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Thread: Science - What could go wrong?

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    United States Moderator Sue (Ayt)'s Avatar
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    Default Science - What could go wrong?

    Thought I'd start a thread about science innovations that have gone wrong, or could go wrong in the future. These can be in tech, medicine, procedures, any science applications really... just about anything tried that has had or could have negative consequences.

    What failures have we seen in the past, current, or anticipated for the future that have or may result in some dire consequences? I would guess we can think of many!

    Here is an article I read today, to start:

    Quote Escaped cloned female mutant crayfish take over Belgian cemetery

    Escaped self-cloning mutant crayfish created in experimental breeding programmes have invaded a Belgian cemetery.

    Hundreds of the duplicating crustaceans, which can dig down to up to a metre and are always female, pose a deadly threat to local biodiversity after colonising a historic Antwerp graveyard.

    "It's impossible to round up all of them. It's like trying to empty the ocean with a thimble," said Kevin Scheers, of the Flemish Institute for Nature and Woodland Research.

    Marbled crayfish, which travel across land and water at night and eat whatever they can, do not occur in nature and are banned by the European Union.

    Instead, the freshwater beasts, which are about 10cm big and voracious, are thought to have been bred by unscrupulous German pet traders in the 1990s.

    They are similar to the slough crayfish found in Florida but are parthenogenetic, which means they reproduce with themselves and all their children are genetically identical females.

    The mutation, which occurred about 25 years ago, means populations can spring up rapidly from just a single Procambarus virginalis.

    In 2018, scientists established the global marbled crayfish population was descended from a single female and didn't need males to reproduce.

    The EU banned possession and release of the uncanny crayfish in 2014 but it is impossible to trace the owners because all the crayfish are genetically exactly the same.

    The crayfish have taken root in the pools and streams of the Schoonselhof cemetery in Antwerp, which is known as the Flemish city's Pere Lachaise.

    Link is here
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    Default Re: Science - What could go wrong?

    I'm no expert but COVID19 'vaccine' comes to mind immediately. At best, in the long run, the benefits of the vaccine will be negligible when weighed against the negative. Though I suspect such a result would almost certainly be delayed or never reported in mainstream news portals.



    The Truth Will Prevail

    http://www.chiropractic.org/wp-conte...-Prevail-3.pdf

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    Default Re: Science - What could go wrong?

    Scientists are working on vaccines that spread like a disease. What could possibly go wrong?
    By Filippa Lentzos, Guy Reeves | September 18, 2020
    https://thebulletin.org/2020/09/scie...ibly-go-wrong/
    ...
    Who decides, for instance, where and when a vaccine should be released? Once released, scientists will no longer be in control of the virus. It could mutate, as viruses naturally do. It may jump species. It will cross borders. There will be unexpected outcomes and unintended consequences. There always are.

    While it may turn out to be technically feasible to fight emerging infectious diseases like COVID-19, AIDS, Ebola, and Zika with self-spreading viruses, and while the benefits may be significant, how does one weigh those benefits against what may be even greater risks?

    How they work. Self-spreading vaccines are essentially genetically engineered viruses designed to move through populations in the same way as infectious diseases, but rather than causing disease, they confer protection. Built on the chassis of a benign virus, the vaccines have genetic material from a pathogen added to them that stimulates the creation of antibodies or white blood cells in “infected” hosts.
    ...

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    Default Re: Science - What could go wrong?

    Asbestos Cigarette Filters

    In 1952 – 1956 Hollingsworth & Vose Company produced filters containing crocidolite asbestos to use in their cigarette brand; Kent Micronite. The asbestos provided heat resistance filters contained asbestos to provide heat resistance and were unbelievably marketed as “the greatest health protection in cigarette history”. A study revealed that smoking one pack of original Kent Micronite a day would expose a smoker to 131 million crocidolite fibres a year.

    Oel ngati kame

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    Default Re: Science - What could go wrong?

    Quote Posted by O Donna (here)
    I'm no expert but COVID19 'vaccine' comes to mind immediately. At best, in the long run, the benefits of the vaccine will be negligible when weighed against the negative. Though I suspect such a result would almost certainly be delayed or never reported in mainstream news portals.



    The Truth Will Prevail

    http://www.chiropractic.org/wp-conte...-Prevail-3.pdf
    A great resource

    I've downloaded this and will be sure to get this in to the library.

    Please do note that the original link is broken. This 11MB document can be downloaded from here now.

    There's a couple of steps to jump through, but with a little patience you'll get there (do ignore the advertisements, and the potentially off-putting 'download' prompts; there are many!)

    https://dokumen.pub/qdownload/truth-...-26nbsped.html
    “If a man does not keep pace with [fall into line with] his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears, however measured or far away.” - Thoreau

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    Default Re: Science - What could go wrong?

    Just found this thread, thanks Sue.

