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Thread: Nirakara and Shentong Buddhism, Tara, Sadhanas, Sanskrit culture

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    Default Re: Nirakara and Shentong Buddhism, Tara, Sadhanas, Sanskrit culture

    Siddharajni, Dharma Tara, Six Yoginis and Dakini Jala Families, synonyms and degrees of Samadhi, Cunda, Manohara

    What looks like Jamgon Kongtrul's Treasury of Kagyu Mantras really looks more like a sadhana basket involving:

    Amitayus - empowerment of the single deity and single vase, from the tradition of the Queen of Siddhas (Siddharajni)

    Followed by a Guru Yoga which is described as Drukpa Lama Chopa. Then there is a collection of Marpa's tantras.

    In the seventeenth century, the Drikung Monkey Year became Transference or Drikung Phowa Chenmo when adding Siddharajni's Amitayus, become a major public pilgrimage of Wang or empowerment.

    So the main Amitayus or Long Life practice is from Siddharajni, not from the common White Taras. This one lived around the twelfth century, although there is at least one who had lived before. Although this one also transmitted some of the Jinasagara practices, the one in the thangka is not her, since she was almost entirely deleted out of the database. She was a teacher of Rechung, the founder of Shangpa.

    It is the considerably prior eighth century incarnation:

    Guhyajnana Dakini appears with Jinasagara Avalokiteshvara, wherein sometimes Guru Rinpoche is replaced by an Indian tantrika named Siddhirajni (Machig Drupa'i Gyalmo), a Niguma-like figure, Red with a drum. Both Dakini and Guru may be Red or White. Hers is not even a name, but a title, "Sole Mother Queen of the Siddhas", which was [also] given to Mandarava.

    Mandarava, in turn, is also an ancient long-life being, usually having an Arrow.

    It does seem to be accepted that Niguma was a Mandarava incarnation. Perhaps that is who they are talking about. Siddharajni is both of them and others.

    Tiphupa was another teacher of Rechung and gave the Kagyu lineage the "nine-fold cycle of the formless Dakinis". Siddharajni's only biography is in that of Rechung. Tiphupa composed a song to her. He calls her Vajravarahi, Vajrayogini, and Pandaravasini and says she met Vajradhara, Chakrasamvara, Avalokiteshvara, Hayagriva, all the dakinis of the sacred sites, and Simhamukha. She has a skullcup and knife. She is also shown with dorje, bell, and third eye. She transmitted the Padmanarta--Guhyajnana meditation, wherein the Four Arm form is the beginning and Two Arm is secret practice. She calls the fact that anger is baseless, Hayagriva, and that desire has no root, Guhyajnana.

    Ocean Victor Jinasagara Avalokiteshvara personally contains Hayagriva and Guhyajnana.

    It is explained fairly well in Lord of the Dance about the Mani Rimdu festival. Jinasagara Avalokiteshvara is Lord of the Dance, he contains Hayagriva, who contains Contemplation Hero. Around them are Four Dakas, and the gates have four female Tramenma or animal-headed deities--the Four Activities. Six Syllable Avalokiteshvara as a Karmapa Yidam introduced by Rechung, is lord of the dance of compassion or incarnation, and has nothing inherently to do with a dance festival. In Nepal, he is Padmanartesvara. He tosses a syllable of his mantra into each of the six realms, preventing rebirth there. In this sadhana, Guhyajnana is Avalokiteshvara's consort. Hayagriva has an unnamed light red one with two hands holding knife and skull.

    Siddharajni is a type of Tulku who was Mandarava (Machig Drub'pai Gyalmo) usually white, and Niguma usually brown. However both are associated with Drum and Arrow.

    Sukhasiddhi is a similar Tulku who was Yeshe Tsogyal and I think Machig Labdron.

    Lady of Illusion is probably the main resource on Niguma, who, in the opening invocation, is named distinctly from Sukhasiddhi. Inner Heat is the first of the Six Doctrines; after that, you go on the Path of Seeing. The Seven Jewels of Enlightenment become the first Bhumi at this time. That is why it makes sense to "time" Vajradaka sadhana to this point, since it deifies the Seven Jewels. That is how I understand it.

    Niguma is a lot more direct than the Kriya to Chara to Yoga format. She is the Shangpa lineage.

    Niguma's practice is truncated and advanced:

    Three Action Meditations: Guru Yoga, Deity Yoga, and Illusory Body.

    Then Flowers, or two dakinis, Red and White Celestial Women (Khechari).

    The Fruit is Deathlessness and Non-Entry (of either samsara or permanently still nirvana).

    Guru Yoga itself has four degrees:

    Outer Guru Yoga (Vajradhara)
    Inner Guru Yoga (Vidyadharas)
    Secret Guru Yoga (Peaceful Avalokiteshvara)
    Most Secret Guru Yoga (Quintessence)

    In Female Founders, Vajravati and Siddharajni are mentioned side-by-side. The second of these was perhaps an office or title or Tulku in India. The last known one of these was profoundly influential to Rechung:

    When Rechungpa first met Siddharajñi, her powerful presence
    made his hair stand on end. He trembled, wept, and threw himself
    to the ground at her feet, placing her feet on his head in a gesture
    of supreme respect.

