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Thread: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Large ancient impact event discovered in Southeast Asia

    Katherine Kornei Science
    Wed, 03 Jan 2018 18:40 UTC

    An artist’s representation of a large impact on Earth. © John R. Foster/Science Source

    A kilometer-size asteroid slammed into Earth about 800,000 years ago with so much force that it scattered debris across a 10th of our planet's surface. Yet its impact crater remains undiscovered. Now, glassy remains believed to have come from the strike suggest the asteroid hit southeast Asia as our close ancestors walked the Earth.

    "This impact event is the youngest of this size during human evolution with likely worldwide effects," says Mario Trieloff, a geochemist at the University of Heidelberg in Germany not involved in the research. Large impacts can disrupt Earth's climate by spewing dirt and soot high into the atmosphere, where it can block sunlight for months or even years.

    Putative remains from this impact have been found before. Researchers have recovered chunks of glassy debris known as tektites across Asia, Australia, and Antarctica, and their distribution pattern suggests the asteroid struck Southeast Asia: The largest tektites-weighing more than 20 kilograms and presumably ejected the shortest distances from the impact-have been found there.

    To try to confirm this hypothesis, Aaron Cavosie, an astrobiologist and geochemist at Curtin University in Perth, Australia, and his colleagues examined the chemical composition of three tektites from Thailand. They searched for evidence of reidite, a rare mineral formed only by extreme pressures and temperatures, like those of an asteroid impact. But the team had to infer that reidite had existed: It disappears just seconds after it forms and transforms into zircon, a mineral common in Earth's crust.


    A tektite, a piece of glassy debris created during a large impact. © PjrStudio/Alamy Stock Photo

    The scientists studied tiny crystals of zircon in the tektites and looked at their geometrical orientation. They found that the crystals, each about half the width of a human hair, exhibited three different orientations intersecting at roughly right angles, consistent with laboratory and theoretical results that show how zircon transforms into reidite and then back into zircon. On the other hand, zircon crystals that have never converted to reidite tend to all be oriented in one direction.

    The former presence of reidite in these tektites means that they were exposed to crushing pressures and searing temperatures, Cavosie and his team concluded. This discovery, paired with the generally large masses of tektites found in Thailand, is consistent with the impact occurring somewhere in Southeast Asia, the team reports in Geology. Other researchers have found evidence of a high-pressure version of quartz in some tektites, but reidite is a better tracer of a nearby impact, Cavosie and his team argue. "Reidite requires substantially higher shock pressures to form," Cavosie says.

    The mystery of the missing crater isn't solved yet, however, says Billy Glass, an emeritus professor of geology at the University of Delaware in Newark not involved in the research. "[The researchers] can't narrow down the source crater based only on samples from one location," he said. "They need to study samples from over all of Southeast Asia."

    Cavosie and his team plan to examine more tektites from the strewn field in the future. They're puzzled why a crater that's both presumably large and geologically young-meaning it hasn't been exposed to much erosion due to rain and wind-hasn't been found. The crater, if discovered, could also shed light on how the impact affected life nearby. "Our not-too-distant ancestors witnessed this impact," Cavosie says. "They might have been dragging their knuckles, but an event like the formation of a 50- to 100-kilometer-diameter impact is sure to have gotten their attention."
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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Now, this sounds like a valid candidate for the Sun's twin companion:

    Scholz's star disturbed prehistory's solar system's comets

    Phys Org
    Wed, 21 Mar 2018 18:43 UTC


    At a time when modern humans were beginning to leave Africa and the Neanderthals were living on our planet, Scholz's star approached less than a light-year. © José A. Peñas/SINC

    About 70,000 years ago, during human occupation of the planet, a small, reddish star approached our solar system and gravitationally disturbed comets and asteroids. Astronomers from the Complutense University of Madrid and the University of Cambridge have verified that the movement of some of these objects is still marked by that stellar encounter.

    At a time when modern humans were beginning to leave Africa and the Neanderthals still thrived, Scholz's star-named after the German astronomer who discovered it-approached less than a light-year from the sun. Today, it is almost 20 light-years away, but 70,000 years ago, it entered the Oort cloud, a reservoir of trans-Neptunian objects located at the confines of the solar system.