    Shockingly low amount of replies, this thread should be massive!

    I would post a few hundred answers but unfortuantely I'm in the deep procrastination stage of my current incarnation.

    C'mon guys, step up to the plate on my behalf!

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    Default Re: Science - What could go wrong?

    Quote Posted by Dorjezigzag (here)
    Asbestos Cigarette Filters

    In 1952 – 1956 Hollingsworth & Vose Company produced filters containing crocidolite asbestos to use in their cigarette brand; Kent Micronite. The asbestos provided heat resistance filters contained asbestos to provide heat resistance and were unbelievably marketed as “the greatest health protection in cigarette history”. A study revealed that smoking one pack of original Kent Micronite a day would expose a smoker to 131 million crocidolite fibres a year.
    Beggars belief!


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    Default Re: Science - What could go wrong?

    Genetically engineered ‘Magneto’ protein remotely controls brain and behaviour

    “Badass” new method uses a magnetised protein to activate brain cells rapidly, reversibly, and non-invasively

    Mo Costandi
    @mocost
    Thu 24 Mar 2016 14.30 GMT


    https://amp.theguardian.com/science/...sion=true&s=08


    Researchers in the United States have developed a new method for controlling the brain circuits associated with complex animal behaviours, using genetic engineering to create a magnetised protein that activates specific groups of nerve cells from a distance.

    Understanding how the brain generates behaviour is one of the ultimate goals of neuroscience – and one of its most difficult questions. In recent years, researchers have developed a number of methods that enable them to remotely control specified groups of neurons and to probe the workings of neuronal circuits.

    The most powerful of these is a method called optogenetics, which enables researchers to switch populations of related neurons on or off on a millisecond-by-millisecond timescale with pulses of laser light. Another recently developed method, called chemogenetics, uses engineered proteins that are activated by designer drugs and can be targeted to specific cell types.

    Although powerful, both of these methods have drawbacks. Optogenetics is invasive, requiring insertion of optical fibres that deliver the light pulses into the brain and, furthermore, the extent to which the light penetrates the dense brain tissue is severely limited. Chemogenetic approaches overcome both of these limitations, but typically induce biochemical reactions that take several seconds to activate nerve cells.

    ...

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    Default Re: Science - What could go wrong?

    My grandmom was treated with this "new miracle remedy" for arthritis, back in the day. She would faithfully go to her local doctor for her wonderful injection to alleviate her pain, and came to demanding it over the years, as any withdrawal from it resulted in supreme agony. Her bones literally disintegrated as she aged, and it was horrendous to watch, and it did result in her death. Guess they gave it out like candy before realizing the side effects. Whoops.

    It is not a black and white issue, though. Steroids are life-saving when used appropriately.
    Fools rush in.

    Quote In 1949, Philip S. Hench and colleagues discovered that large doses of injected cortisone were effective in the treatment of patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis.[12] Kendall was awarded the 1950 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine along with Philip Showalter Hench and Tadeusz Reichstein for the discovery of the structure and function of adrenal cortex hormones including cortisone.

    Side effects
    Oral use of cortisone has a number of potential systemic adverse effects: Asthma, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, anxiety, depression, amenorrhoea, cataracts, glaucoma, Cushing's syndrome, increased risk of infections, and impaired growth.[1][2] With topical application, it can lead to thinning of the skin, impaired wound healing, increased skin pigmentation, tendon rupture, and skin infections (including abscesses).
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cortisone#History
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    Default Re: Science - What could go wrong?

    This is an obvious and famous case but needs to go into this thread.

    THE THALIDOMIDE TRAGEDY: LESSONS FOR DRUG SAFETY AND REGULATION



    Many children in the 1960's, like the kindergartner pictured above, were born with phocomelia as a side effect of the drug thalidomide, resulting in the shortening or absence of limbs.
    Oel ngati kame

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    Default Re: Science - What could go wrong?

    Human-animal hybrid embryos

    In May 2008 a cross-party attempt to ban hybrid human animal embryos was defeated on a free vote in the House of Commons, by 336 to 176. MPs had been debating the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Bill, which would allow regulated research using hybrid or 'admix' embryos, where the nuclei of human cells are inserted into animal eggs. The resulting embryos would be kept for up to 14 days to harvest stem cells.

    In the present state of science, hybrid embryos are produced as research tools, and only kept alive for 14 days or fewer. The article below only deals with the ethical issues of this case, and not with the ethics of producing new creatures that are a combination of animal and human.

    A hybrid embryo is a mixture of both human and animal tissue. There are several types of hybrid embryo (listed below), but recent controversy has focused on cytoplasmic embryos.

    These are created by transferring nuclei containing DNA from human cells into animal eggs that have had almost all of their genetic information removed.

    The resulting embryos are more than 99% human, with a small animal component, making up around 0.1% (more detail below).