    As to how he knew her:

    Vajravarahi [female Buddha] incarnate...,
    Mother of all Buddhas,
    Homage to you, Siddharajñi!
    You have the thirty-two signs of a Buddha.
    Your rainbow body is brilliant as a diamond.
    Bliss-bestowing woman, with every excellence,
    wearing jewels and ornaments of bone,
    You hold a flaying knife and skull cup full of nectar.
    Amid an ocean of enlightened females (dakinis),
    In a crystal meditation bower,
    On a throne of gold, silver, turquoise, coral, and pearls,
    You are our only mother, Siddharajñi!

    She may have had an ordinary appearance but:

    His purified vision revealed her to be seated in a jeweled bower, a type of canopy designed to welcome and honor a Buddha.

    She had attained revelation directly from Amitayus and so is a major source of Long Life practice, as well as a few things on Guhyajnana Dakini.

    By doing an Agni Homa, it is very close to saying an Amitayus Homa.

    In the Homa, if he is a trigger to Annapurna, who, at least in the Nepalese context, might be thought of as the wife of Vishnu, the Homa is really the Yoga of Agni Vaisvanara, Vishnu Man, which has to do with the scattered pieces and layers of shadow and all the adjustments necessary to our aura in order for the power and awareness to Expand Fully.

    Tara Fifteen is most like Dharmakaya, and there is an amazing individual of a similar name.

    Achi was around the 1100s and this is just calling her "Lady", her name being Chokyi Drolma which means Dharma Tara, which she was not called because she was Tibetan. She is mainly in Bhutanese Kagyu, her grandson is the founder of Drikung, although she is also at Sera.

    She had begun spontaneously reciting Tara's song at about age four, composed herself into sadhanas she said to keep secret for several generations, and was seen to leave the world for Akanistha by going into the sky on a blue horse.

    She is considered a Vajrayogini who can manifest all five classes of dakinis as evident in a one-page preview which includes Four Dakinis mantra and says she is white. In a full version she is also wrathful red, and, she understands at least some Sanskrit and they do call her Dharma Tara.

    She also at least once is considered an Akshobya emanation.

    Achi is currently a living transmission in Drikung.

    She is usually quickly identifiable by a drum and being on a blue horse, on which she rode into the sky to Akanistha. So this is likely her on an 1800s Nyingma Jinasagara:

    So she is a very powerful Nirmanakaya of Tara probably in Vajra Family. Her actual training though is very profound and almost just like the Dharmakaya on its own.

    Six Yoginis

    We said something about "layers" or "degrees" of Samadhi, and so in tantric terms, this gives us a few ways to show the Six Yoginis. We can show their Dakini Jala format, combined with the Armor Yoginis. "Samadhi" has a kind of unfolding definition with the goddesses at the core of what is in the Sutras. Furthermore, Dakini Jala is a very old tantra which was contemporaneous with, and quite possibly an underground tradition prior to, the more rigorous and formal STTS. Dakini Jala is already complete with all tantric components, whereas STTS is in a disadvantaged position of not being able to explain Six Families.

    Anandagarbha is called one of the Three Experts on Yoga in the Sarma transmission. The Root Tantra of Dakini Jala and most of the related literature are in the First Transmission. There are three related Sadhanas (one from Anandagarbha and two in Sadhanamala), and Anadagarbha's commentary called Vajrajvalodaya. The only part new in Sarma is a supplement called Sarvakalpasamuccaya. There are more articles only in Tibetan.

    Anandagarbha's writings and Tson kha pa's review of them illustrate the same tantric structure going through Taming and into Four or Five Families we are describing. He therefor post-dates STTS, Sarvadurgati Parishodhana, etc., but he was at Vikramashila so he had access to everything.

    He deals with Vajradhatu mandala, then Trailokyavijaya, then Taming. If STTS is a somewhat bulky, unwieldy system, to which Dakini Jala is more intuitive, colloquial, and tantric, they are still built on the same Maheshvara subjugation myth of all tantra, which, in Buddhism, is accomplished by Vajrapani generally, but, specifically, Ghasmari defeats the chief or Isana Mahesvara.

    Heruka's first appearance in the Buddhist mantras is in the Sarvatathagatatattvasamgraha [STTS], where his name appears in a Mantra for the drawing of all the [Saiva] Mother-goddesses into Buddhism, and it is that, with the insertion of a single seed syllable, that is adopted as the Mantra of Heruka in the Sarvabuddha Samayoga Dakini Jala Samvara [Seven Syllable mantra].

    Heruka as Dakini Jala Samvara is four faced, eight armed, having for its seed a Blue Hrih.

    In Vajrajvalodaya, there is a Tri-shakti similar to the one in Paramadya:

    Pramoha is invoked as Vajranarayani, Cauri as Vajracandesvari, and Ghasmari as Vajramahesvari.

