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Thread: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

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    Cool Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Astronomy Magazine

    An Old Meteor Yields A New Suprise

    Published 8th December 2016

    Its a suprise okay? I won't tell you about it, to find out what it is read here: http://www.astronomy.com/news/2016/1...a-new-surprise

    [Mod-edit: see this thread: Quasicrystal: "There Can Be No Such Creature", Hervé]
    Last edited by Hervé; 12th December 2016 at 13:32.

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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Meteorite

    Spain | Sunday 11th December 2016 @ 21:25 UT

    Published 11th December 2016

    This impressive fireball was recorded on 11 Dec. 2016 at 21:25 UT (22:25 local time) over Spain. The event was much brighter than the Moon. According to the preliminary calculations, it would have produced a meteorite.


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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies


    ...


    © AMS


    For the readers interested in the latest/current sightings, see this page: Fire in the Sky


    Last edited by Hervé; 12th December 2016 at 13:39.
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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    They do seem to be on the increase?

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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Comet Research Group replies to Robert Schoch's theory on the end of the last ice age

    Robert Schoch The Comet Tusk
    Fri, 09 Dec 2016 00:25 UTC

    Dr. Robert M. Schoch, Ph.D., of Boston University, is a thought provoking scientist with an open-minded approach to new ideas. Unfortunately his interest in disruptive theories has never extended itself to the Younger Dryas Boundary hypothesis, as he details on his webpage in a critique titled "Controversies Concerning the End of the Last Ice Age."

    His objection to the published science and data of the Comet Research Group is curious, since our work validates much of his unpublished speculation concerning catastrophe at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. This dynamic is disappointing because those working to reveal the true record should find some common cause. Unfortunately, Schoch has never reached out to our researchers in order to work through and address his criticisms.

    So, the CRG is taking the opportunity here on the Tusk and elsewhere to rebut Dr. Schoch's critique in the hope that he will carefully re-consider his position, which seems entirely based on the on the faulty work of our critics — which are his too.
    Comet Research Group: Rebuttal to "Controversies Concerning the End of the Last Ice Age"

    The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis proposes that a massive swarm of fragments from a giant comet hit Earth approximately 12,800 years ago, triggering bitterly cold ice-age conditions, while contributing to the extinction of millions of animals and to a human population decline across the Northern Hemisphere. The debris from the multiple comet impacts created the Younger Dryas boundary layer (abbreviated as "YDB"), which contains more than a dozen items, called "proxies," all of which have been found in previously known impact events. These proxies include melted iron spherules, melted glass spherules, high-temperature chunks of melted glass, nanodiamonds, carbon spherules (some containing nanodiamonds), iridium, osmium, platinum, charcoal, and aciniform carbon, a form of soot. Although many of those individual proxies, such as charcoal and soot, can be produced by normal terrestrial processes other than impacts, the entire suite of proxies listed above is only known to occur in cosmic impact events, and cannot be produced in any other natural way. That is an important distinction to remember. To repeat, individual proxies may have other sources than impacts, but there is no evidence of any kind that all of those proxies together are produced at one time by anything other than a cosmic impact. For more information on the impact hypothesis and these proxies, see our website.
    In comments on the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis, Dr. Robert Schoch stated that "evidence collectively points away from an extraterrestrial impact for the start of the Younger Dryas." We respect Dr. Schoch's groundbreaking work in Egyptian geology and anthropology, but in reaching his conclusions about the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis, Dr. Schoch relied on critics, whose reports contain serious flaws and unsupported speculation. In addition, new evidence has been published since Dr. Schoch wrote those comments, refuting the conclusions of those critics.


    © Micronaut
    Miniscule diamond fragments found in a sediment layer dating from thousands of years ago support the theory that a catastrophic comet impact wiped out many forms of life in North America 12’900 years ago.


    In his commentary, Dr. Schoch mentions Tian et al. (2012, PNAS), who confirmed our group's discovery of nanodiamonds in Europe in the YDB impact layer in Belgium, exactly where we said they were. That group also reported that no such particles are found in the overlying silt and clay or in the underlying fine sands. This is an important point; the nanodiamonds are rare and found only in the YDB layer, making them highly unusual. Furthermore, the nanodiamonds are found exclusively in the same layer that contains melted iron spherules, high-temperature meltglass, and the platinum-group elements, iridium and osmium, none of which are found above and below the YDB layer, also making them rare. Tian et al. admitted that they could not explain how the nanodiamonds got there, stating "that their exact origin remains unclear," but, it is important to note, they did not specifically exclude the possibility of an impact - they just said the origin is unclear. Critics of the YDB impact event have used that paper as evidence that YDB nanodiamonds were not caused by an impact, even though the paper makes no such claim and presents no such evidence. For details, see here.

    It is easy for critics to make dismissive claims that YDB nanodiamonds were caused by something else besides an impact, such as forest fires, but those critics have yet to provide a single bit of evidence that forest fires, or any natural mechanism other than an impact event, are capable of producing nanodiamonds. In fact, the opposite is true - there is ample evidence that forest fires cannot produce nanodiamonds. In various industries, nanodiamonds are a highly valuable commodity and are used in many products, including lubricants and polishing compounds. Research costing many millions of dollars has been conducted in hundreds of laboratories to find ways to make nanodiamonds, and not one of those ways includes setting a tree on fire - it simply is impossible under normal conditions. However, it is possible to make nanodiamonds in the laboratory under very unusual conditions that mimic a cosmic impact event. In summary, it makes no scientific sense to claim that YDB nanodiamonds formed in forest fires, when there is no evidence for that, and to claim that they did not form by a cosmic impact event, when there is ample evidence that nanodiamonds can form that way and have done so frequently in the past.

    Furthermore, we and other scientists have searched through many layers of rock and sediment, spanning millions of years, but have found similar nanodiamonds only in those layers deposited by cosmic impact events (Kennett et al., 2009, PNAS; Kinzie et al. 2014, Journal of Geology). The most famous discovery of similar nanodiamonds is in the layer deposited by the asteroid that killed the dinosaurs 65 million years ago, called the KPg boundary layer. Those KPg nanodiamonds were found only in the thin layer produced by the impact event and were not found in layers above and below it, even though there was ample evidence for normal wildfires in those layers. In other words, they were extraordinarily rare. The KPg nanodiamonds are structurally and chemically identical to those in the 12,800-year-old YDB layer.