    This discovery was made public in 2015 by a team of astronomers led by Professor Eric Mamajek of the University of Rochester (USA). The details of that stellar flyby, the closest documented so far, were presented in The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

    Now, two astronomers from the Complutense University of Madrid, the brothers Carlos and Raúl de la Fuente Marcos, together with the researcher Sverre J. Aarseth of the University of Cambridge (United Kingdom), have analyzed for the first time nearly 340 solar system objects with hyperbolic orbits (very open V-shaped, rather than elliptical) They have concluded that the trajectories of some of these were influenced by the passage of Scholz's star.

    "Using numerical simulations, we have calculated the radiants or positions in the sky from which all these hyperbolic objects seem to come," explains Carlos de la Fuente Marcos, a co-author of the study now published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
    "In principle," he adds, "one would expect those positions to be evenly distributed in the sky, particularly if these objects come from the Oort cloud. However, what we find is very different-a statistically significant accumulation of radiants. The pronounced over-density appears projected in the direction of the constellation of Gemini, which fits the close encounter with Scholz's star."
    The period in which this star passed through the Oort Cloud and its position during prehistory coincide with the data of the new investigation and in those of Mamajek and his team. "It could be a coincidence, but it is unlikely that both location and time are compatible," says De la Fuente Marcos, who points out that their simulations suggest that Scholz's star approached even more than the 0.6 light-years pointed out in the 2015 study as the lower limit.

    The close fly-by of this star 70,000 years ago did not disturb all the hyperbolic objects of the solar system, only those that were closest to it at that time.
    "For example, the radiant of the famous interstellar asteroid 'Oumuamua is in the constellation of Lyra (the Harp), very far from Gemini, therefore it is not part of the detected over-density," says De la Fuente Marcos.
    He is confident that new studies and observations will confirm the idea that a star passed close to us in a relatively recent period.

    Scholz's star is actually a binary system formed by a small red dwarf with about 9 percent of the mass of the sun, around which a much less bright and smaller brown dwarf orbits. It is likely that human ancestors saw its faint reddish light during prehistorical nights.

    More information: Carlos de la Fuente Marcos et al. Where the Solar system meets the solar neighbourhood: patterns in the distribution of radiants of observed hyperbolic minor bodies, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters (2018). DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/sly019
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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Did cometary catastrophes cause the Justinian Plague and end the Roman Empire?

    Thunderbolts Project
    Mon, 09 Apr 2018 10:30 UTC



    For nearly half-a-century, the chief principles of The Thunderbolts Project have been presenting a scientific case for relatively recent celestial catastrophes in the inner solar system, within human memory. These events were recorded in the myths and storytelling of ancient man in pre-history, the dramas reverberating through generations and shaping the earliest civilizations.

    The catastrophes were electromagnetic in nature -- planets seen in the Earthly sky discharging electrically, the thunderbolts of the gods. But what about more recent disasters, in the A.D. time periods, disasters that also may have been triggered by fundamentally electromagnetic phenomena in the solar system?

    In this episode, Thunderbolts colleague Peter Mungo Jupp offers the provocative conjecture that an encounter between our own planet and a cometary intruder may have caused an AD catastrophe, leading to the deaths of tens millions of human beings - the so-called Plague of Justinian.

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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Volcanic eruptions during Roman times blocked out the sun plunging Eurasia into hunger and disease

    University of Helsinki Phys.org
    Fri, 13 Apr 2018 05:48 UTC


    A subfossil tree trunk being lifted out of a lake. © Samuli Helama / Natural Resources Institute Finland

    A recent study published in an esteemed academic journal indicates that volcanic eruptions in the mid-500s resulted in an unusually gloomy and cold period. A joint research project of the Chronology Laboratory of the Finnish Museum of Natural History and Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke) suggests that the years 536 and 541-544 CE were very difficult for many people.

    An extended period of low light makes survival difficult. Food production, including farming and animal husbandry, rely on solar energy. Humans, meanwhile, become more prone to disease if they are not exposed to enough sunlight to produce vitamin D.

    "Our research shows that the climate anomaly, which covered all of the northern hemisphere, was the compound result of several volcanic eruptions," says Markku Oinonen, director of the Chronology Laboratory. The aerosols that were released into the atmosphere with the eruptions covered the sun for a long time.

    The exceptionally poor climate conditions were significantly detrimental to farming and reduced the production of vitamin D among the populace. This means that the people who were already weakened by hunger also had to grapple with compromised immune systems.