    The titles are the same as their "consort" roles in Paramadya Tantra, which is the major basis of Dakini Jala:

    Visnu, Rudra, and Brahma (Narayan, Candesvara, Padmodbhava) and their consorts Vajrasri, Vajragauri, and Vajratara, join
    Akasagarbha and Khavajrini to form the retinue of Vajrasattva in the central section of the abridged Mandala of the Yogatantra Paramadya.

    Ok. In a Five Family format, Khavajra is Sparsha Vajra entering the secret place. Here, it is first like making the fourth or Jewel Family out of the Hindu Tri-shakti and Buddhist Three Jewels simultaneously. It is misleading, since Gauri is equivalent to Mahesvari--Ghasmari, and Brahma's Tara is equivalent to Candesvari--Cauri. You would think Candesvari belongs with Candesvara, but, these names do not seem to meet. Here, tantra is based on perhaps steering the Hindu trinity in a new direction, not denying or removing it. This is almost the same thing as calling the Gauris Shaktis, and it is not this class that defines the Families or are them on their home plane.

    When understood as Six Families:

    Luminous Wisdom (Hevajra commentary) gives Hevajra's Ghasmari as the purified sixth principle, manas of self-grasping, or sakkaya-ditthi or what we have called Sixth Skandha and Gnosis Element. Nairatma "is" this principle, Ghasmari is its purified state.

    Ghasmari is in Panchadaka (Hevajra explanatory system) as a green Bell goddess, and she becomes the South Gatekeeper of Dakarnava Heruka's Jnana Chakra, having characteristics of the southern dakini. Ghasmari is power of food, or taste, similar to Rasa, and the enjoyment of soma or amrita or nectar. She is defined by Drakpa Gyaltsen as the Samputa Tantra itself. Samputa and Hevajra are slightly different systems of similar ingredients; Samputa having more to do with making a Bliss Chakra of Four Dakinis, whereas Hevajra takes this for granted and applies it to higher stages of the Path.

    She is one of the extremely few who carries the Agni Kunda or the main tantric fire, as well as a Sword.

    So, she has two different gatekeeper roles, and the intent is that she is ultimately a purified Dharmadhatu Vajra goddess in the Offering or Bodhisattva or Sister class. This sounds a bit like Cunda if she is supposed to be a Vajrasattva sisterly emanation.

    Dakini Jala Families

    In Dakini Jala, once we realize the Dhyani Buddhas are present simply in older names, then the Prajnas, at least the four principal ones, are the same as anywhere, considering that Mamaki is with Vajrasurya (Jewel Family).

    Allright. So it does have four families that are sort of standard, perhaps having a wrathful edge. These are Form Elements, the Mahabhuts, related to the Four Dakinis, and can similarly be placed around various central figures. This likely seventh-century format for the purposes of realizing Vajrasurya initiation (i. e. of all Upa Yoga or Charya Tantra) has the following for its central and/or hypostatic families, Vajra Family and the Sixth, Gnosis, or perhaps Kumara Family:

    Heruka + Isvari

    Vajradhara + Samvari

    Heruka is Heruka Yoga, i. e. Peaceful and Wrathful Vajrasattva, and Vajradhara is scarcely operative in sadhanas except perhaps as a realization or accomplishment performed by Vajrasattva. Heruka in this practice means he is subject to arise in his two, four, and six arm forms, much like in Samputa Tantra.

    The first indicated Prajna, Isvari, is designed to be an office upheld by anyone appropriate, frequently as Vajravarahi, Nairatma, or Jnanadakini.

    Samvari is also mentioned in Vajrasattva's retinue; at first, this would sound like a female Chakrasamvara, but grueling looks at all possible Shakti Pithas gives:

    Samvari Devi/Vimala Devi

    In Kurukshetra, Samvari and Vimala occupy the same Pitha, where the Bhairava is Samvarta.

    She is on a Japanese dharani page, which is p. 413 of Dharani Samgraha.

    Where we are is under a profound mantra which re-iterates several of the main subjects and adds Jayavahini:

    Om vipule vimale jayavale jayavahini amrte hum hum phat svaha. Om bhara 2 sambhara 2 indriyavala visodhani hum 2 phat 2 svaha.

    related to Mahamaya commentary:

    gunavati akasavati akasa visuddhe

    cintamani makuta

    Increases Bala:

    vala varddhani svaha

    rare yogini:

    vajravati tathagata hrdaya purini ayuh sandharani vara

    If we continue in Dharani Samgraha, Samvari disappears from p. 423:

    vidhāriṇi | mahile 2 mahāmahile | nigaḍe nigaḍabhaṁje | maṭṭe maṭṭini | dānta cakre cakra vākini | jvala 2 jvālāni | śavari śāvari || sarvva vyādhihariṇi |

    whereas the corresponding "correct" section reads:

    vidarini vidharini, mahile 2 maha mahile, nigade nigadabhan ca, matte mattini, dante, cakre cakra-vakini, jvale 2 jvule jvalini, savari, samvari, sarva vyadhi harani, cudi 2 cudini 2 maha cudini

    If we are hyper-critical, at least the Nepali does not show "2" but has a variation on savari.

    The Nepalese dharani goes on to p. 425 which I believe means it is Pratisara's personal practice:

    āryya mahāpratisarāyāḥ mahāvidyārājñāḥ rakṣā vidhāna kalpaḥ samāptaḥ

    It may happen to include PR 206, it is really big.