    © Arizona State University
    The presences of nanograins of lonsdaleite has been widely used by scientists as an indicator of ancient asteroidal impacts on Earth, including those linked to mass extinctions.


    Kennett et al. (2009, PNAS) published a paper on a type of nanodiamonds called lonsdaleite. Dr. Schoch cited Boslough et al. (2012, Geophysical Monograph Series), who claimed that all of the supposed "lonsdaleite" is not lonsdaleite at all, but rather a misidentification of another material. After Dr. Schoch published his comments, that statement by Boslough et al. was thoroughly refuted in a paper published by Kinzie et al. (2014, Journal of Geology), who reported the following: "Potential YDB lonsdaleite crystals have been identified and analyzed with HRTEM, FFT, SAD, and EDS [analytical techniques involving an electron microscope]....All the lonsdaleite-like crystals observed contain only carbon [as expected for diamonds]....All measured lattice planes are consistent with lonsdaleite."

    Regarding another proxy, microspherules, Dr. Schoch cites Pigati et al. (2012, PNAS), who claimed that elevated concentrations of such spherules"arise from processes common to wetland systems, and not a catastrophic extraterrestrial impact event." The problem is that the Pigati study contains major mistakes. They collected most of their microspherules from sediment near South American volcanoes, which are well known to produce millions of non-impact glassy spherules. An electron microscope (SEM) can quickly and easily reveal the difference between impact spherules, volcanic spherules, and other types of non-impact spherules. And yet, the Pigati group simply neglected to perform those analyses, even though the Comet Research Group has repeatedly specified in our papers that SEM work is crucial, and without it, any study of spherules, including theirs, is meaningless. The Pigati group simply found normal volcanic spherules and claimed that they are identical to the impact spherules produced by the YDB event. That makes no more sense than claiming a golf ball is identical to a baseball.

    Dr. Schoch further discusses the impact spherules reported by Wittke et al. (2013, PNAS), who found 10 million tonnes of them scattered across four continents. In his online article, Dr. Schoch cited research by Thy et al. (2015, Jour. Archaeological Science) and claimed that "these supposed 'impact spherules' were of ancient human origin (for instance, produced when buildings were destroyed in fires)." It is clear from Dr. Schoch's comments that he simply accepted some of the results from Thy et al. uncritically, but also that he over-interpreted them. Thy et al. clearly state that their results "do not necessarily discredit the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis." Any time that a new hypothesis is presented, it is necessary, of course, to ask whether the new evidence is accurate or flawed. However, it is also necessary to critically ask whether or not critics of the hypothesis present contradictory evidence and conclusions that are accurate and unbiased. Unfortunately, Dr. Schoch, as well as others, simply accepted the negative conclusions from some of these critics without adequately questioning them.


    Stereomicroscopic images of various classes of micrometeorites.


    Some of the conclusions by Thy et al. are simply incorrect. The biggest mistake they made is to ignore previously published information about abnormally high melting temperatures of spherules and meltglass from Syria and the United States. Both Wittke et al. and Bunch et al. (2012, PNAS) presented abundant evidence of meltglass and spherules that had been subjected to temperatures of as high as 2000°C, close to the melting point of quartz grains and chromite grains. There is simply no evidence of any kind that house fires can reach these temperatures, a point agreed to by Thy et al., who stated that the maximum temperatures of the house fire spherules they analyzed was only 1200°C, well below the temperature of 1750-2000°C found by our group. Furthermore, Thy et al. acknowledge that their house-fire hypothesis does not apply to meltglass found at two other YDB sites, where they acknowledge that temperatures ranged up to 1750°C and they acknowledge that they cannot explain these high temperatures. In summary, the difference between house fire spherules and impact spherules can easily and quickly be determined by adequate analyses with an electron microscope. The house fire spherules that Thy et al. found cannot be used to prove that impact spherules do not exist, and in fact, house fires are predicted to have occurred in association with the impact event in Syria. Thus, it is reasonable to expect that both types of spherules would exist together.

    Dr. Schoch also discussed the results of Meltzer et al. (2014, PNAS) who concluded: "Only 3 of the 29 [YDB] sites fall within the temporal window of the YD onset as defined by YDIH [Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis] proponents." Dr. Schoch uncritically accepted those results without asking whether that conclusion might be incorrect, and once again, there is ample evidence that those authors were wrong. A subsequent paper by Kennett et al. (2015, PNAS) revealed numerous, fatal errors in the calculations presented by Meltzer at al., meaning that their conclusions are simply invalid. Kennett et al. reported the following: "Bayesian chronological modeling [a highly sophisticated statistical technique] was applied to 354 dates from 23 stratigraphic sections in 12 countries on four continents to establish a modeled YDB age range for this event of 12,835 - 12,735 Cal B.P. at 95% probability. This range overlaps that of a peak in extraterrestrial platinum in the Greenland Ice Sheet and of the earliest age of the Younger Dryas climate episode in six proxy records, suggesting a causal connection between the YDB impact event and the Younger Dryas." These results directly contradict the results of Meltzer et al.

    Even though Bayesian analysis has become the new standard and is widely used by many scientists, Dr. Schoch argues against this conclusion, writing that "one can take issue with the appropriateness of applying Bayesian analyses," although he offers no evidence to support his position. Refuting that claim, Kennett et al. also used non-Bayesian analysis for the YDB sites and reported that "19 of 23 dates (83%) overlap from 12,840 to 12,805 Cal B.P.... This indicates that the results from simply calibrating a group of YDB dates are not substantially different from using Bayesian-modeling for YDB dates." In summary, criticisms of the timing of the YDB event simply do not stand up to scrutiny.

    Dr. Schoch also discussed a YDB-age platinum anomaly found in a Greenland ice core by Petaev et al. (2013, PNAS), who concluded that a major cosmic impact event occurred over the Greenland ice sheet at the onset of the Younger Dryas. Dr. Schoch speculated that the platinum anomaly could have resulted from the eruption of the Laacher See volcano (Germany) around 12,900 years ago, but this suggestion has been refuted by Kinzie et al. (2014, Journal of Geology), who found no YDB spherules or nanodiamonds in the Laacher See ash layer, which lies below the YDB layer at some of the sites our group tested. In addition, our group recently tested the Laacher See ash layer and found no detectable platinum, meaning that the Laacher See eruption could not be the source of the platinum found in Greenland. Instead, the best explanation is an extraterrestrial impact event, as proposed by Petaev et al.