    Trees are a record of the past
    The study is based on dendrochronology or tree-ring dating. The series of annual growth rings from subfossil-or intact-tree deposits covers the past 7,600 years. The trees are often found on the bottoms of small lakes, and Luke has been taking samples and recording the findings since the 1990s.

    "Researchers have put together an annual growth ring calendar of treeline pine spanning more than 7,600 years. Various historical events can be contrasted with the calendar. The growth ring calendar is an important indicator of global climate change," says researcher Samuli Helama from Luke.

    The samples in the recent study were dated with the help of the growth ring calendar at Luke, and the researchers carved sample shavings out of them for each calendar year. The Chronology Laboratory then conducted isotope analyses on the samples.

    The results of the study are based on the analysis of the variation of carbon isotopes in the annual growth rings of trees. The variety in carbon isotopes reflects the photosynthesis of the trees, which in turn is largely dependent on the amount of solar radiation available during the summer.

    The new study tracks the correlation of carbon isotope variation and volcanic eruptions from the 19th century until recent years, and shows the dramatic reduction in available sunlight in 536 as well as between 541 and 544 CE. The variation of summer temperatures was similarly reconstructed on the basis of the density of the trees' annual growth rings.

    Hard times brought the plague
    The unusually poor years coincide with the bubonic plague epidemic that devastated the Roman Empire. The epidemic caused by the Yersinia pestis bacterium began in 542 CE and killed approximately half or more of the inhabitants of what was then considered the Eastern Roman Empire. The plague spread through Europe from the Mediterranean to possibly as far north as Finland, and had killed tens of millions of people by the 8th century.
    Explore further: Tree rings provide vital information for improved climate predictions

    More information: Samuli Helama et al, Volcanic dust veils from sixth century tree-ring isotopes linked to reduced irradiance, primary production and human health, Scientific Reports (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-19760-w

    Journal reference: Scientific Reports

    Provided by: University of Helsinki

    Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-04-unusua...rasia.html#jCp


    Related:

    New Light on the Black Death: The Cosmic Connection

    Comets and meteorites on ancient coins

    Comets and the early Christian mosaics of Ravenna

    Did cometary catastrophes cause the Justinian Plague and end the Roman Empire?

    Apocalypse then: How a comet ended the Roman Empire

    The destruction of ancient Rome - The barbarians were not responsible

    Swedish study finds that earth was warmer in ancient Roman times and the Middle Ages than today

    Tree-rings prove climate was warmer in Roman and Medieval times than it is now - and world has been cooling for 2,000 years

    Early humans witnessed global cooling, warming, and massive fires from comet debris impacts says major study

    Britain's peasant houses and the Black Death building boom

    ================================================

    The article's assumption is that it's volcanic dust which caused the dimming of the sun light, but nothing rules out that it might have been cometary dust or even a combination of both.
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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Space diamonds found in meteorite came from an ancient destroyed planet

    Chris Mahon Outer Places
    Tue, 17 Apr 2018 11:51 UTC


    © YouTube

    What's cooler than finding a meteorite? Finding diamonds in that meteorite. And what's even cooler than finding space diamonds? Discovering that those diamonds may be from an ancient lost protoplanet that was destroyed in the early days of our solar system.

    According to a new study published in Nature Communications, that's exactly what we have on our hands-one of the study's co-authors, Philippe Gillet, claims that the large diamonds his team found in the Almahata Sitta meteorite "cannot be the result of a shock but rather of growth that has taken place within a planet."

    The Almahata Sitta meteorite crashed into the Nubian Desert of Sudan in 2008 and has been a subject of study ever since.

    The team of scientists studying its interior found both graphite and diamonds and discovered that the latter contained crystals that are only formed under extreme pressure conditions-scientists estimated it would take around 200,000 bars, or 2.9 million pounds per square inch (psi) to create them.

    For comparison, the pressure at the bottom of the Marianas Trench is around 1,086 bars, or 15,750 psi. One of the few places where that pressure can be found is inside of a planet, and based on the pressure, scientists estimated the unknown planet would have to be the size of Mars or Mercury.

    Our solar system wasn't always made of nine eight planets-early in its development, there may have been several more nascent worlds developing around the sun.

