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    Default The year without summer

    For the second time in my life there is no summer in Québec City. My first time was in 1986 the year of Chernobyl .... I wonder now what 's going on?

    Today by searching on the net, I stumbled by accident on this text and I share it with you :


    1816 The Year Without Summer:

    By: Lee Foster, Meteorologist

    As we all know living in New England means enduring long winters and savoring the short summers. However, in 1816, the summer season was shorter than normal and is commonly referred to as “The Year Without Summer”. I first heard about this infamous summer from my grandfather who lived his entire life in Northern New Hampshire. He was not alive in 1816 but stories of that summer were passed down from generation to generation. His stories about that summer peaked my interest in the actual conditions in 1816 and after some research I discovered that indeed the summer of 1816 was not your typical summer.



    The indications of a possible cool summer were evident during the spring time. The middle of May brought unseasonably cool temperatures to the region with light snow reported in Quebec Province with frost as far south as Virginia. Mild and sunny conditions returned to the Northeast by the last week of May before a strong cold front crossed New England on the 28th with light snow again reported in Quebec and frost as far south as Pennsylvania. Reports of fruit trees being set back and acres of corn killed in Maine were common.


    After a warm start to June, the month quickly turned stormy. A strong Nor’easter developed along the east coast on the 6th with rain mixed with snow in Quebec City and light snow observed over the highlands of New York and most of Northern New England. As this winter type storm moved into the Canadian Maritimes on the 7th, the storm dumped 6 to 12 inches of snow over most of Northern New England with reports of 2 foot drifts in Quebec City. Strong high pressure followed the storm from the 8th through the 10th with frost every morning and reports of trees blackened or scorched across most of New England. By the end of the month the weather became more typical of June with even a heat wave from the 22nd through the 24th.


    If June was bad enough, July started out no better. A strong Canadian cold front crossed New England killing corn, beans, cucumbers and squash and the first talk of famine started. However, by the middle of the month, thoughts of a famine were almost forgotten as the hardy grains such as wheat and rye along with potatoes were doing quite well.


    The fine weather continued into the middle of August when another frost occurred over interior New York and all of New England damaging many crops. Then on the 20th a strong cold front crossed the Northeast with violent thunderstorms. Reports of temperatures falling 30 degrees after frontal passage were not uncommon. Frost was reported the next day as far south as Massachusetts with snow reported on Mt Moosilouke in New Hampshire. Corn was destroyed from Albany to Boston. If that cold spell wasn’t enough, it all came to an end on the 28th when another strong cold front crossed the Northeast with severe frost that ended the growing season in most of Northern New England.


    The consequences of this season were harsh. Only a third to a fourth of the hay was cut with only 10 percent of the crop harvested in some areas. Orchard yields ranged from barren to moderate but enough grains, wheat, and potatoes were harvested to prevent a famine but hardships did occur. There were reports of people eating raccoons, pigeons, and mackerel. Corn prices rose from $1.00 a bushel to nearly $3.00 a bushel. With crop failure and the shortage of hay, farmers turned to selling their cows and pigs which drove the price of meat down. With so much meat on the market beef prices dropped from $15.50 to $7.50 a barrel with pork falling from $16 to $4 a barrel.


    So what caused this unusual weather during the summer of 1816? Some believe it was caused by sinners while some even blamed it on Benjamin Franklin’s lightning rod experiments. However, climate data obtained from trees, ice cores, marine sediment and historical documents indicate 1816 was part of a mini ice age that lasted from 1400 to around 1860. During this time lower solar output produced harsh winters, shorter growing seasons and drier climates which were blamed for a host of human suffering and crop failures such as the Irish Potato Famine. Another possible cause was the eruption of the Tambora volcano on the island of Soembawa in Indonesia on April 15th 1815. The eruption lasted one week and rumbled for 3 months. The mountain elevation dropped from 14,000 feet to 9000 feet, killed close to 10,000 people on the island and another 80,000 people would eventually die from starvation and diseases related to the eruption. Tambora was one of the largest recorded eruptions with estimates of 1.7 million tons of dust put into the air equaling 6 million atomic bombs. The theory is that the dust reached the Northern Hemisphere during 1816 reducing solar output.



