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Thread: Carolina Bays: Solved

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    France Administrator Hervé's Avatar
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    Default Carolina Bays: Solved

    Antonio Zamora in Geomorphology: Carolina Bays are shock liquefaction impact features from hypersonic ice boulders launched from glacial ice sheet by cosmic impact at Younger Dryas


    The Tusk January 22nd, 2017



    The different populations of Bays all have different orientations. But it we extend those orientations, most of them focus on the center of the Great Lakes.



    The Tusk was absolutely thrilled to see the publication last week of a paper concerning Carolina Bays in the distinguished journal, “Geomorphology,” A Model for the Geomorphology of Bays. Other than a brief role for the Carolina bays in the early papers of the Comet Research Group, and a much longer series of Geological Society of America posters laboriously researched and determindly published by Michael Davias et. al, Zamora’s journal article is the only peer-reviewed and published ‘ET origin’ work on bays in the last two decades — and it is a doozy.


    LIDAR elevation image of 300 square miles (800 km2) of Carolina bays in Robeson County, N.C.

    Zamora builds on the modern work of Davias and David Kimbel, and Willam Prouty and Melton and Schriver of the first half of the 20th century, with an assist from Eyton and Parkhurst in the 70’s. Each of the researchers maintained that the bays were formed at once by a barrage of material from the midwest. But, just as the early researchers ultimately decided, those alive today dismiss bays as direct impacts of ET fragments of a comet or asteroid, and consider them to be the remnant features of secondary impacts from the ejecta and ballistic shockwaves of northerly catastrophe. They are wise to do so. The correct theory must account for ALL the easily observed, unique characteristics of bays. [See list of 16 from Eyton and Parkhurst here] The “wind and wave,” gradual formation, theories that continue to hold sway in classrooms and publications from Ivestor and Brooks fail miserably to account for all the observed phenomena, while Zamora checks each off with ease.


    Zamora’s work, like Davias, is multidisciplinary and assisted by geometry as well as geology. Here is a sample:
    Ellipses are mathematical conic sections formed by the intersection of a plane and a cone. The elliptical geomorphology of the Carolina Bays and the Nebraska Rainwater Basins can be explained if the bays originated from slanted conical cavities that were later remodeled into shallow depressions by geological processes. A width-to-length ratio of 0.58 corresponds to a cone inclined at 35° using the relationship sin(θ) = W/L. The proposed conical cavities could have been made by impacts of material ejected at approximately 35° in ballistic trajectories from the point of convergence in the Great Lakes Region. The small variations of the width-to-length ratio correspond to slightly different angles that are consistent with possible ballistic trajectories

    An oblique conical cavity provides a model for elliptical bays

    The bays rims to Zamora are the result of a complex mathematical equation. They are the final surface expression of thousands of conical, inclined ballistic shock cones, each traveling with a giant ice fragment blown from the ice sheet in a nine-minute supersonic arc from the frigid north to the Carolina coast. (I will work on that sentence but you get the idea). These icebergs from space slammed into the supersaturated unconsolidated sandy clays of the coastal plain and left behind shock “ripples” and “flaps” we recognize today as bay rims. Zamora even provides an equation relating the perfection and ellipticity of bays to the degree of unconsolidated sediments encountered by the ice bullets:
    The LiDAR images also reveal that some terrains do not have elliptical bays. Davias and Harris (2015) describe six archetype bay shapes that may be determined by the geological characteristics of the terrain. The thickness of the layer of unconsolidated material required to produce an elliptical bay can be estimated by the formula tan(θ) × L/2, where L is the length of the major axis and θ is the angle of inclination. A conical cavity inclined at 35° corresponding to a bay with a major axis of 400 m would require a layer of unconsolidated material with a depth of approximately 140 m.
    That makes sense to me, and accounts for the “classes” of similar bays, an aspect unexplained by wind and water enthusiasts, but first investigated by Davias.

    In addition to the present journal publication, Zamora makes his case in detail in a recently published book available from Amazon: Killer Comet: What the Carolina Bays tell us. I am reading it now and will update this post accordingly.