    I am not sure how it was translated, but, the only other apparent use of "samvari" in Dharani Samgraha is after Mahamaya Vijayavahini dharani is recited:

    bodhisattva saṁvarīca | nārāyaṇo aho ārścyami ti kṛtvā śaṁkhacakraga ḍā vana mālāmukūṭa.

    It may just mean that Bodhisattvas renewed their vows or something like that.

    Sam Vari also means "full water" or high tide. Yet also appears to be Vimala as understood by Kubjika at Kurukshetra. She is also a Tamang Poultry Farmer who started Boudhanath Stupa in Nepal, is addressed as a Dakini in prayer, and even has her picture in a Lama Chopa article. She for some reason had Kasyapa's relics. There are multiple versions of the stupa's history, but these are the only real meanings of Samvari.

    Samvari is also a Nepalese Nirmanakaya mentioned by Chokyi Lodro, probably meaning that same one.

    Although the name has almost no use, she is in Samputa Tantra in a critical area. Her Tibetan name is:

    sdom pa ma

    It is the same as Samvara in the meaning of Vow. Also, samcara, samlekha. This is one area where the Tibetan is quite clear:

    in all these = Tibetan sdom pa restraint, obligation, vow

    one word for about eight Sanskrit synonyms.

    If "samvara" ever was to have the connotation of Bliss, it is called Demchok. And this is highly infrequent outside of the sadhanas. Although "sambhara" sounds similar, it is more like what is required to Accomplish a sadhana:

    puṇya-sambhāra (the requisite of merit),
    jñāna-sambhāra (the requisite of knowledge).

    Samvari and Cunda are in Samputa Chapter Six, which is an enquiry by devi and the lord explains the subtle body. He talks about the physical constituents and then:

    Now, the goddess, having inserted
    The lord’s bola into her kakkola,
    Gratified the great being
    And spoke these words: {6.1.41}

    Section Three is operation of the channels similar to Inverted Stupa, called Yoga Puja.

    Section Four explains deities and the secret circle of dakinis, to which:

    Then all the goddesses, headed by Nairātmyā, including Locanā, Māmakī, Pāṇḍaravāsinī, Tārā, Bhṛkuṭī, Cundā, Parṇaśavarī, Ahomukhā and Śaṃvarī—yoginīs as numerous as the dust particles on Mount Sumeru—became utterly bewildered, fainting and trembling. {6.4.22}

    One of those is probably an alias:

    Ahomukha (अहोमुख).—commencement of the day, morning, dawn.

    They had just been told some fairly basic things, such as the Buddhist Crown or Mahasukha Cakra is not exactly physical, but, arises via the Tri-kaya:

    The three bodies are said to reside within the body
    In the form of the three cakras.
    The cakra of great bliss is understood
    In terms of fully cognizing the three bodies. {6.4.5}

    Then, pregnancy and the Bodhisattva stages are equivalent, as we are saying is also the case in Pancha Raksa:

    Inside the womb, the embryo is the renunciant;
    The embryo’s membrane is the flame-colored robe. {6.4.14}

    The ten months of pregnancy are the ten stages,
    And the beings in the womb are the lords of the ten stages.
    Referred to by the name semen, a buddha is implanted
    In the bhaga of a queen, which is the realm of Sukhāvatī. {6.4.17}

    and what sounds like a pro-Buddha Nature statement:

    Therefore, all beings are the innate condition;
    The innate condition is said to be their very nature.

    If we re-read the fainting goddeses as if Marici were there, you would get a Nairatma mandala where she is ringed by four normal Prajnas, then has dharanis as corner goddesses, and Samvari would effectively be cast in the tenth or upmost-center position. This is the type of casting done by Vajravilasini and a few others. And then you are left with Samvari is the pranic harnessing of even Nairatma, and if you make the Elements and Objects faint, you have probably entered void or formlessness.

    While Himalayan Passages clearly gives the Vajradaka sadhana, this itself does not contain any type of family information regarding the dakinis on the six spokes representing the Jewels of Enlightenment. What makes them "recognizable" is that it calls them Six Yoginis and says that Vajraraudri is Smoky colored and that she is Samadhi--and so we would guess she is equivalent to Candi in the usual set. And so if we fan out the rest of them also by color, we can arrange the Dakini Jala Families, Samvarodaya Armor Viras, and six of the Jewels of Enlightenment in correspondence.

    Six Yoginis:

    Vajrasattva...Vairocana...Vajrasurya...Padmanarttesvara...Paramasva...Heruka..........[Buddha Families]


    Vairocani.......Yamini......Samtrasani........Mohani...................Candi.......Sancalini.....[Armor Viras]


    The last group is still the Near Heart mantra of Chakrasamvara.

    Parasol represents Heroic March or the first class of Samadhi. She is from the earliest highly-mantric Sutra. She is not concealed whatsoever and is frequently taken for a "female Avalokiteshvara", but she is actually Buddha's telepathy.