    Dr. Schoch also speculated that the source of the platinum may be a relatively small, non-cataclysmic meteorite impact, but this is refuted by the original research group, Petaev et al., who discovered that the platinum deposition spanned about 21 years, meaning that the platinum must have been injected high into the atmosphere, after which it slowly rained down onto the Greenland ice sheet during the following two decades. Such long-term fallout could not result from a small impact, but rather requires a major impact event with widespread effects.



    In support of the idea that YDB platinum is widespread and resulted from a major impact, Andronikov et al. (2016, Geografiska Annaler) found very high concentrations of platinum and iridium in melted YDB spherules from Blackwater Draw, New Mexico, more than 5000 km away from the platinum site in Greenland. In addition, Andronikov et al (2014, Doklady Earth Sciences; 2015, Quaternary International) investigated sediments from several lakes in NW Russia near Finland and Lithuania, and found sharp-peaked platinum anomalies in the YDB layer, along with other meteoritic elements such as nickel, chromium, and iridium. These sites are more than 9000 km away from the YDB platinum site in New Mexico, indicating that the platinum was deposited by a very large YDB impact event, not a small one.

    Also in his online statement, Dr. Schoch cites Boslough et al. (2012) as claiming that "another argument against the impact hypothesis is that no crater (or craters) has yet been definitively identified as dating to circa 12,900 years ago." However, that claim by Boslough et al. is simply incorrect. Some of the largest known impacts on Earth have left no crater, including the Australasian Tektite Field, which spread molten pieces of glass across 10% of the planet from China to India, as well as the Libyan Desert Glass field, which spread molten pieces of glass across wide areas of the Egyptian desert without leaving a crater. The lack of a crater simply cannot be used to prove that an impact event did not occur.

    On the positive side, Dr. Schoch is impartial in discussing the possibility that the impactor exploded in the atmosphere, breaking up into numerous fragments that cratered into the glacial ice sheets, which subsequently melted, thus destroying the ice-walled craters. However, he again cites Boslough et al. (2012), who analyzed this possibility and concluded that "consideration of basic laws of physics indicate that such a fragmentation or high-altitude airburst event ... would lie outside any realistic range of probability, and therefore did not occur during the YD as described by Firestone et al." This argument by Boslough et al. is completely spurious, because those authors are arguing against a scenario that they made up, namely that the initial fragmentation of the comet took place in the atmosphere. Instead, we have consistently and very clearly stated the hypothesis that fragmentation of the giant comet took place in deep space long before hitting Earth.

    Far from being "outside any realistic range of probability," comets break up into multiple pieces in deep space exceedingly often. For example, meteor showers are the remnants of broken-up comets, and Earth regularly is hit by 109 meteor showers every year, averaging 2 collisions with those streams each week. We know them by such names as the Taurids, beta-Taurids, Geminids, and Perseids. Furthermore, 50 new, broken-up comets have been discovered in the last 150 years, for an average of a new one every three years. One of those, Comet Shoemaker-Levy, broke up into as many as 21 pieces and crashed into Jupiter in 1994, leaving a dark scar that was wider than the Earth. If Comet Shoemaker-Levy had hit Earth, it would have created catastrophic destruction on a hemispheric scale. So, in summary, far from being unlikely, it is exceedingly common for broken-up comets to hit Earth - they do so at least 109 times a year.

    Shifting our attention from the beginning of the Younger Dryas 12,800 years ago to the end of the Younger Dryas 11,700 years ago, Dr. Schoch wrote that "in my assessment the evidence points to a major solar outburst (or series of closely spaced solar outbursts) at that time." In our proposed scenario, if a giant broken-up comet impacted Earth, parts of it could also have crashed into the sun, potentially triggering massive solar flares. Although there is no strong evidence either for or against, we feel that the hypothesis implicating solar flares in the abrupt ending of the Younger Dryas is plausible enough to warrant further investigation, although it also is possible that oceanic impacts by the same group of comet fragments may have occurred 11,700 years ago.

    To be clear, Dr. Schoch does not propose a solar outburst at the beginning of the Younger Dryas, only the end of it. However, we wish to point out that even if a major solar outburst occurred 12,800 years ago, such an event could not have melted rocks on Earth's surface to 2000°C or formed nanodiamonds and other high-temperature proxies. This is because solar outbursts produce huge quantities of high-energy protons, electrons, and ions that bombard Earth's magnetic field and ozone layer, but those particles are not energetic enough to start forest fires, let alone melt rocks. Thus, the evidence from 12,800 years ago still requires a major cosmic impact event.

    In closing, it is crucial to re-emphasize that the YDB layer, dated to approximately 12,800 years ago, contains a unique assemblage of exotic proxies that has never been reported to result from solar flares, wildfires, human activities, volcanism, or any other known natural terrestrial process. Instead, the only process known to produce that full range of proxies is a cosmic impact event. Thus, unless some new evidence comes to light that has never been seen before, the best current explanation for the proxies in the YDB layer is a cosmic impact event. For detailed information on the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis, see the Comet Research Group.

    — From the Comet Research Group
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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Meteor | Churchill, Manitoba, Canada | 12th December 2016 @ ??? AM


    I for one will join in with anyone, I don't care what color you are as long as you want to change this miserable condition that exists on this Earth - Malcolm X / Tsar Of The Star

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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Quote Posted by Hervé (here)
    Comet Research Group replies to Robert Schoch's theory on the end of the last ice age

    Dr. Robert M. Schoch, Ph.D., of Boston University, is a thought provoking scientist with an open-minded approach to new ideas....

    His objection to the published science and data of the Comet Research Group is curious, since our work validates much of his unpublished speculation... Unfortunately, Schoch has never reached out to our researchers in order to work through and address his criticisms.
    ...
    It is clear from Dr. Schoch's comments that he simply accepted some of the results from Thy et al. uncritically, but also that he over-interpreted them...

    Unfortunately, Dr. Schoch, as well as others, simply accepted the negative conclusions from some of these critics without adequately questioning them.
    ...
    This is off topic for bolides, meteors and comets but concerns Dr Robert Schoch.