    The embryos are grown in the lab for a few days, then harvested for stem cells: immature cells that can become many types of tissue. The embryonic stem cells are used in research into different diseases as a way of addressing the shortage of human eggs available for research.

    Scientists do not intend to actually create living animal-human hybrids. [Such beings are often referred to as chimeras after a creature in Greek mythology which had a lion's head, a goat's body, and a serpent's tail.]

    Some 200 medical charities have urged MPs to support legislation allowing the creation of animal-human embryos.

    Possible types of animal/human hybrid embryos
    Cytoplasmic hybrid embryos: embryos created through cell nuclear replacement using animal eggs
    Hybrid embryos: embryos created by mixing human sperm and animal eggs or human eggs and animal sperm
    Human chimera embryos: human embryos which have animal cells added to them during early development
    Animal chimera embryos: animal embryos which have human cells added to them during early development
    Transgenic human embryos: human embryos which have animal genes inserted into them during early development

    Source: Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/animals/...mbryos_1.shtml
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    Default Re: Science - What could go wrong?

    List of Drugs withdrawn from the market
    "Where risks or harms is the reason for withdrawal, this will usually have been prompted by unexpected adverse effects that were not detected during Phase III clinical trials, i.e. they were only made apparent from postmarketing surveillance data collected from the wider community over longer periods of time."
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_withdrawn_drugs
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    Default Re: Science - What could go wrong?

    Quote Posted by Matthew (here)
    Genetically engineered ‘Magneto’ protein remotely controls brain and behaviour

    “Badass” new method uses a magnetised protein to activate brain cells rapidly, reversibly, and non-invasively

    Mo Costandi
    @mocost
    Thu 24 Mar 2016 14.30 GMT


    https://amp.theguardian.com/science/...sion=true&s=08


    Researchers in the United States have developed a new method for controlling the brain circuits associated with complex animal behaviours, using genetic engineering to create a magnetised protein that activates specific groups of nerve cells from a distance.

    ...
    Possibly talking about the same study

    Disabling parts of the brain with magnets can weaken faith in God and change attitudes to immigrants, study finds
    By shutting down the threat-processing centre of the brain, scientists weakened people's faith in God and made them less prejudiced

    Doug Bolton
    Thursday 15 October 2015 13:56


    https://www.independent.co.uk/news/s...-a6695291.html


    A joint team of American and British scientists have discovered that powerful magnetic pulses to the brain can temporarily change people's feelings on a variety of subjects - from their belief in God, to their attitude to immigration.


    The study, published in the journal Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, saw scientists use a metal coil to create strong magnetic fields around certain parts of the brain.

    The non-invasive practice is called trancranial magnetic stimulation, and has can be used to treat depression.

    However, researchers have now found that by targeting the part of the brain that deals with threats, they can temporarily change people's beliefs and views.

    The team, comprised of scientists from the University of York and the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), used 39 politically moderate students as test subjects.

    The two were split into two groups - one, the control group, was given a sham dose of magnetism that was not strong enough to influence brain activity.

    The other got a strong pulse of TMS that was strong enough to temporarily shut down their posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC), a part of the brain that "plays a key role in both detecting discrepancies between desired and current conditions and adjusting subsequent behaviour to resolve such conflicts."

    In other words, this part of the brain processes threats and conflicts, and decides how to respond to them.

    Before receiving their doses of TMS, both groups were asked about their own deaths. In this area, the tests built on previous studies, which have shown that being confronted with the threat of death can alter a person's belief in God.

    The students were then treated with their respective doses of TMS, with half receiving a dose capable of severely lessening activity in the threat-processing centre of the brain.

    The collected results showed a marked difference in attitudes between the two groups.

    Amongst those who received the strong magnetic dose, 32.8 per cent fewer had decreased beliefs in God, angels and heaven compared to the control group who received no dose.

    And 25.8 per cent more of those who had received TMS had a more positive response to the immigrant who had written a negative letter about their country.

    In other words, those given the magnetic treatment were found to have decreased beliefs in God and more positive views towards immigrants.

    Dr Keise Izuma, of the authors of the study from the University of York, said: "As expected, we found that when we experimentally turned down the posterior medial frontal cortex, people were less inclined to reach for comforting religious ideas despite having been reminded of death."


    Speaking about the part of the test which involved attitude to immigrants, he added: "We think that hearing criticisms of your group's values, perhaps especially from a person you perceive as an outsider, is processed as an ideological sort of threat."

    "One way to respond to such threats is to 'double down' on your group values, increasing your investment in them, and reacting more negatively to the critic."

    "When we disrupted the brain region that usually helps detect and respond to threats, we saw a less negative, less ideologically motivated reaction to the critical author and his opinions."

    Whether we're dealing with everyday threats, such as security at work, or more abstract ones, such as the idea of God and death or the issue of immigration, our brains are using the same basic structure - and its activity can be reduced with magnetic fields.

    ...

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