    Buddhakapala is arguably the realization of emptiness of all these telepathies or usnisas as it goes on in a similar but highly unfit-for-children manner.

    Vasudhara, Pratisara, and Parasol can all be said to have "expansive" dharanis, until you get to something like the titanic Pratisara just quoted. They are so multi-faceted it is not every day you can browse a Japanese title and recognize a corrected Nepali Sanskrit, which reveals one of the only invocations of a reticent Dakini Jala Prajna.

    And so there is no such thing as "the Parasol mantra" or even "the long mantra" because there are many, and then she has a dharani going up to the scale of the one just mentioned.

    But she has another version that overwhelms even these.

    Paramartha Parasol imports one of her Pratyangira mantras, following it by Shurangama Samadhi and 108 Samadhis, which is her Punya Sambhara. This is only really explainable by Vajra Mala or Rosary Tantra. The idea is that the Six Families experience Nine Moods, the winds, which is fifty-four, and these are doubled to a hundred and eight. This is the intent of Dakini Jala, and is almost the same as crossing the Six Yoginis with the Gauris.

    Along with this, we are allowing various Taras to perform as the male seed, until, such a time as our Upaya or Method has attained the ability of Luminosity, which is the male deity or technical definition of Smrti as required by the Sadhana. This is the Fifth Yoga, before Samadhi, both of which being relatively inaccessible to normal means.


    In Shakti terms, the Sword points from multiple outer facets to the center of Sri Yantra, and the Buddhist Kila or Phurba--Peg is similar.

    The Phurba itself is Ekaggata, which is a non-removable universal cetasika in which samadhi develops, One-pointedness.

    Kila is related to Karma Family, and, so, must be the progression of Ekaggata to Samadhi. In other words, you start with normal Vajrasattva, and he becomes increasingly wrathful as he emanates in different families, until Karma Family (Kila) is Extremely Wrathful. Likewise, Karma Family is the last Yoga, represented by Candi who may be thought of in those terms.

    The Vajramala-tantra, an early Indian commentary on the GST, adds that the ritual kila should be made of acacia wood, thirteen inches in length and three-sided in shape. It is to be marked with 'the three words' (Om Ah Hum), blessed with one hundred syllables and purified by the rite of Amrtakundalin. The samayasattva whose form comprises the upper half of the peg is, according to Candrakirti, the triple-faced, six-armed Amrtakundalin.

    A single kila of acacia wood (khadira) is mentioned within a long ritual in the
    MMK. The passage in question concerns solicitation of the beautiful Manojna in order to gain her wealth and sexual favours. This charming nymph bestows the elixir (rasayana) granting long life to the sadhaka who may chose to live in a palace of the gods so long as he meditates upon the kila stuck into the ground.

    195. F. Edgerton, BHS Dictionary, 418, describes her as a yakshini. She also occurs in the retinue of Vajramrta (Nispannayogovali, mandala no. 7).

    She is really a Wisdom to be realized by Vajramrita Tantra.

    Manojña (मनोज्ञ) is also the name of a Kinnara mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.

    There is a sudden appearance of Female Vajramrita as Ulukha Mukhi (Owl Face).

    Next is the consecration of the five-lobed crown which is bestowed with the same verse as found in the empowerment rite of the mahottara cycle above but for which the mantra given here is RATNAMUKUTA-ABHISINCA MAM TRAM TRAM TRAM TRAM TRAM.

    So the most basic understanding of Kila is already delimited by Amrtakundalin. The result again is a Crown and Jewel Family. One finds almost instantly a continuity in MMK, Vajra Rosary, and Vajramrita Tantra.

    And so in tantra, we see there is a kind of vocabulary builder, which is not that different from the more generalized Pali scriptures doing the same thing. Superficially, samadhi, sati, smrti, and ekaggata, all mean Mindfulness or Concentration.

    They are mostly trying to explain the Nine Dhyanas or Janas.

    Ekaggata could be highly evil, there is nothing spiritual in it.

    Smrti, on the other hand, is spiritual or is even the ability to do a spiritual practice relying on Luminous Mind. This is what we need in order to do a Samadhi as intended in the Six Yogas. And so the mental terms for concentration are going to bounce back mainly under the umbrella of "Chara" and the first one or few Dhyanas, similar to the whole Charya stage as described. From older Pali sources:

    There can be numerous kinds of samādhi. Here we distinguish three types of samādhi or mindfulness:

    Momentary mindfulness (khanika samādhi)
    Access mindfulness (upacāra, pronounced “upachāra,” samādhi)
    Absorption mindfulness (appanā samādhi)

    I think for Mahayana purposes, we are only calling the last one Samadhi, and the pre-cursors would be more like Ekagatta and Sati. Nothing momentary or transient about the Samadhi we have in mind in the Six Yogas.

    They say:

    Samādhi (“sama”+”adhi” where “sama” means “same” and “adhi” means “dominance”) means the object becomes the priority. Then the mind gets focused on it. As we discussed in many posts when the mind becomes focused on one object (ārammana), the ekaggata cetasika takes over and makes the mind latched “on to it.”