    Several months ago, on his now seemingly off-air radio show (The Other Side of Midnight) Richard Hoagland interviewed Dr Sam Osmanagich about the Bosnian pyramids. Richard said something to the effect of:

    Quote My friend Dr Robert Schoch told me the Bosnian pyramids were a hoax/not there and I (Richard) knew he was lying to me.
    Maybe Dr Robert Schoch is controlled opposition and/or a "captured academic"?

    See thread here about captured academics: http://projectavalon.net/forum4/show...d-manipulation
    "Ce n’est pas la fin du monde, c’est la fin d’un monde" = ''This is not the end of the world, it's the end of this world'' ~ Marine Le Pen

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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Quote Posted by Searcher (here)
    [...]
    Quote My friend Dr Robert Schoch told me the Bosnian pyramids were a hoax/not there and I (Richard) knew he was lying to me.
    In the case of the - so-called - Bosnian pyramids, I would side with Schoch and consider Hoaxland the controlled opposition... see this post (<---) and follow to the other one it links to (# 10) and my conclusion

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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Green Meteor near Skyislands, India



    http://www.younews.in/pictures/green...slands-india-/

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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    'Very quickly, very nearby': Jumbo asteroid has close shave with Earth

    Published time: 10 Jan, 2017 09:46
    Edited time: 10 Jan, 2017 12:06
    Get short URL


    © Erik Simonsen / Getty Images

    An asteroid between 11 to 34 meters across (36 to 111ft), roughly the size of 10 jumbo African elephants, made a remarkably close approach to Earth on Monday morning, passing by at a distance only half that of the Moon.

    According to the Slooh Observatory, the space rock, dubbed 2017 AG13, was moving at about 10 miles per second, making it hard to spot with a telescope.

    “This is moving very quickly, very nearby to us,” Eric Edelman, an astronomer with Slooh, said during a live broadcast of the surprise flyby at 7:47am ET on January 9.

    Quote
    Slooh Verified account ‏@Slooh

    While you were hitting snooze, we nearly hit an asteroid! At 7:47 AM EST an asteroid we only first spotted Saturday gave us a wake up call.



    The near-Earth object, or NEO, has “a particularly elliptical orbit,” he noted, adding that “it actually crosses the orbits of two planets, Venus and Earth.”

    The asteroid was initially spotted by the University of Arizona’s Catalina Sky Survey as recently as Saturday.

    Quote
    Slooh Verified account ‏@Slooh

    We caught newly discovered asteroid 2017 AG13 as it made an extremely close approach to Earth this morning. It was closer than the Moon!

    If a “good size chunk of it made it through Earth’s upper atmosphere near a populated area, there might have been damage like we saw in 2013,” technology website CNET reported.

    Earth appears to be utterly defenseless in the face of comets and asteroids that bring little warning, a NASA scientist warned in December. The researcher believes building an interceptor rocket and an observer spacecraft could avert catastrophe.

    “The biggest problem, basically, is there’s not a hell of a lot we can do about it at the moment,” Dr. Joseph Nuth, a researcher with NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, said at the fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in San Francisco, as quoted by the Guardian.

    In February 2013, Russia’s southern Urals Region was rocked by a meteorite explosion in the stratosphere. NASA said the shockwave force was equivalent to a 500-kiloton explosion. The 20-meter-wide (65 feet) meteor exploded over the town of Chelyabinsk. As windowpanes shattered throughout the city, around 1,500 people were injured, but luckily no one was killed. The impact wave damaged a number of buildings, blowing out thousands of windows amid the extremely cold weather.

    The US space agency has spotted over 90 percent of near-Earth objects that are larger than a kilometer. This is thought to be the required size for causing devastation on Earth.

    As of January, a total of 15,451 Near-Earth Objects have been discovered, according to NASA. An estimated 875 of these NEOs are asteroids with a diameter of approximately one kilometer or larger. Around 1,766 of these NEOs have been classified as Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs).



    Related:

    ‘Shock and frustration’: Locals report on meteorite crash in Russian Urals (VIDEO)
    Last edited by Hervé; 10th January 2017 at 15:03.
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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    SETI Institute

    SETI Talks 2017 | Barry Welsh - Exocomets: Now You See Them, Now You Don't

    Published 27th January 2017

    Present technology does not enable us to view images of these kilometer-sized infalling bodies, but the evaporation of gaseous products liberated from exocomets that occurs close to a star can potentially cause small disruptions in the ambient circumstellar disk plasma. For circumstellar disks that are viewed “edge-on” this evaporating material may be directly observed through transient (night-to-night and hour-to-hour) gas absorption features seen at rapidly changing velocities. Using high resolution spectrographs mounted to large aperture ground-based telescopes, we have discovered 15 young stars that harbor swarms of exocomets. In this lecture we briefly describe the physical attributes of comets in our own solar system and the instrumental observing techniques to detect the presence of evaporating exocomets present around stars with ages in the 10 – 100 Myr range. We note that this work has particular relevance to the dramatic fluctuations in the flux recorded towards “Tabby’s star” by the NASA Kepler Mission, that may be explained through the piling up of swarms of exocomets in front of the central star.


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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Thunderbolts Project

    EU 2016 | Eugene Bagashov - Elec-centricities Of Cometary Orbits

    Published 28th December 2016

    The electric comet is one of the key areas of the scope of the Electric Universe ideas that may have a significant impact on science. In order to develop the theory futher, There is a need to study the cometary population of our Solar Sytem. What is the difference between comets & asteroids? What is the nature of active asteroids? What is the probability of a small body with given orbital parameters to be a comet?
    The basic idea is that the high eccentricity of the orbit makes the interaction of the electric field of the solar wind easier as the body passes through areas with different electromagnetic enviroment along its orbital path,
    Thus with growing eccentricity the number of comets should increase. Indeed that is the case, Yet not so simple, And the dependence is non-linear. In this talk Eugene Bagashov will report one recent finding concerning the eccentricity of cometary orbits that might be an indication of the validity of the electric comet hypothesis & provide a basis for futher research in this area.


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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Asteroid attack? Yet another asteroid to give Earth a close shave

    Eric Mack
    CNET
    Wed, 01 Feb 2017 13:46 UTC


    © ESA Space rock block party!

    For the fourth time since the start of 2017, a small celestial body will pass closer to Earth than the distance between us and the moon. Recently discovered asteroid 2017 BS32 zips by around midday Thursday.