    On the shoulders of genius, Zamora has provided defensible and superior answers to the many questions provoked by the appearance and distribution of Carolina bays. The geological community will largely ignore this paper, of course, but some will take note. And there is always reason for hope as the class of geologists who reject recent catastrophic explanations out-of-hand continue their long march from the tenured defense of the known, to retirement, and finally to death. I note that in closing Zamora gives a shout-out to one of his peer reviewers, Professor Andrew J. Plater of the University of Liverpool, clearly an enlightened young man, who tweets here as @GeomorphologyDr if you want to thank him.


    PROGRAM NOTE:
    My “Media Library” file for the CT is failing me and not allowing uploads, or even showing itself in the theme management tool. So for the time being I cannot upload papers or images for embedded display in a post. As a work around, I have simply linked to a shared dropbox file containing the PDF of the Zamora paper. I look forward to getting some of the great images up soon.

    Last edited by Hervé; 23rd January 2017 at 19:32.
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    Default Re: Carolina Bays: Solved

    Well, Robert Felix disagrees with the melting ice bullets theory:

    Carpet bombing the Carolinas

    by Robert April 2, 2018

    New NASA video bolsters my contention as to what created the Carolina Bays.

    In my book Magnetic Reversals and Evolutionary Leaps, I proposed that the Carolina Bays were formed by millions of gigantic explosions in the sky, explosions triggered by a magnetic reversal. (Chapter 13, “Dinosaur Tombstones.”)

    The Carolina Bays, a host of huge elliptical depressions gouged into the ground about 12,000 years ago, were formed at about the same time, if not exactly the same time, as the Gothenburg magnetic excursion.


    Fireworks start – NASA

    Varying in size from one to several thousand acres, and measuring from 164 feet (50 m) to 6.8 miles (11 km) across, as many as 2½ million of these oval depressions scar the landscape from Florida to New York to Texas.

    In Maryland, the bays are called Maryland basins. In Mississippi and Alabama they’re called Grady ponds. In Kansas and Nebraska they’re called Rainwater basins. In Texas they’re called Salinas (because they often contain salty water). The bays, aligned with one another with their long axes pointing generally north, all appear to have formed at the same time, from the same cause.

    The bays all have raised rims and frequently intersect other bays. More than 50,000 overlapping bays—some larger than nearby cities (yes, larger than nearby cities!)—have been identified on the U.S. Atlantic coast alone.


    Carolina bays in Hoke and Scotland County, NC – From George Howard’s website (see link below)

    Most of the bays are very shallow, 50 feet at most, but usually not more than 20 feet. (That’s if you consider a body of water as deep as a five-story building to be shallow.)

    Some of the larger Carolina Bays are (or once were) lakes. However, because most of them were so shallow that they became swamps or marshland, that’s what people thought they were. But in 1930, aerial photography exposed their unusual shapes and orientations.



    The image above is of an area measuring about twelve miles by ninemiles (20 km by 15 km) approximately eighteen miles (30 km) southeast of Fayetteville, North Carolina. This one tiny corner of the world contains 20 such oval depressions. (Also see note 1.)

    Yet another peculiarity is that the sandy rims are white. This, in spite of the fact that white sand is rare in the Carolinas; it’s usually tan or reddish.

    What could have turned the sand white? Very high temperature, usually higher than 1,500 degrees F, could have burned off the reddish iron impurities from the surface of the quartz, says Richard Firestone, co-author of the book Cycle of Cosmic Catastrophes.

    But where did that heat originate? And what could possibly gouge more than two million huge holes into the ground, all at the same time?

    At first, scientists thought the depressions had been formed by a comet or meteor exploding above the earth. However, almost no meteorites have ever been found in the Carolinas.

    A newer theory holds that the Carolina Bays were formed by secondary impacts after a meteor had crashed into the ice somewhere near Michigan. That collision threw millions of chunks of ice – massive chunks of ice – into the sky, which then flew hundreds of miles away from the original point of impact at low angles. That (supposedly) explains the elliptical bays: They were formed by oblique impacts as the airborne ice hurtled back to earth.