    Whatever the cause, the next year saw the first general migration from the Northeast to the Midwest and 1816 also became know as the Poverty Year. The following poem from Eileen Marguet summed up the year:



    It didn't matter whether your farm was large or small.

    It didn't matter if you had a farm at all.

    Cause everyone was affected when water didn't run.

    The snow and frost continued without the warming sun.

    One day in June it got real hot and leaves began to show.

    But after that it snowed again and wind and cold did blow.

    The cows and horses had no grass, no grain to feed the chicks.

    No hay to put aside that time, just dry and shriveled sticks.

    The sheep were cold and hungry and many starved to death,

    Still waiting for the warming sun to save their labored breath.

    The kids were disappointed, no swimming, such a shame.

    It was in 1816 that summer never came.
    Last edited by Gaia; 25th July 2015 at 01:00.

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    Default Re: The year without summer

    The west stole your summer ... BC and Alberta has been in an incredibly hot dry drought since spring. Calgary though, has been getting an awful lot of very unpredictable and turbulent weather, speckled with very hot dry days. There has been regular storm warnings and tornados here.

    http://www.theweathernetwork.com/new...wn_promo_news3

    The weather is certainly messed, and meteorologist expect this to continue onto next year ...
    When you are one step ahead of the crowd, you are a genius.
    Two steps ahead, and you are deemed a crackpot.

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    Default Re: The year without summer

    We're still waiting for the "summer" up here in the north. Never have I really experienced anything like this. Our fall and winters are long, dark and cold so we eagerly wait for the warm and sunny summer, but no such luck this year. Not even a sunny spring here. The past winter wasn't very cold, it was just rainy. The weather is far from normal and has been for some time now. Peope have been more sick and I have been too.
    "When you've seen beyond yourself, then you may find, peace of mind is waiting there." ~ George Harrison

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    Default Re: The year without summer

    Quote Posted by DeDukshyn (here)
    The west stole your summer ... BC and Alberta has been in an incredibly hot dry drought since spring. Calgary though, has been getting an awful lot of very unpredictable and turbulent weather, speckled with very hot dry days. There has been regular storm warnings and tornados here.

    http://www.theweathernetwork.com/new...wn_promo_news3

    The weather is certainly messed, and meteorologist expect this to continue onto next year ...


    +40C for first time this year and 120 year record broken...
    Last edited by Gaia; 25th July 2015 at 12:20.

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    Default Re: The year without summer

    Yes, here, too, in western Pennsylvania, the third year running. Its been very cool, cloudy and rainy, with daytime temps only into in the mid-70s, night time temps down to 50, even though its the last week in July. Grains like wheat, barley and oats look normal, but the corn (maize) looks stunted. Starting yesterday, we finally got some sunshine after weeks and weeks of rain and clouds, and the humidity lifted, because its been terribly humid, although cool.

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    Default Re: The year without summer

    Quote Posted by Silkie (here)
    Yes, here, too, in western Pennsylvania, the third year running. Its been very cool, cloudy and rainy, with daytime temps only into in the mid-70s, night time temps down to 50, even though its the last week in July. Grains like wheat, barley and oats look normal, but the corn (maize) looks stunted. Starting yesterday, we finally got some sunshine after weeks and weeks of rain and clouds, and the humidity lifted, because its been terribly humid, although cool.
    Here the temperature is cool rainy and windy . We almost not seen the sun for a few weeks.

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    Default Re: The year without summer

    Today it's sunny for an instance. Here's a very important article, written two months ago.


    Increasing Cosmic Rays

    Driving Force in Climate Changes, Volcanos and Earthquakes


    Back in 1996 Danish physicists suggested that cosmic rays, energetic particles from space, are important in the formation of clouds. Since then, experiments in Copenhagen and elsewhere have demonstrated that cosmic rays actually help small clusters of molecules to form. By firing a particle beam into a cloud chamber, physicists in Denmark and the UK have shown how cosmic rays could stimulate the formation of water droplets in the Earth’s atmosphere. The researchers say this is the best experimental evidence yet that the Sun influences the climate by altering the intensity of the cosmic-ray flux reaching the Earth’s surface.