    This latest narrow shave comes just a few days after the closest such flyby in months, prompting observers and some astronomers to wonder if the apparent blitz of tiny planetoids could be more than mere coincidence.

    According to astronomer Paul Cox at the Slooh observatory, the apparent bursts of small, close-approaching asteroids were first spotted just before buzzing us initially sparked discussion in 2016.

    "One possibility sprang to mind -- that these clusters of smaller asteroids making close approaches to Earth over relatively short periods of time were in fact the fragments from larger asteroids that had broken up," Cox said via email. "However, when we reviewed the orbits of each of the asteroids, we found no correlation between them -- showing clearly they weren't associated in any way."

    Cox said the scientists also looked for a connection to seasonal changes or to weather at observatories that might reduce discoveries of nearby asteroids, but there was no conclusive data to be found.

    "So we were certainly left with the opinion that these small clusters are purely coincidental," he said. "Having said that, they still surprise us when we see them."

    An asteroid apocalypse isn't upon us, it would appear. As far as we know, all these last-minute discoveries from the past year or so have flown by us safely without incident.

    So all there really is to do is sit back and enjoy the show. 2017 BS32, which measures between 36 and 82 feet (11 and 24 meters) will come closest to us at 12:23 p.m. PT Thursday. At that point, it will be 100,214 miles (161,279 kilometers) overhead, according to Slooh, 60 percent closer than the moon.

    Slooh will be live-streaming the pass of 2017 BS32, which you can watch below or at Slooh.com, where you can also chat with astronomers and control some of the telescopes yourself.

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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Comet Halley - Close encounters of the cometary kind

    Malaga Bay
    Sun, 19 Mar 2017 18:32 UTC


    © Malaga Bay

    Researchers trawling through the dusty corners of the Academic Archives primarily have to rely upon serendipity to provide them with break-through information.

    However, when serendipity strikes the results can be startling.

    Such was the case a few weeks ago when the Glen Turret Fan chronology neatly slid into place between the Arabian Horizon and the Heinsohn Horizon in the Old Japanese Cedar Tree chronology.
    The Glen Turret Fan in upper Glen Roy contains 276 annual sedimentary layers that are coincidentally close to the 277 years between the Arabian Horizon of 637 CE and the Heinsohn Horizon of 914 CE i.e. the Heinsohn Sandwich.
    ...
    The unexplained arrival of the Sand Bed in the Glen Turret Fan [upper Glen Roy] in 759 CE coincidentally echoes:

    a) the unexplained Smothering of Samarra in sand
    b) the unexplained Covering of Cologne in sand
    c) the unexplained Clear Black Horizons in sand across Southern England and Scotland
    d) the unexplained Sandy Sludge Layers in the Greenland Ice Cores...

    See: The Fold Up Beds of Glen Roy

    © Malaga Bay

    And then serendipity struck again in form of Comet Halley.

    Comet Halley has several remarkable aspects.

    Firstly, Comet Halley has a variable orbital period of [around] 76.5 ± 2.5 years.
    Halley's orbital period over the last 3 centuries has been between 75 - 76 years, although it has varied between 74 - 79 years since 240 BC.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley's_Comet


    © Royal Astronomical Society

    The Long-Term Motion of Comet Halley - Donald K. Yeomans and Tao Kiang Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society - Vol 197 - Nov 1981
    Secondly, Earthly encounters with Comet Halley are especially dangerous because it's relative velocity is in the region of 254,016 kilometres per hour.
    Due to the retrograde orbit, it has one of the highest velocities relative to the Earth of any object in the Solar System.

    The 1910 passage was at a relative velocity of 70.56 km/s (157,838 mph or 254,016 km/h).

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley's_Comet


    © NASA
    Thirdly, the orbit of Comet Halley "comes close to Earth's in two places".
    The perihelion, the point in the comet's orbit when it is nearest the Sun, is just 0.6 AU.

    This is between the orbits of Mercury and Venus.

    Its aphelion, or farthest distance from the Sun, is 35 AU (roughly the distance of Pluto)
    ....
    Because its orbit comes close to Earth's in two places, Halley is associated with two meteor showers: the Eta Aquarids in early May, and the Orionids in late October.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley's_Comet
    Tracking the orbital history of Comet Halley back in time is not a precise science.

    This is partly because "scientific investigation" only began in the 16th century.
    Halley's periodic returns have been subject to scientific investigation since the 16th century.

    The three apparitions from 1531 to 1682 were noted by Edmond Halley, enabling him to predict its 1759 return.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley's_Comet
    And partly because the historical records become increasingly subject to interpretation because the observational data may not specifically relate to Comet Halley and/or the observational dates may be incorrectly identified/aligned with the current era.


    See: Heinsohn and The Eclipse Record

    However, hind-casting Comet Halley back to 607 CE appears very possible and very catastrophic.


    © NASA Space Place

    In this wonderful example of the Mainstream Mindset it appears that for 4,000 years there was "a widespread and long-lasting tradition" of deliberately burning down entire settlements every 75-80 years in Southeastern and Eastern Europe.

    Apparently, this rare psychological affliction Burned House Syndrome was invented when archaeologists encountered the Burned House Horizon.

    See: Burned House Syndrome

    © Malaga Bay
    The 607 CE Earthly encounter with Comet Halley appears to have triggered the catastrophic plunge in temperatures that only began to recover after the Arabian Horizon in 637 CE.

    The 760 CE Earthly encounter with Comet Halley appears to be associated with the catastrophic deposition of sand and gravel.

    And the 912 CE Earthly encounter with Comet Halley appears to be closely associated with the catastrophic Heinsohn Horizon in 914 CE.

    Therefore, the Earthly encounters with Comet Halley provides another historical perspective upon the alignment of the Roman Time Line...
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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Following this link in the above article, there are these very interesting facts which can explain why Göbekli Tepe got buried: Cometary activity:

    The Fold Up Beds of Glen Roy
    Posted on March 1, 2017

    [...]