    These diamonds may be all that's left of one of them, says Gillet:
    "What we're claiming here is that we have in our hands a remnant of this first generation of planets that are missing today because they were destroyed or incorporated in a bigger planet."
    For scientists, the early solar system is still shrouded in mystery-we're still not sure exactly how our Moon was created, for starters. This chunk of space diamond may be one of the few windows we have into what our stellar neighborhood used to look like.
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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Czech Mate - Confirmation of the Younger Dryas impact event

    The Cosmic Tusk
    Thu, 04 Oct 2018 01:17 UTC

    © The Cosmic Tusk

    See another blockbuster confirmation of the Younger Dryas cosmic impact below. I keep a pretty close eye on our subject but had no idea such intricate, original and thorough work was underway in the Czech Republic. Gunther Kleteschka has appeared on several YDB papers, but has clearly been busy in his own laboratory collecting entirely new, informative and well dated expressions of the YDB boundary in lake sediments. His work and that of his local colleagues is clearly exciting and in keeping with the predictions made by the Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis.

    Cosmic-Impact Event in Lake Sediments from Central Europe Postdates the Laacher See Eruption and Marks Onset of the Younger Dryas

    Gunther Kletetschka,1,2,3,* Daniel Vondrák,4 Jolana Hruba,2 Vaclav Prochazka,2 Ladislav Nabelek,1,2 Helena Svitavská-Svobodová,5 Premysl Bobek,5 Zuzana Horicka,6,7 Jaroslav Kadlec,8 Marian Takac,2 and Evzen Stuchlik7

    Institute of Geology, Czech Academy of Sciences, CZ-252 43 Průhonice 770, Czech Republic; 2. Institute of Hydrogeology, Engineering Geology and Applied Geophysics, Charles University, Albertov 6, CZ-128 43 Prague 2, Czech Republic; 3. Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 903 North Koyukuk Drive, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775-7320, USA; 4. Institute for Environmental Studies, Charles University, Benátská 2, CZ-128 01 Prague 2, Czech Republic; 5. Institute of Botany, Czech Academy of Sciences, Zámek 1, CZ-252 43 Průhonice, Czech Republic; 6. Branch of Applied Ecology, T. G. Masaryk Water Research Institute, Podbabská 30, CZ-160 00 Prague 6, Czech Republic; 7. Institute of Hydrobiology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, Na Sádkách 7, CZ-370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic; 8. Institute of Geophysics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Boční II 1401, CZ-141 31 Prague 4, Czech Republic

    ABSTRACT
    The Younger Dryas (YD) climate episode (∼12,850-11,650 calendar years before present [cal BP]) is an event recorded widely across the Northern Hemisphere. We conducted multiple analyses at high resolution of a YD-age sedimentary sequence from Stara Jimka, a paleolake in the Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic. Age-depth modeling indicates that a cen- tral European warming trend was interrupted at ∼13,020 5 110 cal BP by the sudden onset of cooling (!20 y) known as the Gerzensee climate oscillation and marked by the deposition of fine-grained sediment at this location. That cooling episode ended at ∼13,001 5 66 cal BP and was followed by a ∼121-y-long warming trend. After that, the Laacher See tephra depo- sitional event, dating to ∼12,820 5 20 cal BP, continued an overall warming trend. The composition of Laacher See volcanic tephra in this section likely corresponds to the middle eruption sequence. Finally, the deposition of glassy microspherules marked the onset of the YD climate change at 12,755 5 92 cal BP. The sequence across the YD onset is marked by (1) a peak in glassy microspherules (117,000/kg), (2) a peak in framboidal spherules (14,000/kg), (3) significant changes in the lake's weathering proxies, and (4) major changes in fauna and flora, showing a shift to unfavorable environmental conditions (decrease in temperature and lake trophy status). Collectively, this evidence is consistent with the YD impact hypothesis and evidence of one or more cosmic airburst events occurring at this time.

    Download (PDF, 1.04MB)

    Appendix below
    Download (PDF, 19.92MB)


    PS: check this post to get on idea on how such an event affected earth's population: Re: Here: The So-called "Word Of God"
    Last edited by Hervé; 4th November 2018 at 14:08.
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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies


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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Huge asteroid crater found under the ice in Greenland

    Sky News UK,
    Wednesday 14 November 2018, 23:57


    A CGI image of the crater, which is a whopping 19 miles wide

    An enormous crater believed to have been caused by an asteroid that slammed into Earth 12,000 years ago has been found beneath the ice in Greenland.