    In 1995, Henrik Svensmark discovered a startling connection between the cosmic ray flux from space and cloud cover. He found that when the sun is more active–more sunspots, a stronger magnetic field, larger auroras, stronger solar winds, etc.–fewer cosmic rays strike the earth and cloud cover is reduced, resulting in warmer temperatures. Svensmark offers a complete chain of events that explains the variations in global temperature that have puzzled climatologists for so many years, and that has now led to an explanation for the recent global warming episode that ended approximately 17 years ago.

    Changes to the Sun’s brightness are believed to have altered temperatures by very little through direct means. What Svensmark and other scientists are showing is that the main cooling that occurs during solar minimums is not just because the sun is sending less warming rays but through reduction in protective capacity in terms of cosmic rays. It is an indirect effect.

    Most of us are not physicists so we do not pay attention to the subtle world of energies that surround us. It is not only the sun that is weakening demonstrating few and sometimes no sunspot activity. Earth’s magnetic field is also weakening “setting into motion a chain of events which causes destabilizing of Earth’s fluids – mostly of magma and also oceans and ice. These natural cyclical events cause the shifting of weather patterns, climate, elevated earth changing events such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tornadoes, hurricanes etc.”

    The sun is not subtle at all keeping all life possible down here on planet earth. The sun, when aroused puts out a higher velocity of solar wind that protects the earth from cosmic rays. During periods of low solar activity, which we are now experiencing, the solar winds decrease allowing more cosmic rays to penetrate, which increases cloud formation, which would be the main cooling mechanism from diminished solar activity. Whatever theories are presented we have history to tell us that we have had mini ice ages at times when the sun has shown diminished sun spot activity.

    Upon reaching the lower atmosphere where more sulphur dioxide, water vapor, and ozone is present, the cosmic rays ionize the air, releasing electrons that aid in the formation of more cloud condensation nuclei and form more dense clouds. This increase in low-cloud amount reflects more solar energy to space, cooling the planet. The increasingly intense rain and snow storms can, in all likelihood, be attributed to the decreasing solar winds and increasing cosmic rays that are penetrating the earth.


    An experiment at CERN, Europe’s high-energy physics laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland, confirmed this theory of cloud formation and cosmic rays. For a century, scientists have known that charged particles from space constantly bombard Earth. Known as cosmic rays, the particles are mostly protons blasted out of supernovae. As the protons crash through the planet’s atmosphere, they can ionize volatile compounds, causing them to condense into airborne droplets, or aerosols. Clouds then build up around the droplets.

    A paper published in Environmental Research Letters in 2014 corroborates the Svensmark cosmic ray theory of climate, whereby tiny 0.1% changes in solar activity are amplified via the effect on cosmic rays and cloud formation, which in turn may control global temperatures. The authors find cosmic ray variations due to changes over solar cycles may have as much as 10 times larger effect than previous studies have estimated. The paper also finds that a tiny 0.2C temperature increase increases the cosmic ray induced cloud condensation nuclei by around 50%, thus acting as a natural homeostatic mechanism.

    According to the authors, "The effect of solar cycle perturbation on [cloud condensation nuclei] based on present study is generally higher than those reported in several previous studies, up to around one order of magnitude [10 times]…Our global simulations indicate that a decrease in ionization rate associated with galactic cosmic ray flux change from solar minimum to solar maximum reduces annual mean nucleation rates, number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei larger than 10 nm… by 6.8%, 1.36%…respectively. The inclusion of 0.2 °C temperature increase enhances the CCN [cloud condensation nuclei] solar cycle signals by around 50%."

