, in his "characteristic scrawl," signed a five-year plan for 1985 to 1990 that ordered the most ambitious effort ever for the development of deadly germs and viruses, including smallpox, as weapons. In 1980, world health authorities declared the ancient scourge eradicated from all human populations.


    "Gorbachev's Five-Year Plan -- and his generous funding, which would amount to over $1 billion by the end of the decade -- allowed us to catch up" with the American biological weapons program, which was making great strides, Alibek writes.

    In 1988, as Gorbachev's glasnost and perestroika reform campaigns were in full swing and the Russians and Americans were negotiating new arms-control treaties, officials "at the highest levels," Alibek said, ordered the arming of giant SS-18 intercontinental ballistic missiles aimed at New York, Los Angeles, Seattle and Chicago with anthrax and other deadly germs.


    The secret move came as Soviet leaders publicly waged a peace offensive.

    In his book "Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and the World" (Harper & Row, 1987), Gorbachev argued that for decades Western experts had falsely accused Moscow of weapon horrors and that the real engine of the arms race was the United States.

    When contacted through his office in Moscow, Gorbachev sidestepped Alibek's charges and questions about the germ program. His spokesman said that Gorbachev did not know Alibek, and that there was "no sense in getting involved in an endless process of commenting."

    William C. Patrick III, a key figure in the United States' former germ-warfare program who helped debrief Alibek after his defection in 1992, said many of the book's assertions were consistent with what Alibek had told U.S. officials in secret sessions at the time. He called the information Alibek had provided "critical" to Washington's understanding of the Soviet program.

    "He laid it all out for the first time," Patrick said.

    Among the book's new disclosures are:

    -- Moscow mastered the art of rearranging genes to make harmful microbes even more potent and harder to counteract. Anthrax, a top biological warfare agent that causes high fever and death, was genetically altered (GMOs), he says, to resist five kinds of antibiotics.

    -- The top-secret program obtained a sample of HIV, the AIDS virus, from the United States in 1985 and tried unsuccessfully to turn the slow killer into a weapon.

    -- A senior military official told him that the Soviet Union had waged germ warfare in Afghanistan from planes, spraying armed rebels with glanders in an unsuccessful bid to subdue them. Glanders is a chronic bacterial disease of horses that can be highly lethal in humans.

    -- Under a top-secret project known as Bonfire, Soviet scientists in 1989 discovered "a new class of weapons" -- now called bioregulators -- that could "damage the nervous system, alter moods, trigger psychological changes and even kill." The KGB secret police agency was particularly interested in them because they "could not be traced by pathologists." A Soviet program called Flute worked on germs and other agents that could be used mainly for political assassinations.
    (I have emphasized this section as no doubt, absolutely NO DOUBT in my mind this was released into the environment - we can see continual reports (from people reporting said symptoms, acting out-of-character, etc.) - you can even search this FORUM and others for the bizarre sensations, psychological issues etc.)


    -- While directing about half of the Soviet biological-warfare work force, he says, he discovered that an abandoned factory in Kazakhstan where he and his childhood friends had played after school had once made noxious germs meant to kill enemy crops and livestock.

    In his book, Alibek, a Kazakh by birth, says the Soviet state devoted a considerable part of its treasury to readying deadly germs for war. At its peak in the late 1980s, he writes, the program had 60,000 employees working at scores of sites throughout the Soviet Union.

    "The Americans had just two specialists in anthrax," he wrote of his observations during his first tour of U.S. sites as part of a Soviet-American inspection agreement in 1991. "We had two thousand."


    About a dozen of the 40 institutes that were part of Biopreparat, the civilian cover group that Alibek helped run, were used "exclusively" for offensive agents and weapons for the military, he wrote.

    After he fled Russia and took up residence in the United States, Alibek says, he was approached by intermediaries of emissaries of several countries that courted him for his deadly expertise, including South Korea, France and Israel. The work for which he was to be hired was defensive, the intermediaries said.

    At least 25 people who used to work in the Soviet germ-warfare program now work in the United States in non-weapons work, he writes. It is impossible to know how many have been recruited overseas. But there is no doubt, he adds, "that their expertise has been attracting bidders," including countries unfriendly to the United States.

    The germ warriors staying behind apparently can be dangerous as well. He said he had recently received a disconcerting flier from a Moscow-based company, Bioeffekt Ltd. "It offered, by mail order, three genetically engineered strains of tularemia," Alibek said.