    The 19-mile-wide impact had remained hidden under a half-mile-thick sheet of ice until it was exposed by a state-of-the-art radar system at the University of Kansas.

    Located under the Hiawatha Glacier in remote northwest Greenland, the crater is thought to be the result of an iron asteroid about one kilometre in size that struck the island at the end of the Pleistocene.

    The Pleistocene period - beginning about 2.6 million years ago and lasting until about 11,700 years ago - included the final ice age, during which huge glaciers covered the surface of the planet.


    The asteroid impact had remained hidden under a half-mile-thick sheet of ice

    It took almost two decades to identify the crater, with most of the data needed collected between 1997 and 2014, and the findings have now been detailed in a new paper for the latest edition of Science Advance.

    Co-author John Paden, a professor of electrical engineering and computer science at the University of Kansas, said:
    "We've collected lots of radar-sounding data over the last couple of decades, and glaciologists put these radar-sounding data sets together to produce maps of what Greenland is like underneath the ice.

    "Danish researchers were looking at the map and saw this big, crater-like depression under the ice sheet and looked at satellite imagery and - because the crater is on edge of the ice sheet - you can see a circular pattern there as well.
    "The two combined made a really strong case for this being an impact-crater site."
    Based on the discovery, the catchily-named Multichannel Coherent Radar Depth Sounder (MCORDS) - built for the university by the Alfred Wegener Institute in Germany - began its survey in May 2016.

    Once the radar system had done its bit, a research team carried out its own surveys on the ground.

    Work still needs to be done to determine the precise timing of the asteroid impact, and the discovery of possible debris southwest of the site could help to narrow the date range.

    Professor Paden explained:
    "There would have been debris projected into the atmosphere that would affect the climate and the potential for melting a lot of ice.

    "So there could have been a sudden freshwater influx into the Nares Strait between Canada and Greenland that would have affected the ocean flow in that whole region.

    "The evidence indicates that the impact probably happened after the Greenland ice sheet formed, but the research team is still working on the precise dating."

    The crater is thought to be the result of an iron asteroid of about one kilometre in size

    Professor Paden was just one of a large but exclusive team of researchers who worked to reveal the impact crater, with colleagues from the University of Copenhagen among those to assist the project.

    He admitted that he was excited to finally publish the findings.
    "It was really cool - it was the kind of thing where I went home and told my kids about it," Professor Paden said.

    "It's one of those fun moments. They were impressed. A lot of times, my research isn't that interesting to them, but this impact crater was something they could connect to."
    PS: Thanks to Did You See Them who posted a thread here (<---)
    Last edited by Hervé; 15th November 2018 at 11:59.
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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Quote Posted by Bill Ryan (here)
    Wow. Important.
    Quote Posted by Hervé (here)
    An enormous crater believed to have been caused by an asteroid that slammed into Earth 12,000 years ago has been found beneath the ice in Greenland.
    Even MORE important. This is a huge discovery. It changes and re-frames every [mainstream] understanding of what happened to Planet Earth (and everyone who was alive) at that time.

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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Quote Posted by Bill Ryan (here)
    Quote Posted by Bill Ryan (here)
    Wow. Important.
    Quote Posted by Hervé (here)
    An enormous crater believed to have been caused by an asteroid that slammed into Earth 12,000 years ago has been found beneath the ice in Greenland.
    Even MORE important. This is a huge discovery. It changes and re-frames every [mainstream] understanding of what happened to Planet Earth (and everyone who was alive) at that time.
    I think it depends upon how accurately the dating is. If the impact was in the past 20,000 years it may well have had a profound effect on human evolution. I've not yet seen any suggested estimations on local or global effects. Maybe even if it was a comparatively recent event, it didn't have the wide climatic effects of other larger impacts.

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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    An exploding meteor may have wiped out ancient Dead Sea communities

    Bruce Bower Science News
    Tue, 20 Nov 2018 10:00 UTC


    ANCIENT WIPEOUT Preliminary evidence indicates that a low-altitude meteor explosion around 3,700 years ago destroyed cities, villages and farmland north of the Dead Sea (shown in the background above) rendering the region uninhabitable for 600 to 700 years. © FIGHTBEGIN/ISTOCK.COM

    Archaeologists at a site in what's now Jordan have found evidence of a cosmic calamity


    A superheated blast from the skies obliterated cities and farming settlements north of the Dead Sea around 3,700 years ago, preliminary findings suggest.