    6th. The unexplained arrival of the Sand Bed in the Glen Turret Fan [upper Glen Roy] in 759 CE coincidentally echoes:
    a) the unexplained Smothering of Samarra in sand

    b) the unexplained Covering of Cologne in sand

    c) the unexplained Clear Black Horizons in sand across Southern England and Scotland

    d) the unexplained Sandy Sludge Layers in the Greenland Ice Cores…


    See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016...nsohn-horizon/




    See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2014...ns-countrymen/

    =============================================

    If one can imagine some sand storms occurring in Iraq, that's a bit more difficult for Cologne during historical times... yet, something happened there that's not mentioned in the known chronicles of that time (excepted, may be, in The Book Of Miracles).
    Last edited by Hervé; 20th March 2017 at 02:52.
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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    So... not THAT long ago... something happened:

    Heinsohn and The Eclipse Record

    By malagabay Posted on November 14, 2015


    R. R. Newton [amongst other things] analysed historic eclipse records to develop an understanding of the Earth’s rotation over the last two thousand years.
    Robert Russell Newton, also R. R. Newton (July 7, 1918 – June 2, 1991) was an American physicist, astronomer, and historian of science.

    Newton was Supervisor of the Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University.

    He was known for his book The Crime of Claudius Ptolemy (1977).

    In Newton’s view, Ptolemy was “the most successful fraud in the history of science”.

    Newton was also known for his work on change of the rotation rate of the earth, and historical observations of eclipses.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R._R._Newton
    The challenge associated with the historic records of solar and lunar eclipses is to determine the accuracy of the observations and the reliability of their dating.

    Dating is especially problematical when disparate sources are combined.
    Unfortunately, Newton’s investigations suffered from two fundamental defects.

    The two parameters he sought to determine were highly correlated; and he also adopted a somewhat arbitrary weighting scheme in analysing suspected observations of total solar eclipses.

    Many of the observations he investigated were of doubtful reliability.
    However, based upon his assembled data R. R. Newton observed [back in 1972] that it “shows strongly” that the Earth-Moon system experienced “a ‘square wave’ in the accelerations that lasted from about 700–1300”.
    The most conspicuous effects of non-gravitational forces in the Earth-Moon system are the accelerations of the Earth’s spin and of the Moon’s mean angular velocity.

    Evidence indicates that the present acceleration of the Moon is between −20 and −52 s of arc per century per century and that the present average acceleration of the Earth is between −5 and −23 parts in 109 per century.

    Over the past 2000 yr, the average for the Moon has been about −42 s per century per century and for the Earth has been about −28 parts in 10^9 per century; these values are probably correct within 10%.

    Evidence that does not involve any assumptions about the present values shows strongly that there was a ‘square wave’ in the accelerations that lasted from about 700–1300, and that the accelerations were different by a factor of perhaps 5 during the time of this wave from what they were at neighboring times.

    Astronomical evidence concerning non-gravitational forces in the Earth-Moon system
    R. R. Newton, Astrophysics and Space Science – May 1972, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 179-200
    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00642733


    Empirico-Statistical Analysis of Narrative Material and its Applications to Historical Dating – Volume 1 – The Development of the Statistical Tools
    A T Fomenko – Translated by O Efimov; Kluwer Academic Publishers – 1994 – The Netherlands
    http://www.chronologia.org/en/es_analysis1/index.html

    A square wave is a non-sinusoidal periodic waveform (which can be represented as an infinite summation of sinusoidal waves), in which the amplitude alternates at a steady frequency between fixed minimum and maximum values, with the same duration at minimum and maximum.

    The transition between minimum to maximum is instantaneous for an ideal square wave; this is not realizable in physical systems.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Square_wave
    The “about 700–1300” period identified by R. R. Newton centres around the end of the First Millennium and aligns approximately with the Heinsohn Horizon in the 930s where the mainstream narrative falls into The Academic Abyss.
    Working backwards through the mainstream historical narrative we arrive at the Heinsohn Horizon in the 930s where the mainstream narrative falls into The Academic Abyss and degenerates into fiction, fantasy and fabrication for a period of 700 [phantom] years.


    The Heinsohn Horizon: The Academic Abyss
    A re-analysis of the historic eclipse data [as shown above] suggests the eclipse data is contiguous when 700 years is removed from the First Millennium time-line.

    Similar results were obtained when George Dodwell’s Obliquity of the Ecliptic data was re-analysed by removing 700 years from the First Millennium time-line.

    Rock Around the Clock
    Peter James has provided some interesting support for this re-analysis by estimating that today’s parallel of latitude have deviated by about 4° since the time of Hipparchus [circa 190-120 BC].
    Born in Marseille, Hipparchus placed its latitude on the same latitude as Byzantium (Istanbul, today).

    A parallel of latitude through both locations is shown in Figure 4.

    The one by Hipparchus deviates from today’s parallel of latitude by an angle of about 4° and it would put the North Pole near the northern tip of Russia (Bol’shevik Is), outside the limits of the modern permanent pack ice and some 1000-1500 km from its present location.



    Massive Changes In Climate & Sea Level
    Peter M. James; NCGT Journal – Volume 3, Number 1, March 2015 Editor: Dong R. CHOI
    http://www.ncgt.org/nws/a878f45235e1...d5ee925fdb.pdf

    Hipparchus of Nicaea (c. 190 – c. 120 BC)
    , was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hipparchus

    Istanbul Coordinates: 41°00′49″N 28°57′18″E https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Istanbul

    Marseille Coordinates: 43°17′47″N 5°22′12″E https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marseille
    Therefore, an Axial Tilt of 19.4° before the Heinsohn Horizon explains:
    1) Why the Roman Warm Period [250 BC to 400 AD] was “2° C warmer” than now.

    2) Why the Roman Warm Period peaked [150 AD] close to the Heinsohn Horizon.
    The Roman Warm Period https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2015...n-warm-period/
    Conversely, an Axial Tilt of 23.4° after the Heinsohn Horizon explains:
    3) Why the Camp Century Ice Sheet in Greenland only started to grow after 930 CE.

    4) Why Trepidation data shows Axial Tilt starting to reverse about 885 CE.

    The Great Greenland Snow Job – 08 – The Delta 18O Dating Debacle

    Greenland: Heinsohn’s Phantom Years

    At this juncture, the curiosity of the reader may have been roused by a Trepidation cycle that “reverses direction every 640 years” because this roughly aligns with the [calculated] 675 year half-rotation period of the Solar System and the 700 year cycle of catastrophic Lawler Events.

    The data also supports the view that a Trepidation reversal occurred towards the end of the first millennium A.D. and Trepidation has been gently oscillating since that event.

    The data suggests the 1st millennium reversal occurred between 880 and 890 A.D.