    [Allright. There are forty-some-odd unnecessary momentary cetasikas that we would like to drop off while we latch to a Dharmadhatu Vajra or mental object.]

    That is how one gets to not only samādhi but also anāriya jhāna using breath meditation, just by focusing the mind on the breath.

    One gets to samādhi on whatever the activity one gets absorbed in.

    Being mindful depends on the situation. The kind of mindfulness needed while driving a car is different from the mindfulness required to design something (or read a book). And the mindfulness required to attain a jhāna needs to be different from those two.

    So, driving is more like Momentary or Khanika--you can concentrate one-pointedly while still shifting across many external objects.

    Reading, etc., is more of Upacara--steadier and with fewer distractions.

    Upacara as the foundation of Vajrayana Samadhi proceeds in the process of concentration as described in the Abhidhammattha Sangaha (IX 17, 18):

    When that sign has been thoroughly apprehended and enters into range of the mind door just as if it were seen by the eye, then it is called the learning sign, and that meditation becomes concentrated. When one is thus concentrated, one then applies oneself to meditation by means of that preliminary [parikamma] concentration based on the learning sign. As one does so, an object which is the counterpart of that (learning sign) becomes well established and fixed in the mind -- (an object) which is freed of the flaws of the original object, reckoned as a concept, born of meditation. Then it is said that the counterpart sign has arisen.

    Thereafter, access [upacāra] development is accomplished, consisting in concentration of the sense sphere in which the obstacles have been abandoned.

    Allright. Upacara as meant with regards to Yoga is now Indriya Bala which has shed the obstacles, Klesha or Nivarani. That roughly still agrees with "steadier, fewer distractions" as before, but more precise.

    The overcoming of these 5 hindrances by the absorptions [Dhyanas] is, as already pointed out, a merely temporary suspension, called 'overcoming through repression' (vikkhambhana-pahāna). They disappear forever on entering the 4 supermundane paths (s. ariyapuggala), i.e. skeptical doubt on reaching Sotāpanship; sensuous desire, ill-will and mental worry on reaching Anāgāmiship; sloth, torpor and restlessness on reaching Arahantship.

    In the presence of them we cannot reach neighbourhood-concentration (upacāra-samādhi) and full concentration (appanā-samādhi), and are unable to discern clearly the truth. They are:

    sensuous desire (kāmacchanda),
    ill-will (vyāpāda),
    sloth and torpor (thīna-middha),
    restlessness and scruples (uddhacca-kukkucca), and
    skeptical doubt (vicikicchā).

    Kilesa (“defilements”), are mind-defiling, unwholesome qualities. Vis.M. XXII, 49, 65: There are 10 defilements, thus called because they are themselves defiled, and because they defile the mental factors associated with them.

    They are:

    greed (lobha),
    hate (dosa),
    delusion (moha),
    conceit (māna),
    speculative views (ditthi),
    skeptical doubt (vicikicchā),
    mental torpor (thīna),
    restlessness (uddhacca);
    shamelessness (ahirika),
    lack of moral dread or unconscientiousness (anottappa)."

    For 1-3, s. mūla; 4, s. māna; 5, s. ditthi; 6-8, s. nīvarana; 9 and 10, s. ahirika-anottappa.

    Dhyāna is again subdivided into five kinds:

    Vitarka (cogitation),
    Vicāra (thinking),
    Priti (pleasure),
    Sukha (happiness),
    Ekāgratā (concentration).

    Vitarka is the first moment of a coarse mind, vicāra is a more subtle (sūkṣma) analysis. Thus, when a bell is struck, the first sound is strong, the subsequent sound is weaker; this is vicāra”.

    Also, “although the two things reside in the same mind, their characteristics are not simultaneous: at the moment of vitarka, the vicāra is blurred (apaṭu); at the moment of vicāra, the vitarka is blurred. [vitarka and vicāra are distinct names of one single mind]

    vitarka (वितर्क).—m (S) A thought, a reasoning, a conjecture, a fancy, conceit, scheme, device, speculation. In this sense the use is generally plural, and the implication is of Deviousness, wildness, airiness, flightiness. 2 S Reasoning or considering widely and largely; contemplating the bearings, the alternatives, the contingencies, the possible issues.

    4. Consideration of probabilities, mental anticipation of alternatives, conjecture.

    Vicara or the foot of Dharma Praviccaya is an opposite swing from Vitarka--Discursion in the development of Dhyana.

    Fast forward to our current century on Upacara:

    Access concentration is characterized by the significant reduction or complete dropping of the five hindrances and the arising and strengthening of jhāna factors. [...] It is easy to confuse momentary concentration with access concentration. One difference is that with access concentration, the meditator's continuity with the object is much longer and more stable over time. Another difference is that with access concentration, the object is much more energized and "bright". [...] In access concentration, the jhāna factors are present but insufficiently strong for full absorption into jhāna.

    -- Stephen Snyder & Tina Rasmussen (Practicing the Jhānas)

    This "full absorption" is called Sampatti, and so prior to that, you are in Dhyana, which is powerful enough to make your hairs stand on end, but is still relatively easily washed out by anything.