    “The sun is a variable star, which emits both electromagnetic radiation and energetic particles known as the solar wind – these are released as a plasma carrying a fingerprint of the solar magnetic field throughout inter-planetary space. Effects from the solar wind are felt at distances well beyond Neptune, possibly up to 200 AU from the sun, in a region of space known as the Heliosphere (figure 1). The flux of the inter-planetary magnetic field (IMF) at 1AU is ✂5nT. Variability in solar activity affects both the radiative output of the sun and the strength of the IMF carried by the solar wind. The IMF shields the heliosphere from galactic cosmic radiation which, consists of energetic particles, mainly protons that are accelerated through stellar processes in our galaxy. Thus, solar variability modulates both the flux of incoming galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and the amount of solar radiation received by the planets. Historical evidence over the past 1000 years indicates that changes in climate have occurred in accord with variability in cosmic ray intensities”

    Cosmic Rays and Increases in Earthquakes and Volcano Eruptions

    Actually there is nothing subtle about changes in cosmic ray levels and nothing subtle about the changes going on in the sun. Some scientists are not so sure about the cloud cosmic ray connection but if cosmic rays are strong enough to set off volcanoes one would think it child’s play to seed some clouds. Explosive volcanic eruptions are triggered by cosmic rays with volcanos acting as giant bubble chambers.

    Volcanoes with silica-rich and highly viscous magma tend to produce violent explosive eruptions that result in disasters in local communities and that strongly affect the global environment. We examined the timing of 11 eruptive events that produced silica-rich magma from four volcanoes in Japan (Mt. Fuji, Mt. Usu, Myojinsho, and Satsuma-Iwo-jima) over the past 306 years (from AD 1700 to AD 2005). Nine of the 11 events occurred during inactive phases of solar magnetic activity (solar minimum), which is well indexed by the group sunspot number. This strong association between eruption timing and the solar minimum is statistically significant to a confidence level of 96.7%.

    “If it seems like earthquakes and erupting volcanoes are happening more frequently, that’s because they are. Looking at global magnitude six (M6) or greater from 1980 to 1989 there was an average of 108.5 earthquakes per year, from 2000 to 2009 the planet averaged 160.9 earthquakes per year: that is a 38.9% increase of M6+ earthquakes in recent years. Unrest also seems to be growing among the world’s super-volcanoes. Iceland (which is home to some of the most dangerous volcanoes on the planet), Santorini in Greece, Uturuncu in Bolivia, the Yellowstone and Long Valley calderas in the U.S., Laguna del Maule in Chile, Italy’s Campi Flegrei – almost all of the world’s active super-volcanic systems are now exhibiting some signs of inflation, an early indication that pressure is building in these volcanic systems.”

    A 1967 study published in the Earth and Planetary Science Letters found that solar activity, as indicated by sunspots, radio noise and geomagnetic indices, plays a significant but by no means exclusive role in the triggering of earthquakes. Maximum quake frequency occurs at times of moderately high and fluctuating solar activity.

    The International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences reported in 2012 about the relationships between solar activities (sunspots, solar 10.7cm radio flux, solar irradiance, and solar proton events) and local earthquakes. The geographical location of study was in New Zealand. The study reveals the following conclusions:

    1) The total numbers of earthquakes strongly show annually an increasing in number of earthquakes in New Zealand from 42 years ago.

    2) The maximum earthquakes occur frequently around the minimum years of solar activities,

    3) The maximum earthquakes occurs in minimum years of sunspots number with a good correlation coefficient.

    4) The maximum earthquakes occur in the minimum solar 10.7 cm radio flux with strong correlation coefficient.

    “We have recently experienced a period that has had one of the highest rates of great earthquakes ever recorded,” said Tom Parsons, a geophysicist with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in California. It seems that earthquakes and volcanic activity are on the rise and according to many scientific experts we can expect more in the near future.

    A 1998 report by a scientist from the Beijing Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, also found a correlation between low solar activity and earthquakes. Earthquakes occur frequently around the minimum years of solar activity. Generally, the earthquake activities are relatively less during the peak value years of solar activity, some say, around the period when magnetic polarity in the solar Polar Regions is reversed.

    Volcanic and Earthquake Activity In May 2015


    Michigan was just hit by the worst earthquake that state has seen in more than 60 years. In recent days, there have been a series of alarming earthquakes all over the United States and around the rest of the world.