    Wow! It must take one hellishly big chunk of ice to create a crater bigger than an entire city.

    No, I simply cannot buy the flying-ice theory.

    One reason I don’t buy into the flying-ice theory is that there would have been no ice there to begin with.

    Look at the dates: The last major ice age commenced about 23,000 years ago coincident with the Mono Lake magnetic excursion. The ice sheets then grew for about 5,000 years, reaching their full extent about 18,000 years ago. They should have been long gone from the Michigan area by 12,000 years ago when the Carolina Bays were formed.

    Instead, I think the Carolina Bays were formed by millions of gigantic explosions in the sky; carpet bombed by the gods.

    This video from NASA helps reinforce that view.

    Entitled “Earth’s Magnetosphere,” the video describes our magnetosphere as a giant bubble of magnetism that envelopes our planet and protects it from the sun, including protecting if from the sun’s ultraviolet radiation. “It’s clear that this magnetic bubble was key to helping earth develop into a habitable planet,” the video asserts.


    The magnetosphere – NASA

    The magnetosphere is a permeable shield, the video tells us. The solar wind will periodically connect to the magnetosphere, forcing it to reconfigure. This can create a rift, which allows energy to pour into our formerly safe haven. These rifts open and close many times daily, or even many times hourly. Most of them are small and short-lived. Others are vast and sustained. When the sun’s magnetic field connects to the earth’s in this way, the fireworks start.


    Squashed magnetosphere – NASA

    Explosive release
    The magnetosphere absorbs the incoming energy from the solar wind and “explosively” releases that energy in the form of geomagnetic storms and sub-storms, according to Dr. Eftyhia Zesta, Chief of the Geospace Physics Laboratory at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. Magnetic lines of force converge and reconfigure, resulting in magnetic energy and charged particles flying off at an intense speeds.

    Violent explosions
    Scientists have been trying to learn why this crisscrossing of magnetic field lines – called magnetic reconnection – triggers such “violent” explosions.


    Explosive release – NASA

    Whatever the cause, whether it was a giant chunk of ice flying through the sky, or a violent explosion triggered by the Gothenburg magnetic excursion, I sure wouldn’t want to have been standing at ground zero.
    _______________
    On a more personal note, I was lucky enough to visit a Carolina Bay a couple of years ago near the town of Olanta, South Carolina, in the Woods Bay State Park. (If you look for Olanta on Google maps (satellite view) and then zoom out just slightly, you will see Woods Bay. It is far bigger than the town itself.)

    Does it look like a bay? No. It looks like a swamp. In fact, it is a swamp.

    There were no park employees on duty on the day I toured the park (actually both my wife and I toured the park), and we wondered if we would see any alligators.


    Woods Bay State Park – Courtesy Robert Felix

    The answer came very quickly, because we soon spied several alligators basking in the sun, soaking up the heat. Perhaps you can spot them in my photos. Since we were the only people in the entire park, and we had no idea how many alligators might be lying in wait, we didn’t stick around too long.


    Woods Bay State Park – Courtesy Robert Felix

    We both made it back safely, so I guess the alligators weren’t all that hungry.
    ___________________
    Note 1:
    If you go to Google maps (satellite view) and peruse the North Carolina/South Carolina region, you’ll be astounded at how many of these giant paw prints you can find, even today. Literally hundreds of such bays surround Lumberton, North Carolina, alone.

    More info on the Carolina Bays:
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolina_bay

    Info on flying-ice theory:
    http://www.scientificpsychic.com/etc...lina-bays.html

    More aerial photos:
    http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/cbaymbsc.html

    George Howard in Raleigh, North Carolina has done a tremendous amount of research on the Carolina bays. View his website here:
    http://www.georgehoward.net/surf%20t...ina%20bays.htm

    For even more info,
    see my book Magnetic Reversals and Evolutionary Leaps.
    Last edited by Hervé; 3rd April 2018 at 13:01.
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    Default Re: Carolina Bays: Solved

    Quote Posted by Hervé (here)
    Whatever the cause, whether it was a giant chunk of ice flying through the sky, or a violent explosion triggered by the Gothenburg magnetic excursion, I sure wouldn’t want to have been standing at ground zero.
    Definitely not. This was probably an extinction-level event. Whether it was this same impact or a different one, one of these catastrophes killed off the mammoths, saber-toothed tigers and other large mammals of the last ice age. There are sites from Alaska to off the East Coast of the US of just piles and piles of bones where these animals seem to have all fled to high ground and then drowned and died together.