    Radiocarbon dating and unearthed minerals that instantly crystallized at high temperatures indicate that a massive airburst caused by a meteor that exploded in the atmosphere instantaneously destroyed civilization in a 25-kilometer-wide circular plain called Middle Ghor, said archaeologist Phillip Silvia. The event also pushed a bubbling brine of Dead Sea salts over once-fertile farm land, Silvia and his colleagues suspect.

    People did not return to the region for 600 to 700 years, said Silvia, of Trinity Southwest University in Albuquerque. He reported these findings at the annual meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research on November 17.

    Excavations at five large Middle Ghor sites, in what's now Jordan, indicate that all were continuously occupied for at least 2,500 years until a sudden, collective collapse toward the end of the Bronze Age. Ground surveys have located 120 additional, smaller settlements in the region that the researchers suspect were also exposed to extreme, collapse-inducing heat and wind. An estimated 40,000 to 65,000 people inhabited Middle Ghor when the cosmic calamity hit, Silvia said.

    The most comprehensive evidence of destruction caused by a low-altitude meteor explosion comes from the Bronze Age city of Tall el-Hammam, where a team that includes Silvia has been excavating for the last 13 years. Radiocarbon dating indicates that the mud-brick walls of nearly all structures suddenly disappeared around 3,700 years ago, leaving only stone foundations.

    What's more, the outer layers of many pieces of pottery from same time period show signs of having melted into glass. Zircon crystals in those glassy coats formed within one second at extremely high temperatures, perhaps as hot as the surface of the sun, Silvia said.

    High-force winds created tiny, spherical mineral grains that apparently rained down on Tall el-Hammam, he said. The research team has identified these minuscule bits of rock on pottery fragments at the site.

    Examples exist of exploding space rocks that have wreaked havoc on Earth (SN: 5/13/17, p. 12). An apparent meteor blast over a sparsely populated Siberian region in 1908, known as the Tunguska event, killed no one but flattened 2,000 square kilometers of forest. And a meteor explosion over Chelyabinsk, Russia, in 2013 injured more than 1,600 people, mainly due to broken glass from windows that were blown out.

    =================================================

    In short, no need for impacts to generate a catastrophic chain reaction that can extinguish a civilization.
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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Prehistoric cave art study reveals ancient people had complex knowledge of astronomy and were tracking catastrophic meteor showers

    University of Edinburgh Science Daily
    Tue, 27 Nov 2018 12:00 UTC


    © Martin Sweatman

    As far back as 40,000 years ago, humans kept track of time using relatively sophisticated knowledge of the stars,

    Some of the world's oldest cave paintings have revealed how ancient people had relatively advanced knowledge of astronomy.

    The artworks, at sites across Europe, are not simply depictions of wild animals, as was previously thought. Instead, the animal symbols represent star constellations in the night sky, and are used to represent dates and mark events such as comet strikes, analysis suggests.

    They reveal that, perhaps as far back as 40,000 years ago, humans kept track of time using knowledge of how the position of the stars slowly changes over thousands of years.

    The findings suggest that ancient people understood an effect caused by the gradual shift of Earth's rotational axis. Discovery of this phenomenon, called precession of the equinoxes, was previously credited to the ancient Greeks.

    Around the time that Neanderthals became extinct, and perhaps before humankind settled in Western Europe, people could define dates to within 250 years, the study shows.


    © Alistair Coombs

    The findings indicate that the astronomical insights of ancient people were far greater than previously believed. Their knowledge may have aided navigation of the open seas, with implications for our understanding of prehistoric human migration.

    Researchers from the Universities of Edinburgh and Kent studied details of Palaeolithic and Neolithic art featuring animal symbols at sites in Turkey, Spain, France and Germany.

    They found all the sites used the same method of date-keeping based on sophisticated astronomy, even though the art was separated in time by tens of thousands of years.

    Researchers clarified earlier findings from a study of stone carvings at one of these sites -- Gobekli Tepe in modern-day Turkey -- which is interpreted as a memorial to a devastating comet strike around 11,000 BC. This strike was thought to have initiated a mini ice-age known as the Younger Dryas period.