    Two 6.8-magnitude earthquakes strike off Solomon Islands

    Awakening again? Alert level raised to “yellow” on Chile’s Chaitén volcano

    Indonesia’s Lokon-Empung volcano shaken by violent eruption

    UK rocked as 4.2 magnitude earthquake hits near London

    Guatemala’s Volcán de Fuego growing increasingly restless

    Strong 6.8 magnitude earthquake hits near Solomon Islands

    Ground level in Mount Hakone volcanic area rises as much as 12 cm

    Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion) erupts for the second time in 2015

    Another aftershock: Nepal struck by 5.7-magnitude earthquake

    Officials warn Guatemala’s Fuego volcano becoming more active

    Five more aftershocks hit Nepal as toll in fresh quake tops 100

    Hawaii’s Kilauea volcano lava lake drops out of public view – earthquakes continue

    Molten lava gushes out of Sicily’s Mount Etna volcano

    Powerful 6.8 magnitude earthquake rocks northeastern Japan

    New 7.3 magnitude earthquake strikes Nepal –

    buildings collapse, mass panic ensues – 66 dead

    Nicaragua’s Telica Volcano dusts town with ash –

    30 eruptions reported after 8 year hiatus

    Costa Rica’s Turrialba Volcano erupts again,

    scientists warn of increased health risks, economic damage

    Hawaii’s Big Island shaken by twin earthquakes – volcanic lake hit record levels

    Expert warns Japan has entered ‘era of great quakes and eruptions’ –

    volcanoes stirring across Japan

    Hundreds flee Philippines’s rumbling Bulusan volcano

    Hundreds evacuated as Indonesia’s Karangetang volcano violently erupts in N. Sulawesi

    Costa Rica’s Volcano Turrialba spews black ash cloud 6,000 ft into air

    Strong 7.1 magnitude earthquake rocks Papua New Guinea, no tsunami threat

    Nepal Earthquake death toll surges past 7,500 victims,
    with 14,500 reportedly injured

    Volcanic earthquakes surge near Japan’s Hakone Volcano –

    volcano hasn’t erupted in 800 years.

    7.5 magnitude strikes the New Britain region of Papua New Guinea –

    3rd large quake in two months

    The most powerful volcano in Kamchatka releases steam and ash

    Scientists confirm submarine volcanic eruption 300 miles off the coast

    of Washington State – massive ‘quiet’ lava burst
    "When you've seen beyond yourself, then you may find, peace of mind is waiting there." ~ George Harrison

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    Default Re: The year without summer

    I am also starting to despair of the katydids. Its the final few days of July and still no katydids, which usually would have started by now. They are nocturnal, and I think night time temps have just been too cold for them.

    As an aside, the Amish say that when the katydids start, its 6 weeks until the first frost.

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    Default Re: The year without summer

    Latent Heat: is what runs everything here on the surface. When a substance is cycled through a change of state, either massive amounts of heat are given off, or absorbed. MASSIVE. I have to emphasize that. And when it comes to melting ice, the cooling effect, locally, is massive.

    Anyway, this is current. Most places are again, as per the last more than a century in a row now, experiencing yet another record hot year. The blue sections of this map are those areas affected by all the melting ice above them.

    Just do not ever forget that someone else, not you, has already decided that we live in a 2+2=5 world, and adjust your intake of information accordingly.
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    Default Re: The year without summer

    A Swedish friend of mine said that so far summer temperatures there is around 15 degree celsius rather tun the normal 30 degree celsius. So no summer time in Sweden as well.

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    Default Re: The year without summer

    And today is another day without sunspots. I just looked at the sun. I have noticed this dearth of sunspots for some time, now.

    Recent sunspot activity



    Daily observations of the number of sunspots since 1 January 1990 according to Solar Influences Data Analysis Center (SIDC). The thin line indicates the daily sunspot number, while the thick line indicates the running annual average. The recent low sunspot activity is clearly reflected in the recent low values for the total solar irradiance. (From http://hidethedecline.eu/pages/sun.php)
    - Warren Light

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    Default Re: The year without summer

    It's been gorgeous weather in Europe. :-)

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