    More broadly speaking:

    The Buddhist tradition has introduced the term upacāra samadhi [...] to refer to a non absorptive experience of concentration that begins with the arising of the counterpart sign and endures until consciousness enters into full absorption. Upacāra samadhi implies concentration that is in the vicinity of jhāna [...] and describes the experiences that precede absorption, but it does not necessarily leads to jhāna. It may refer to the conditions that precede jhāna; it may refer to experiences that are reminiscent of first jhāna mental factors, but without the seclusion of absorption; and it may describe the mature concentration that accompanies those meditation objects (such as discernment of the body parts, and various recollections) that do not have the potential to reach full absorption. [...] Some meditators use the term upacāra samādhi so loosely that it merely describes the feeling of being concentrated and a mind that is stable and happy during meditation.

    -- Shaila Catherine (Wisdom Wide and Deep)

    If we re-arrange the vocabulary somewhat, we would still use the summation from the Pali site:

    Samādhi is the endpoint of being mindful (sati).

    Samādhi is a synonym for the cetasika (mental factor) of ekaggata, i.e., having a focus. One can cultivate it by being mindful the correct way, i.e., via sammā sati.

    Wiki's Dhyana in Buddhism is a reasonable article which begins:

    In the oldest texts of Buddhism, dhyāna (Sanskrit) or jhāna (Pāḷi) is the training of the mind, commonly translated as meditation, to withdraw the mind from the automatic responses to sense-impressions, and leading to a "state of perfect equanimity and awareness (upekkhā-sati-parisuddhi)." Dhyāna may have been the core practice of pre-sectarian Buddhism, in combination with several related practices which together lead to perfected mindfulness and detachment, and are fully realized with the practice of dhyana.

    "Leading to a state" means those are the qualities of the Fourth Jana:

    Upekkha Sati Parishuddhi

    Sati or "mindfulness" is a base-level word which would apply to all activities in ordinary waking consciousness, but, due to changeable or altered states of consciousness, goes through various synonyms. So there is something like Complete Purification of Sati--Mindfulness that takes place in the condition of Upeksa, which itself goes from the first to last ranks of all this.

    The Wiki article suggests that Buddha's two Gurus mean that he learned both Element and Formless meditation--so again, it is more like "both, together", than one at the expense of the other.

    Upacara means that one has overcome the Five Hindrances or Nivarani, which are not the Skandhas, but obvious types of Vitarka or discursion or distraction that would obviously burden Mindfulness or Sati.

    In Prajnaparamita Sutra:

    If he has been able to reject the five sense objects (kāmaguṇa) and remove the five obstacles (nīvaraṇa), the ascetic practices the five dharmas:

    aspiration (chanda),
    exertion (vīrya),
    mindfulness (smṛti),
    clear seeing (saṃprajñāna),
    concentration of mind (cittaikāgratā).

    By practicing these five dharmas, he acquires the first dhyāna furnished with five members (pañcāṅga-samanvāgata).

    Those are more or less the Five Balas, so, they give Dhyana or the First Dhyana, being the Second Yoga.

    The four upāyas of Guhyasamaja are the sequential development of the Six Yogas:

    Sevā [Pratyahara and Dhyana]

    Upasādhana [Pranayama and Dharana]

    Sādhana [Smrti]

    Mahāsādhana [Samadhi]

    Correspondingly, when one uses all of the Pithas in terms of Thirty-seven Point Enlightenment, Samadhi is found in three levels:

    samādhīndriyasvabhāvā drumacchāyeti

    samādhibalasvabhāvā śyāmādevī

    and then as a Samadhi Bodhyanga, Haya Karna, who turns out to be kind of vague.

    The whole thirty-seven point classification is given in Bodhipaksika. The pattern says it has Ten Roots, i. e. these things repeat in new levels.

    Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XXXI.—Accordingly, “when the concentrated mind (pragṛhītacitta) stops worrying (āśvasiti) about things (ālambana), there is “foundations of magical power” (ṛddhipāda)”. Also, “as a result of this expenditure of energy (bahuvīrya), his mind is distracted (vikṣipta). The Yogin concentrates his mind and controls it (damayati): this is called ‘foundation of magical power’ (ṛddhipāda)”.

    Also, “when the four right efforts (samyakpradhāna) are practiced, the mind is slightly distracted (vikṣipta); this is why the concentrations (samādhi) are used to fix the mind: concentrations of zeal (chanda), of exertion (vīrya), of the mind (citta) and of examination (mīmāṃsā). These concentrations are called bases of magical power (ṛddhipāda)”.

    The Rddhipadas are Pracanda--Cinamasta's domain.

    Right Efforts are:

    1) eliminating the bad dharmas that have already arisen; 2) preventing the arising of the bad dharmas that have not yet arisen; 3) making the good dharmas, faith, etc., that have not yet arisen, arise; 4) developing the good dharmas that have already arisen. When these four exertions are abundant during the four doundations of mindfulness (smṛtyupasthāna), they take the name of right efforts (samyakpradhāna)”.

    Instead of Four Efforts, the tantric systems has Prahana or "abandonments". But, their meaning is the same.

    The subjects of the Four Dakinis are:


    “foundations of mindfulness”

    Virya and Smrti go through almost every group.