    The disease, spread by a highly infectious germ, causes chills, fever, muscle aches, fatigue and pneumonia-like symptoms, and can be fatal. The altered bacteria, he said, reportedly have new genes that increase the disease's virulence. The flier, Alibek said, boasted that the germs were produced by "technology unknown outside Russia."

    Alibek has said he decided to speak out publicly to fight the spread of biological weapons and to seek absolution for having made them.

    ED NOTE:
    Above in this post - the keyword "Bioregulators ("it") " is probably one of THE hottest bioweapons issues today as it was when the Soviets were developing such. (That deserves a thread of its own. )

    It would be important to have fast dedicated "bio-sensing chips" available to recognize "it",(Freescale, a unique state-of-the-art chip "company" was previously known as Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector, uses Malaysia as a low cost manufacturing site for "chips").

    A bioregulator (of a certain type) coupled into a Genetically Engineered Organism (GMO) could allow the specific bioregulator protein to manifest through an innocuous vector (such as GMO corn, or a H5N1 flu-bug.. A specifically designed biosensor chip could monitor for such levels in the population, or environment, for instance, and would be a key item in any military program's sensory system, and considered "highly sensitive".

    Biosensor chip reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10945455 (from National Institutes of Health website)

    Experimentation on humans
    - laws (interesting post on Avalon about policy) - see this forum post
    http://projectavalon.net/forum4/show...l=1#post455249 - discussing "laws" (?) allowing experimentation. I haven't checked the references there yet to see if such is still on the books.

    Links for further research information:
    Last edited by Bob; 1st April 2014 at 04:31. Reason: added a cross-post reference

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    Guanarito virus has been listed as a Category A Bioweapon potential. (Venezuelan Haemorrhagic fever)

    http://www.utmb.edu/gnl/ - The facility at Galveston Texas, National Biocontainment Laboratories has had a vial of Guanarito go "missing" (assumed destroyed)..

    Vial goes missing - http://www.nti.org/gsn/article/poten...hes-texas-lab/

    Global Security Newswire - New report March 26, 2013

    "WASHINGTON -- A high-security biodefense laboratory in Texas has lost track of a lethal hemorrhagic fever virus sample in an incident said to underscore recent government warnings about how the United States oversees the deadly disease agents it holds for study.

    "Experts and researchers at other institutions have generally chalked up the Guanarito virus sample's disappearance to an clerical slipup at the Galveston National Laboratory. Auditors last week failed to locate the material inside a freezer in the facility's Biosafety Level 4 section, which is designated for handling potentially fatal, aerially transmissible pathogens that have no known cure.

    "The head of the University of Texas Medical Branch, which oversees the laboratory, on Saturday said the virus had probably been destroyed but authorities were still pushing to identify the cause of the misplacement."

    How does one slip-up and "loose" a deadly weaponized Haemorrhagic fever sample culture?

    In a high security bio-laboratory?

    "Guanarito and related viruses typically spread to humans through contact with infected rodents or their excretions, but "infection can also occur by inhalation of tiny particles soiled with rodent urine or saliva," according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention." In other words, Aerosols, the prime distribution method for a bioweapon.. And this is a CLASS-A virus, high potential.

    GNL justifies it harboring deadly viruses as follows: "GNL provides much needed research space and specialized research capabilities to develop therapies, vaccines, and diagnostic tests for naturally occurring emerging diseases such as SARS, West Nile encephalitis and avian influenza – as well as for microbes that might be employed by terrorists."

    They explain the procedures needed to work in their facility: http://www.utmb.edu/gnl/safety/BSL4Stickman.shtml

    ref: http://www.utmb.edu/gnl/safety/BSL4Stickman.pdf

    "The advance preparation it takes for a scientist to conduct research within a BSL4 laboratory at UTMB is extensive. The approval process and training required for work within a maximum containment laboratory on this campus underscores both the importance of the research and our commitment to safety."

    It is hard to believe such a lost vial could happen with all that in place. They emphasize, exiting the containment area requires showers and there is no way that anything could be hidden during such a shower (er...) and that there are extensive checks and rechecks.. http://www.utmb.edu/gnl/safety/

    What are the signs and symptoms of a Guanarito infection?
    from: http://ci.vbi.vt.edu/pathinfo/pathog...ito_virus.html (highly detailed page report)

    Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever (VHF) is a severe disease characterized by fever, malaise, sore throat, followed by abdominal pain, diarrhea, and a variety of hemorrhagic manifestations and convulsions.

