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Old 09-19-2009, 03:41 PM   #515
day
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Join Date: Sep 2008
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Default Re: Pineal Gland Awakening: Star Nations Teachings

Timeline of Residential Schools

Prior to 1840's

There was no educational policy as the government had little interest in the education of Natives. There were, however, a handful of schools run by representatives of missionary organizations, and a few boarding schools were established in Ontario. The schools were supervised by ill-trained and poorly paid missionaries. Last on their list of priorities was addressing the low attendance and academic progress of their Native students.

The residential school had been contrived specifically to enable missionaries to meddle with the character formation and identity of Native children even though the parents had stressed repeatedly that they wanted education, not assimilation.




Bagot Commission set up in 1842 by Governor Sir Charles Bagot

He asserted "after a two-year review of reserve conditions, that communities were get only in a "half-civilized state." (Report of the Affairs of Indians in Canada, Journals of the Legislate assembly on the Province of Canada, 1844) - taken from John Milloy's, A National Crime, pg. 12.

"The Bagot Commission began the formulations that brought forward the assimilative policy and eventually the residential school system. The central rationale of the Commission's findings was that further progress by communities would be realized only if the civilizing system was amended to imbue Aboriginal people with the primarily characteristics of civilization: industry and knowledge." Milloy, pg. 13.



1844

"Bagot Commission published their recommendations with two very influential supporters of residential education. Lord Elgin, the "Father of Responsible Government,...The Reverend Egerton Ryerson, the Superintendent of Education for Upper Canada." (Milloy, pg. 15)

First residential schools opened in Upper Canada (Ontario). The federal government became involved after the results of the results of the Bagot Commission of 1842 were published, and the Gradual Civilization Act of 1857 was enacted. These documents paved the way for the establishment of government funded schools that would teach the Natives English and hopefully eliminate the Native culture.



1847


"There is a need to raise the Indians to the level of the whites...and take control of land out of Indians hands. The Indian must remain under the control of the Federal Crown rather than provincial authority, that effort to Christianize the Indians and settle them in communities be continued,....that schools, preferably manual labour ones, be established under the guidance of missionaries....Their education must consist not merely training of the mind, but of a weaning from the habits and feelings of their ancestors, and the acquirements of the language, art and customs of civilized life."

(Excerpt from a report on the study of Native education commissioned by the Assistant Superintendent General of Indian Affairs. It would form the basis for future directions in policy for Indian education and how the residential schools were to be run in Ontario.)

NOTE: Although the report containing the above quote appears to be common knowledge, there does not seem to be an actual publication of it. Even the Ryerson University archives does not have it. If any gentle reader can offer enlightenment, send an email.





1857

Gradual Civilization Act applied to all Indians in the Province of Canada; they were an affirmation of legislative control over Indians. The legislation stated it was shouldering the responsibility and authority to define who was an Indian as a preliminary to making it feasible for the Indian to cease being an Indian. Part of the process was forcing Native children into government-run schools.





1876


The Indian Act gave further responsibility to the federal government for Native education.



1883


Canadian Federal Government builds RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS also called Industrial Schools far away from reserves to ensure children would be educated in European ways, without parental or cultural influence - Sir Hector Langevin preaches that, "if these schools are to succeed [in terms of integration] we must not place them too near the bands; in order to educate the children properly we must separate them from their families." (J. Ennamorato, Sing the Brave Song, pg. 47).




1879

“Kill the Indian and Save the Man,” was the motto coined by Captain Richard Henry Pratt, who founded the first Native American Boarding School, Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania and was the architect of Native education and federal Native policy. The purpose of the Native American Boarding schools was to assimilate Native American children into the American culture by placing them in institutions where they were forced to reject their Native American culture.

There was considerable denominational rivalry among the Anglican, Catholic, Methodist and Presbyterian churches. One Anglican referred to the Ojibwa as biased: "Their prejudices are so much warped in favour of the Catholics....they received the crucifix, beads and other mummeries...[and] instead of the gospel...they pray in the same manner as they formerly did to their medicine bags." (J. Ennamorato, Sing the Brave Song, Pg. 73)




Mid 1880's

REMOVING Native children from the home and villages to be instructed in Christianity is now well established. More often than not children were kidnapped without the knowledge of the parents. The bulk of the so-called educational experience in the schools, however, was manual labour rather than scholastic. Children worked mostly in the fields, laundries or shops (a concept borrowed from the United States Residential School system) and barely had a grade six education by the time they were released.

Sexual perversions of the most heinous kinds at the hands of priests and nuns were commonplace, spiritually and emotionally damaging generations of Native children. We are still paying for these atrocities to the present day with family and substance abuse five times the national average.


1892

An order-in-council was passed in 1892 announcing the regulations for the operation of residential schools. It set up a grant arrangement stating that the government would give $110-$145 per student per year to the church-run schools and $72 per student in the day schools. Little of this money actually went into hiring competent, compassionate and literate teachers.









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