    They also decoded what is probably the best known ancient artwork -- the Lascaux Shaft Scene in France. The work, which features a dying man and several animals, may commemorate another comet strike around 15,200 BC, researchers suggest.

    The team confirmed their findings by comparing the age of many examples of cave art -- known from chemically dating the paints used -- with the positions of stars in ancient times as predicted by sophisticated software.

    The world's oldest sculpture, the Lion-Man of Hohlenstein-Stadel Cave, from 38,000 BC, was also found to conform to this ancient time-keeping system.

    This study was published in Athens Journal of History.

    Dr Martin Sweatman, of the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering, who led the study, said: "Early cave art shows that people had advanced knowledge of the night sky within the last ice age. Intellectually, they were hardly any different to us today.

    "These findings support a theory of multiple comet impacts over the course of human development, and will probably revolutionise how prehistoric populations are seen."
    Story Source: Materials provided by University of Edinburgh. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

    Journal Reference:
    1. Martin B. Sweatman, Alistair Coombs. Decoding European Palaeolithic art: Extremely ancient knowledge of precession of the equinoxes. Athens Journal of History, 2018 [link]
    Related:
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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    ...


    folklegend894m
    Published on Jan 5, 2013

    The painters of Lascaux were astronomers! Cro-Magnon men painted a zodiac on the walls of the cave, which showed the formation of the sky in the Magdalenian era, 17,000 years ago.
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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Here's an odd one !

    Scientists puzzled by mysterious earthquake that rumbled around the world

    "Scientists have been stumped by the 20-minute rumble of a mysterious seismic wave which was detected earlier this month.

    The tremor occurred on the morning of 11 November near the archipelago of Mayotte, a collection of French islands in the Indian Ocean between Madagascar and Mozambique.

    It is unclear whether it was caused by volcanic activity or a meteor strike, but it was felt by seismometers across the world, from New Zealand to Canada - and even in Hawaii."

    Odd that they speculate it could have been caused by a meteorite.

    https://news.sky.com/story/scientist...world-11566617

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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Scientists Find the Source of Strange Seismic Rumbling in Indian Ocean - Report

    Sputnik Tech
    20:35 02.12.2018G

    The seismic signal which initially puzzled scientists was apparently a product of undersea volcanic activity, such as the inflation or deflation of calderas or simply the movement of magma below the sea floor.


    A dedicated seismologist has apparently managed to uncover the nature of strange seismic event that recently occurred in the vicinity of Mayotte, a French island situated between mainland Africa and Madagascar in the Mozambique Channel.

    Earlier in November, scientists were left baffled by the discovery of low-frequency tremor which sent “seismic rumblings around the surface of much of the planet.”


    Quote
    Stephen Hicks‏Verified account @seismo_steve

    Stephen Hicks Retweeted Stephen Hicks
    Yep folks, something biggggg, yet strangely slow, sent seismic rumblings around the surface of much of the planet yesterday. The event seems to have happened west of Madagascar. Best analogue so far is a prolonged roof collapse of a volcano magma chamber. Thread #twitterscience

    Stephen Hicks added,


    Stephen HicksVerified account @seismo_steve
    Replying to @seismo_steve @ALomaxNet and 4 others

    So I wondered if GCMT has detected this event since it has lots of energy at long periods. And what do you know, here it is! It's given a magnitude of 5.0, which presumably is Mw or Ms. …

    8:29 AM - 12 Nov 2018
    13 replies 179 retweets 286 likes
    ​And now, an independent seismology consultant named Anthony Lomax told The Daily Mail that the rumblings was "almost certainly" caused by a "low-level underwater volcanic eruption off the northeast of Mayotte."
    "Inflation/deflation and collapse of volcano calderas, and movement of magma under a volcano can produce a wide variety of seismic signals, including long period and repetitive waves like those observed November 11," Lomax explained.
    The enigmatic rumblings were first detected on November 11, with low-frequency waves triggering sensors miles away from their point of origin but at the same time apparently remaining undetected by the locals.


    Between May and November this year, the island of Mayotte was struck by a series of low-grade earthquakes, with the strongest clocking in at a magnitude of 5.8 on May 15.