    The arenavirus Guanarito is the causal agent and the virus natural reservoir is the rodent Zygodontomys brevicauda (cane mouse) and the cotton rat Sigmodon alstoni.

    The disease affects agricultural male workers, between 14-54 years of age, mainly from Guanarito municipality of Portuguesa state and adjacent regions of Barinas State. (hence the name is based on the region it was discovered)


    Since the VHF emergency in 1989 up to 1997, 220 cases have been reported with a fatality rate of 33%.

    Epidemiological information suggests that VHF has a cyclic behavior, with epidemic periods of high incidence every 4-5 years. During the interepidemic periods few VHF cases are reported (Salas et al., 1998).

    Outbreak Locations:
    The currently recognized area of VHF endemicity occupies approximately 9,000 square km in the southern and southwestern portions of Portuguesa State and adjacent regions in Barinas State in the central plains (llanos) of Venezuela (de Manzione et al., 1998).


    B. Transmission Information:
    From: Zygodontomys brevicauda To: Human , With Destination: Human (Fulhorst et al., 1999):
    Mechanism: Chronic infections in specific rodents (usually 1 or 2 closely related species) appear to be crucial to the long-term persistence of arenaviruses in nature. To date, virtually all isolates of GTO virus from wild rodents have been recovered from Z. brevicauda, suggesting that this rodent species is the principal host of GTO virus.

    The results of the present study indicate that GTO virus can establish a chronic (lifelong) viremic infection in Z. brevicauda and that chronically infected animals persistently shed infectious virus in their urine and OP secretions.

    Based on these experimental results and the frequency that GTO virus has been recovered from captured wild cane mice, it is concluded that Z. brevicauda is the natural reservoir of GTO virus (Fulhorst et al., 1999). Presumably, human infection occurs outdoors.

    Thus one might expect persons having frequent contact with rodent-infested grassland habitats to be at higher risk of contacting VHF (de Manzione et al., 1998).

    From: Human To: Human , With Destination: Human (de Manzione et al., 1998):
    Mechanism: From the 165 VHF patients included in this study, there was one person who might have been a secondary or contact case. This individual was a 30-year-old housewife who developed a fatal illness, compatible clinically and histopathologically with VHF, 19 days after her husband was hospitalized with a nonfatal confirmed Guanarito infection (de Manzione et al., 1998). (The infection is assumed then to be able to be spread with contact and transfer of fluids, coughing, sneezing, etc.)

    Control prevention:

    Rodent control (Vainrub and Salas, 1994):
    Description: Prevention of arenavirus disease consists of interdicting transmission from rodents to humans, from humans to humans, and from infected specimens to laboratory personnel. Strategies for avoiding contact between rodents and humans have been effective in BHF. In VHF, the evidence suggests that the transmission occurs around houses and fields as in BHF (Vainrub and Salas, 1994).

    Because of the missing vial (suspicious) it seems appropriate to publish this: (this is the procedure and warnings from CDC as to how to handle a suspected outbreak)

    Intentional Release information :
    Description:
    Emergency contact: If clinicians feel that VHF is a likely diagnosis, they should take two immediate steps: 1) isolate the patient, and 2) notify local and state health departments and CDC (MMWR, 1988). Report incidents to state health departments and the CDC (telephone {404} 639-1511; from 4:30 p.m. to 8 a.m., telephone {404} 639-2888).

    Information on investigating and managing patients with suspected viral hemorrhagic fever, collecting and shipping diagnostic specimens, and instituting control measures is available on request from the following persons at Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia;

    for all telephone numbers, dial 404-639 + extension: Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) Officer, Special Pathogens Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases (ext. 1344);

    Chief, Special Pathogens Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases: Joseph B. McCormick, M.D. (ext. 3308);

    Senior Medical Officer, Special Pathogens Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases: Susan P. Fisher-Hoch, M.D. (ext. 3308);

    Director, Division of Viral Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases (ext. 3574). After regular office hours and on weekends, the persons named above may be contacted through the CDC duty officer (ext. 2888) (MMWR, 1988).

    Delivery mechanism:

    The VHF agents are all highly infectious via the aerosol route, and most are quite stable as respirable (breathable) aerosols.

    This means that they satisfy at least one criterion for being weaponized, and some clearly have the potential to be biological warfare threats.

    Most of these agents replicate in cell culture to concentrations sufficiently high to produce a small terrorist weapon, one suitable for introducing lethal doses of virus into the air intake of an airplane or office building.