    Trembling Stargazers
    However, its important to remember that the Heinsohn Horizon was a catastrophic event which R. R. Newton coyly described as a “square wave” in the record of solar and lunar eclipses.

    -------------------------------

    From the The Heinsohn Horizon: The Academic Abyss article:

    [...]

    Working backwards through the mainstream historical narrative we arrive at the Heinsohn Horizon in the 930s where the mainstream narrative falls into The Academic Abyss and degenerates into fiction, fantasy and fabrication for a period of 700 [phantom] years.

    Mainstream historians [and tributary catastrophists] clearly have their eyes wired shut and their index fingers firmly wedged into their ears as they chant: “I can’t hear you Heinsohn”.
    Therefore, some 700 years of the 1st millennium (230 to 930s) have neither strata nor tree samples for C14 or dendro-chronological dating.
    Archaeological Strata Versus Baillie’s Tree-Rings: Proposal for an Experiment - Gunnar Heinsohn – 8 September 2014
    http://www.q-mag.org/_media/gunnar-s...08-09-2014.pdf
    http://www.q-mag.org/the-1st-millenn...ntroversy.html
    The problem for many mainstream and tributary historians is that their professional lives are dedicated to filling The Academic Abyss with fiction, fantasy and fabrication.

    The Academic Abyss [formerly known as The Dark Ages] has morphed into The Middle Ages as the mainstream has filled the void with debris and detritus.
    The Dark Ages is a historical periodization used originally for the Middle Ages, which emphasizes the cultural and economic deterioration that supposedly occurred in Western Europe following the conversion of the Roman Republic to an Empire Julius Caesar, resulting in the Empire’s decay and final denouement in the decline of the Roman Empire leading to the Dark Ages.

    The label employs traditional light-versus-darkness imagery to contrast the “darkness” of the period with earlier and later periods of “light”.

    The period is characterized by a relative scarcity of historical and other written records at least for some areas of Europe, rendering it obscure to historians.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_A...toriography%29
    Once upon a time the mainstream attributed The Academic Abyss to “ruthless barbarians” who destroyed the “old libraries”.
    The ancient Roman civilization began to decline soon after the reign of the Antonines, and was overthrown at last by the Northern barbarians.

    The treasures of literature and art were buried, and a dark night settled over Europe.

    One of the chief causes of the prevailing ignorance was the scarcity of books.

    The old libraries were destroyed by ruthless barbarians and the ravages of war.
    http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/hcc4..._i.xiii.v-p5.1
    Nowadays, as is fully befitting The Academic Abyss, the mainstream manfully struggles with its ignorance as it tries to identify when the Library of Alexandria was destroyed and which set of “ruthless barbarians” actually burnt the books.
    Ancient and modern sources identify four possible occasions for the partial or complete destruction of the Library of Alexandria:
    Julius Caesar’s fire during his civil war in 48 BC;

    the attack of Aurelian in AD 270 – 275;

    the decree of Coptic Pope Theophilus in 391 AD; and

    the Muslim conquest of Egypt in (or after) AD 642.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Destru..._of_Alexandria
    As the mainstream peer through this 690 years [i.e. 48 BC to 642 AD] of fog searching for “ruthless barbarians” their myopic gaze fails to recognise any signs of natural disaster.
    In reality, the destruction of the aqueducts happened swiftly, and with a power no humans had at their disposal.

    This happened, in 234 CE, only eight years after the last system had been completed under Alexander Severus in 226 CE.

    At the same time, Rome’s population was reduced from nearly one million to no more than 50,000.

    The cataclysm had struck with such force that more than half a millennium passed before Europeans could begin to slowly regain the technological competence of imperial Rome.

    Toppling of Rome’s Obelisks and Aqueducts – Ewald Ernst – August 2014
    http://www.q-mag.org/_media/ewald-er...01-08-2014.pdf
    However, where there are neither strata nor tree samples the myopic mainstream has managed to unearth an estimated 269,636 European manuscripts in The Academic Abyss.

    These mainstream manuscripts were mainly manufactured in monasteries.

    During a large part of the Middle Ages, a close link existed between the monastic movement and book production: monasteries were not only the most important sources of supply, but also of demand.

    We may therefore hypothesize that during the early Middle Ages book production was to a large extent driven by the number and size of monasteries, which was in turn determined by the share of the agricultural surplus that regions and countries directed to this part of the economy.

    [...]

    Unfortunately, it is impossible to determine when the Machiavellian Monasteries stopped manufacturing manuscripts to manipulate the historical narrative of the 1st millennium.

    Similarly, it is impossible to determine when an anaemic academia stopped colluding with the Machiavellian Monasteries to construct the historical narrative of the 1st millennium.

    This is [primarily] because radiocarbon dating cannot be effectively used to date the writing on the parchments produced by the Machiavellian Monasteries.

    [...]

    The Heinsohn Horizon is defined by the materials used to create manuscripts.
    Manuscripts were written on “Egyptian papyrus” before the Heinsohn Horizon and then switched to parchment [and vellum] immediately after the Heinsohn Horizon in Europe until locally produced alternatives [cotton paper (circa 1049) and linen paper (circa 1177)] became readily available.

    [...]

    Clearly, the anaemic academics have been working overtime to fill the The Academic Abyss with debris, detritus and disinformation.

    However, the Heinsohn Horizon clearly defines a 700 year period [between the 230s and 930s] where any manuscript:
    a) Originated [i.e. specifically dated] during this 700 year period is a forgery.

    b) Retrospectively attributed [e.g. by anaemic academics] to this 700 year period is misdated

    c) Describing the history of this 700 year period is documenting a fabricated narrative.
    Accordingly, a manuscript such as the Notitia Dignitatum that is “usually considered” to document the “Western Roman Empire in the 420s” and the “Eastern or Byzantine Empire in the 390s” is relating a fabricated narrative and has a fabricated provenance.

    [...]

    ========================================

    Voilà... how Troglodyte dwellings and cities as well as DUMBs start to make some sense...
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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Really interesting thread here Herve, I'm enjoying it!

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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    The Book Of Miracles:


    The Culprit Barbarian Invader


    Splitting/Exploding/Fragmenting...


    Incoming stone storm...




    Raining stones...


    Burning Stone bunker... AKA Dolmen


    Pestilence... trumpet sounds coming from the clouds...