    ==========================================

    Well, that's a pretty big, slow sloshing around of magma inside a huge chamber...
    Last edited by Hervé; 2nd December 2018 at 21:56.
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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Quote Posted by Hervé (here)
    A dedicated seismologist has apparently managed to uncover the nature of strange seismic event that recently occurred in the vicinity of Mayotte, a French island situated between mainland Africa and Madagascar in the Mozambique Channel.
    Thanks to this post by an anon on Q's 8 chan sub-forum, that included a link to this April 2001 post on the all.net/iwar/archive, I learned that Mayotte is (or was?) the home of a major satellite communications intercept station.

    Perhaps this has something to do with the worldwide ([WW]) waves and satellite (SAT) knockout, mentioned by Q in this drop, a couple of days ago.

    This Voat Q Research thread entitled: Q "think WAVES" post. Procedure. describes the waves as "monochromatic", and as lacking the P and S waves and more chaotic structure of ordinary earthquake waves.

    A couple of days ago, I recall seeing a post on https://8ch.net/qresearch that analyzed the wave shape, using Fourier transforms, a bit more. But I don't recall now how to find that post, and very little discussion ensued from it, as not many 8chan Q anon's are Fourier fags. My recollection was that the waves looked like a simple base frequency with a modest bit of ringing at higher octaves.

    ===

    P.S. -- I posted a link to this present post over on the Q thread, Post #7848.
    Last edited by Paul; 4th December 2018 at 15:00.

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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Quote Posted by Paul (here)
    Perhaps this has something to do with the worldwide ([WW]) waves and satellite (SAT) knockout, mentioned by Q in this drop, a couple of days ago.
    Forgive me if this question doesn't belong on this thread, but I didn't want to seem to be questioning too much (or, at all!) on the main 'Q' thread.

    What 'satellite knockout'? Is there an article anywhere reporting that satellites have recently been disabled somehow? I couldn't find anything, though it was only a quick search. (Do please note: Anonymous posts on 8chan don't count for a thing.)

    There's a video here, under which the text says:
    Q followers are claiming many of our spy satellites were blacked out
    ... but that's dated 31 August.
    Last edited by Bill Ryan; 4th December 2018 at 15:30.

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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Quote Posted by Bill Ryan (here)
    What 'satellite knockout'? Is there an article anywhere reporting that satellites have recently been disabled somehow? I couldn't find anything, though it was only a quick search. [I](Do please note: Anonymous posts on 8chan don't count for a thing.)
    I have no further information on any such knockout either. If Q's drops count for nothing, then I know of no evidence for any such knockout.

    There is however, as I linked, evidence that the French island of Mayotte is (or was?) the home of a major satellite communications intercept station.

    ===

    P.S. -- And it was thanks to those researching Q's drops that I learned of that evidence, which provides an example of a key value of Q's drops. In and amongst the trash talking and deception that anons post in response to Q's drops, there is some (in my estimation at least) worthwhile research and analysis. I mentioned Q in my previous post as part of my usual effort to properly reference where and how I learned material.

    ===

    P.P.S. -- For those interested, this 8 chan post of a half a day ago lists more research into COMOROS, MAYOTTE & “WAVES”: https://8ch.net/qresearch/res/4137506.html#4137929
    Last edited by Paul; 4th December 2018 at 16:19.

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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    Quote P.S. -- And it was thanks to those researching Q's drops that I learned of that evidence, which provides an example of a key value of Q's drops. In and amongst the trash talking and deception that anons post in response to Q's drops, there is some (in my estimation at least) worthwhile research and analysis. I mentioned Q in my previous post as part of my usual effort to properly reference where and how I learned material.
    Strongly agree, and thanks Paul for saving me the effort of going to 8chan often until something really grabs my interest.
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    Default Re: Bolides, Comets, Asteroids, Meteors And Falling Skies

    I did not see this posted and am really excited as it is already visible with binoculars

    Quote A COMET AS BIG AS THE FULL MOON: Hyperactive comet 46P/Wirtanen is approaching Earth for one of the closest Earth-comet encounters of the Space Age. Observers report that the comet's gaseous green atmosphere now covers a patch of sky as large as the full Moon--and it is growing larger. Sky maps and expert observing tips are featured on today's edition of Spaceweather.com


    Quote Comet 46P/Wirtanen, photographed on Dec. 2nd by Mike Broussard of Perry, Louisiana. A picture of the Moon has been inserted for scale. More images may be found in Spaceweather.com's Realtime Comet Gallery.
    No chance of hitting earth according to it's known orbit


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