    Some replicate to even higher concentrations, with obvious potential ramifications. Since the VHF agents cause serious diseases with high morbidity and mortality, their existence as endemic disease threats and as potential biological warfare weapons suggests a formidable potential impact on unit readiness.

    Further, returning troops may well be carrying exotic viral diseases to which the civilian population is not immune, a major public health concern.

    Containment:
    Patients with VHF syndrome generally have significant quantities of virus in their blood, and perhaps in other secretions as well (with the exceptions of dengue and classic hantaviral disease).

    Well-documented secondary infections among contacts and medical personnel not parenterally exposed have occurred.
    (Parenteral. taken into the body in a manner other than through the digestive canal. Taken into the body or administered in a manner other than through the digestive tract, as by intravenous or intramuscular injection.)

    Thus, caution should be exercised in evaluating and treating patients with suspected VHF syndrome.

    Over-reaction on the part of medical personnel is inappropriate and detrimental to both patient and staff, but it is prudent to provide isolation measures as rigorous as feasible.

    At a minimum, these should include the following: stringent barrier nursing; mask, gown, glove, and needle precautions; hazard-labeling of specimens submitted to the clinical laboratory; restricted access to the patient; and autoclaving or liberal disinfection of contaminated materials, using hypochlorite (bleach) or phenolic disinfectants. - catalog of disinfectants: http://www.pyramidsupply.com/catalog...aspx?ci=JMTDSA

    For more intensive care, however, increased precautions are advisable. Members of the patient care team should be limited to a small number of selected, trained individuals, and special care should be directed toward eliminating all parenteral exposures.

    Use of endoscopy, respirators, arterial catheters, routine blood sampling, and extensive laboratory analysis increase opportunities for aerosol dissemination of infectious blood and body fluids.

    For medical personnel, the wearing of flexible plastic hoods equipped with battery-powered blowers provides excellent protection of the mucous membranes and airways.


    Last edited by Bob; 10th October 2015 at 16:33.

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    400 Possible Ebola Carriers - Terror spreads in West Africa - 2 April 2014 current

    http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news...1226873524486#

    "DOCTORS and heath officials are racing to find almost 400 people who could be spreading one of the world's deadliest contagious diseases as the number of confirmed cases across three countries in West Africa rose to 127 yesterday.

    "At least 83 people have died from Ebola in the latest outbreak.

    "He said the Government had established a telephone hotline for members of the public to report anyone they thought was showing symptoms, which include sudden fever and muscle pain followed by vomiting and diarrhoea.

    "At least 14 health workers are among the dead. They are thought to have contracted the disease, which can penetrate through skin, before they realised what they had been in contact with.

    "Bart Janssens, director of operations at Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), the international aid agency, said that they had flown 52 international staff and more than 40 tonnes of equipment to Guinea, so that they could establish isolation wards in an attempt to halt the spread of the disease.

    "Mariano Lugli, a nurse with MSF who had been treating patients, said that staff had to wear head-to-toe biohazard suits, despite the heat, to protect themselves from infection. In the worst cases, symptoms included "bleeding from the mouth, the anus and the ears, all the parts of the body where it is possible to bleed out of," Mr Lugli said.

    "Although their first priority was to contain the disease and support the sick patients, he said that they also had two psychologists on hand to alleviate the panic it can cause. "People are terrified," Mr Lugli said. "

    (There is a video on the referenced page if desired to view the report)

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    I think mayhap one needs to be a subscriber to view the video.

    Thank you for remaining constant on this issue.

    Much Love

    G

    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/arti...ak-Guinea.html
    Last edited by Gerald Paris; 3rd April 2014 at 03:28.

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    Default Re: Haemorrhagic fever / Ebola outbreaks have been reported - accident, natural or bio-weapon?

    i have a weird question. Since we are on a conspiracy forum, we may as well go all the way.

    Could the Ebola crisis in Guinea be linked in any way to the unidentified cargo that was transported by the Malaysian jet which, in all possible déductions, was hijacked, in all probabilities, to Diego Garcia? Just a thought out of the blue moon.

    Quote from Bobd: Spy satellites peering down at China found what seemed to be a large biological-weapons laboratory and plant near a remote site for testing nuclear warheads, he wrote. Intelligence agents then found evidence that two epidemics of hemorrhagic fever swept the region in the late 1980s.

    The area had never previously known such diseases, which cause profuse bleeding and death.

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