    Get the picture?!
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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    The above extracts from The Book of Miracles may depict another catastrophic event (in concert with the new earth tilt) which, again, targeted Europe:

    From here:
    From the early decades of the fifteenth century until 1650, continental Europeans executed between two and five hundred thousand witches (according to conservative estimates), more than 85 percent of them being women. (Ben-Yehuda, 1985)
    Why?
    The sanctioned, organized pursuit and persecution of witches, which peaked from 1560 to 1630 and was almost entirely a western European phenomenon, began during a time of grave concern in the Roman Catholic church. The European world in the early 1400s was a wreck. The preceding century has been labeled by historian Barbara Tuchman as "calamitous," and she does not overstate. Starting around 1315, a great famine ravaged much of western Europe. From 1347 to 1352, the Black Death killed more than a third of the continent's population. Other diseases and additional outbreaks of the plague scourged the weakened survivors. As if natural catastrophe weren't enough, England and France chose to fight the Hundred Years' War from 1337 to 1453, the longest war in history. The Church itself fractured, riven by massive organized heresies, and by a schism that led to as many as three men simultaneously laying claim to be the true pope. How could a world created by a watchful, benevolent, and engaged God be such a mess?

    [...]

    In 1450, 100 years after the Black Death had destroyed about half of Europe's population, the Hundred Years' War was coming to an end and someone had to be blamed, (definitely NOT cometary explosions!), and the so-called Renaissance was kicking off, Jean Vineti, Inquisitor at Carcassone, identified witchcraft with heresy. In 1458, Nicholas Jacquier, Inquisitor in France and Bohemia, identified it as a NEW form of heresy.

    [...]

    In 1484-86, Sprenger and Kramer published the Malleus which explicated a crystallized theory of witchcraft which held sway for three hundred years. Johannes Gutenberg's printing press - a product of the Renaissance - allowed the work to spread rapidly throughout Europe. This crystallization is what resulted in the beginning of the witch craze itself.

    [...]

    One evening 10 years ago, Walter Stephens was reading Malleus malificarum. The Malleus, as scholars refer to it, would not be everyone's choice for a late-night book. Usually translated as The Hammer of Witches, it was first published in Germany in 1487 as a handbook for witch hunters during the Inquisition. It's a chilling text - - used for 300 years, well into the Age of Reason -- that justifies and details the identification, apprehension, interrogation, and execution of people accused of consorting with demons, signing pacts with the devil, and performing maleficia, or harmful magic.

    [...]

    For the next eight years Stephens read every treatise he could find on witchcraft, as well as accounts of interrogations, theological tracts, and other works (his bibliography lists 154 primary and more than 200 secondary sources). Most of the 86 witchcraft treatises he cites had been written in western Europe in the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries, and one after another (including the Malleus) contain accounts of sexual intercourse with satanic spirits.

    Why?


    Were the authors remorseless misogynists hellbent on portraying women in the worst possible light? Were they lurid, repressed celibates who got off by writing accounts of demon sex?

    Stephens didn't think so; the texts, in his view, didn't support that reading. Elsewhere in the Malleus he had found a key reference to accused witches under torture as being "expert witnesses to the reality of carnal interaction between humans and demons."

    These guys are trying to construct proofs that demons exist, he thought.

    They're trying to convince skeptics.

    And then he thought, They're trying to convince themselves.

    Stephens' thesis profoundly revises the conventional wisdom about centuries of cruelty and injustice. The great European witch hunts, he says, were the outgrowth of a severe crisis of faith. The men who wrote books like the Malleus, men who endorsed the torture and burning of tens of thousands of innocent people, desperately needed to believe in witches, because if witches were real, then demons were real, and if demons were real, then God was real. Not just real but present and attentive. Carefully read the works composed by the witchcraft authors, Stephens says, and you will see how profoundly disturbed these educated, literate men were by their accumulating suspicions that if God existed at all, He wasn't paying much attention to the descendants of Adam.

    [...]

    Above excerpts from: Wars, Pestilence and Witches
    ==========================================

    So, there you have it: How Plato's invention survived a very deep crisis triggered by catastrophic heavenly phenomena...
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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    For those interested in the various space dust, sand, gravel and pebble storms we (i.e. earth) run into from time to time:

    Stunning interactive graphic reveals the path of every major meteor shower

    Cheyenne MacDonald
    Daily Mail, UK Thu, 30 Mar 2017 14:39 UTC


    Every year, thousands of meteoroids crash into Earth's atmosphere, creating stunning displays of 'shooting stars' that can be seen from the surface below.

    In a remarkable interactive website, researchers have plotted all the major meteor streams that orbit the sun, revealing the paths of those which give rise to meteor showers on Earth.

    The visualization, created by engineer Ian Webster, allows users to view each stream in relation to our entire solar system or even watch from the perspective of Earth, showing the breathtaking magnitude of the space pebbles that bombard our planet.

    The interactive site shows 12 different meteor showers that occur throughout the year, from the upcoming Lyrids in April to the Ursids in December. Or, you can choose to view every meteor shower at once.

    The data comes from measurements by NASA's CAMS video camera surveillance network and calculations by meteor astronomer Peter Jenniskens of the SETI Institute and NASA Ames Research Center.

    Complied into one stunning visualization, the interactive site displays these meteor streams as bright specks moving through the solar system. 'This visualization shows these meteoroid streams orbiting the Sun, some stretching to the outer regions of the solar system,' the website explains.

    'Select the meteor shower in the menu to see the corresponding meteoroid stream in space.' The website also shows the Milky Way and the orbits of other planets in the solar system.

    And, it shows how these streams move along their orbits as the years pass, giving viewers a glimpse far into the future.

    While meteor showers create streaks in the sky that can be seen on Earth from miles away, the meteoroids that cause them are actually quite small. 'Meteor showers on Earth are caused by streams of meteoroids hitting our atmosphere,' the site explains.

    'These meteoroids are sand- and pebble-sized bits of rock that were once released from their parent comet. 'Some comets are no longer active and are now called asteroids.'

    The next meteor shower, the Lyrids, is set to take place in April. The Lyrids typically peak around April 22, bring up to 20 meteors per hour.


    Interactive site:
    http://www.ianww.com/meteor-showers/
    "La réalité est un rêve que l'on fait atterrir" San Antonio AKA F. Dard

    Troll-hood motto: Never, ever, however, whatsoever, to anyone, a point concede.

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