    Here's a book about catastrophism and events like this wiping out damned near all large life on Earth, leaving scattered pockets to repopulate:

    https://www.cia.gov/library/readingr...00070001-8.pdf

    For some reason the CIA took an interest in it and classified it (not sure how you classify a public book) and then re-released it in a redacted form. Something in there must have struck a nerve with them.

    I've been won over by the theory that mountain chains and other prominent geographical features aren't necessarily created by gradual action but by extreme events. The theory in the book above is that if the Earth's magnetic field dropped to zero prior to a electromagnetic polarity change (which we know has happened multiple times in the past), the entire crust of the Earth would become free to move on its own inertia as the Earth continued rotating at its normal rate. This would lead to such catastrophic movements of continents that it could explain the Indian subcontinent ploughing into Asia and creating the Himalayas in a relatively short period of time. Similarly, very weathered mountains could be created by a single catastrophic flooding/ice-melting event without needing millions of years of some super gradual process to explain it.

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    Default Re: Carolina Bays: Solved

    Just wondering if you got a copy of the original book? There must have been some truth in it for them to redact things! I often think how the Navy suggests the mountains of AR for their retirees. What do they know that we don't?!

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    Default Re: Carolina Bays: Solved

    Not off hand, no. Trying to prove the provenance of books usually takes a little digging when government censorship gets involved, because the US gov knows that book burnings etc. are associated with authoritarianism so they usually go to great extremes of disinfo before resorting to physical seizures of books. Wilhelm Reich’s work is the classic example and I was able to buy an original edition of one of his books, but I had to dig around for it. I just learned about the book above recently and I don’t know much about it’s history. What is in the redacted version is already scary enough. Waves high enough to cover the Rocky Mountains, enormous subduction zones opening up and sinking whole chunks of continents into magma. The scariest part of all is that there is actually archaeological evidence to support this kind of stuff happening before, that I already knew of but couldn’t make sense of until reading the above. Now it makes a bit more sense to me. This is Atlantis level destruction, would virtually clean the entire surface of the planet except for isolated pockets.

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    Default Re: Carolina Bays: Solved

    Amazed that you could find an original of Reich's! So glad you are back giving us your slant on things!

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    Default Re: Carolina Bays: Solved

    Cough... cough...

    There is a topic to this thread... so for off topic chats, take it to PM, start a thread...

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    Default Re: Carolina Bays: Solved

    It's all related under the umbrella of catastrophism isn't it? I think there are even "electric universe" theorists who argue that celestial bodies carry an electric charge and when they approach the Earth or impact us, they can trigger changes in the Earth's electromagnetic field. There are some people who think that giant lightning bolts from near-misses are what created the deep trenches on Mars. I wouldn't be surprised if this is all related. It makes sense that planets and other celestial bodies could have large electrical charges and could discharge on one another when they get close enough.

    Then there's the celestial impact that Graham Hancock refers to, backed up by that study of nano-diamond deposits across the northern hemisphere. When I first saw this topic that was actually the first thing that popped into my head. Hancock thinks the main impact was at the Scablands in Montana but that other chunks of the object broke up and scattered across North America, and then every time the Earth passed back through the debris field (the Taurid meteor shower that continues to this day) it brought down a few more big chunks in later years.

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    Default Re: Carolina Bays: Solved

    Quote Posted by A Voice from the Mountains (here)
    It's all related under the umbrella of catastrophism isn't it?...
    [...]
    Nope! This thread, as titled, has to do specifically with the Carolina bays, not "Catastrophism." There are other threads for that!
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    Default Re: Carolina Bays: Solved

    Good to know! I'll post somewhere else then. My apologies!

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