Hoteev Hypothesis: Comets Contain Antimatter

By Stoyan Sarg: York University, Canada
Dr. Asparuh Petrakiev: Retired professor, member of the Internationally Academy IAELPS
Nikolaos Balaskas, M.S. : York University, Canada

During the IX International conference, Space, Time, Gravitation, 7-11 Aug 2006, St Petersburg, Russia, the Russian scientist Acad. Victor Haritonovich Hoteev expressed the idea that comets contain antimatter. At that time this was not taken seriously by many of the conference participants. Then in a private conversation, he disclosed that he had been involved in classified research for many years during the time of the Soviet Union, and he was not still reluctant to communicate openly. Just at the end of his life (he died in September, 2008) he sent to our team his publications and books in the Russian language. After investigating carefully his research and scientific arguments from the point of view of BSM-Supergravitation unified theory, we arrived at the conclusion that his scientific arguments must be taken seriously. This completely changes our understanding of the comets realizing that they are dangerous. Some comets may really contain antimatter that we may refer to as cosmic antimatter. According to the BSM-SG theory, there is a theoretical option for creation of cosmic antimatter during an unique process of galactic evolution as described in Chapter 12 of the theory. The cosmic antimatter particles are created in an unique environment of the galactic nucleus that is completely impossible to reproduce in any Earth facility.

This cosmic antimatter is different from the “antiparticles” obtained in our particle accelerators that are identified only by their mass and charge. The difference is in the specific substructure of the particles that is not envisioned by the Standard Model. For this reason the cosmic antimatter can be more stable when it is in a solid state. Then, if the solid object of cosmic antimatter is inserted in a solid matter object, it will not lead to instantaneous annihilation but rather to some kind of “bleeding” forming one or more jets. The annihilation takes a violent form when the cosmic antimatter and matter particles are in a gaseous ionized state. Then according to BSM-SG, comets could be of two types: a larger nucleus of matter with small solid fragments of cosmic antimatter immersed in it, and a larger nucleus of cosmic antimatter with small fragments of matter immersed in it. This explains the very strange behavior of comets that presently puzzle scientists. Comets of both types will interact differently when passing by or falling on the Sun. The comet of the second type will interact more violently with the solar wind in a process of annihilation. The following video of a comet passing near the Sun and observed by the SOHO satellite is obviously of this case [1]. If such a comet passes near the Sun from the side of the Earth, the effect might be harmful to the Earth. According to the hypothesis, most of the coma and tail of comets contain a huge quantity of antihydrogen, which is spectrally indistinguishable from hydrogen. The interaction with the solar wind involves a violent annihilation between protons–antiprotons and electrons–positrons. In fact, the dust particles of cosmic antimatter first disintegrate to antiprotons and positrons, and then annihilate with the solar wind. When the comet is very far from the sun, the antiparticles of the comet tail interact only with the particles of the interstellar gas, so the tail is small and detectable only by telescope. The “bleeding” of the comet in the form of jets, however, is permanent and may change its orbit. This mechanism also heats the comet body, so its temperature is always somewhat higher than the cold temperature of deep space. The observed X-rays from some comets that puzzle scientists are also from the annihilation process.

On July 4, 2005,the NASA Deep Impact mission shot a 372 kgcopper projectile into the comet Tempel-1.The effect was very spectacular [3]. The explosion and afterglow wereobserved by amateur telescopes despite the huge distance of 135,000,000 km. However,the expectation that a similar impact on the Moon wouldprovide the same result was completely wrong. On 9 Oct 2009 NASA hit the Moon at the Cabeus crater with a 2.2-ton empty rocket shot from the LCROSS probe [3]. The effect was so incomparably small that the explosion at a distance of only 380,500 km was observed only by the most powerful telescopes.

Pieces of comets containing cosmic antimatter would be very dangerous if they were to fall into the Earth’s atmosphere in comparison to meteorites made of matter. The Tunguska “meteorite” that fell in Siberia in 1908 is believed to be a comet. The explosion was estimated to be at an altitude of about 5 km. The recorded effects of the explosion were similar to that of a hydrogen bomb estimated to be equivalent to 20 to 50 megatons of TNT [4].

The above mentioned considerations about comets containing antimatter are supported by analysis of many other observations. Recently a gamma emission from electron – positron annihilation following a lightning in the atmosphere is reported by NASA [5]. Could be this from antimatter dust carried by the solar wind and falling in the Earth atmosphere? During the last few years the number of comets falling on the Sun and detected by the SOHO satellite seems to be increasing. Therefore, the warning of Acad. Hoteev sent to the Russian government in 2005 (translated below) sounds reasonable. Victor Haritonovich Hoteev is a former member of the International Megascience Aacademy ( Below is a translated letter from him to the former Minister of Science and Education in Russia sent in 2005. His original letter with attached argumentations is available in [6].

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