    The lowest level of Smrti is at the eyes and is Lankesvari, and with her, we have to understand the Coromandel Coast of India as being West Lanka. Not only is this a prod towards Ramayana, once we found the Gilgit manuscripts were busy with the same jargon as in the dharani system, then there was Lankesvari as the main salutory deity in one of the scriptures or Sutras. That makes us think there must have been a close to contiguous system from Sri Lanka to Pakistan even prior to Ellora.

    Bala Smrti sounds more like something that might be effective for Generation Stage, which is Surabhaski at the tip of the nose, and her consort happens to be Vajrahumkara. She may be a slight change to Vajrabhaskari as above, and if we put together the boundary-ness of this male with what "nose tips" are, there is something to it. Neither Bhaskari name has any other application, however it is Name Seventy-seven of Lakshmi.

    In the body, Smrti as a Jewel is represented by Chakravarmini with Akashagarbha, but, if we are focusing the Seven Jewels as the retinue of Vajradaka, at this point, Smrti is seized by the male figure.

    If one had a good or Bala Yoga Samadhi, it would be Syama Devi of Kalinga--Mouth. This is just a color, and is just an adjective in most of the rest of Buddhism. But again this name is also easily known:

    Syama is the second form of Matangi who opens the Vishnu Granthi or blockage around solar plexus and heart. This form also has a Parrot. Her Gayatri goes:

    Om Shukrapriyayai Vidmahe Shrikameshvaryai Dhimahi Tannah Shyama Prachodayat॥

    Allright. Armor is more or less the "top end" of this, since we consider ourselves unable to manifest the Jewels of Enlightenment at a beginner stage. We are trying to build up the Six Yogas first, represented by the Armor. The first, weak samadhi here is Drumacchaya, Tree Shadow or Shade, who is actually in the Heart, having for her husband Vajradeha or Vajra Body or Vajrakaya. The second is Syama, and the third is Candi of the Armor.

    Most of the Jewels of Enlightenment in the Pithas are recognizable goddesses:

    Virya--Khaganana, Priti--Cakravega, Prasrabdhi--Khandaroha, Dharmapraviccaya--Saundini, Smrti--Cakravarmini, Upeksa--Suvira.

    Vajravarahi is an over-arching Samyak Samadhi, with the Four Dakinis as Smrti Upasthanas or Foundations of Mindfulness.

    Pithas consist of Indriyas, Balas, and Bodhyangas, which are again mostly the same as Pali texts and Buddhist information at large. As we see, it separates Indriyas and Balas into different groups, "starting as you are" and "trained".

    Śraddhā, vīrya, smṛti and prajñā are called faculties (indriya) when they are weak, called powers or strengths (bala) when they are strong.

    Also, “when the five faculties (pañcendriya) have been developed (vṛddha), they are able to intercept the afflictions (kleśa): this is like the power of a big tree (mahāvṛkṣa) that is able to block off water. These five faculties, when they have been developed, are able to gradually penetrate the profound Dharma (gambhīradharma): this is called ‘power’ (bala)”.

    Basic Balas include Faith--Sraddha, Virya, and then three "mental synonyms", Sati, Samadhi, Prajna.

    They "become manifest" as the Four Dhyanas; or, as the Four Foundations of Mindfulness.

    Allright. It didn't say the ninth Dhyana or Nine Dhyanas, but it is about interiorizing some values while strengthening them in practice. This must be equivalent to Rudra Krama or Mahabala Krama because in Dharani Samgraha, we find it on Pratisara:


    upahṛdaya vidyā ||

    And in Sadhanamala, Indriya Bala is part of Pancha Raksa 206.

    And so this is going to inhale some "mental synonyms" from times when it was hard to find anyone who would understand the difference, and boomerang it out like a Thor's hammer as a useful practice at the intensity meant by Six Yogas and Seven Jewels.

    The Chain is the missing link here. Vajrasrnkhala may be considered the Activity of samadhi goddesses Raudri and Candi.

    Vajrasrnkhala is a Hevajra consort. In other words, if we take preliminaries to the point where this is meaningful, then we are prepared for the actual Completion Stage as would be given in the system.

    If we look at the Paramitas, Dhyana and Prajna are there, but then Upaya or Smrti--Sadhana corresponds to the seventh. So actually having this or actually being able to do it is equivalent to successful use of a bonded Prajnaparamita.

    We can let goddesses take over, as much as possible, the first Four Yogas.

    We see that Pratisara is very poignant whether classed as some of the earliest teaching of meditation, or, the tantric Pitha system, it is the same. It does not say she does the Jewels of Enlightenment like Vajradaka. It says she is the initial gathering of a certain power, Bala.

    With proper cultivation, this results in a fire, which is to be handled otherwise.

    The subjects of Tara Thirteen are Bala and the removal of Hindrances, like fire at the end of the world, using Mudita or Joy to shatter enemy circles.

    A "simple" samadhi Yidam as mentioned in Samadhi of Vajra Garland of Waves in Guhyasamaja, it tells us to do Om Ah Hum of Cunda.

    The samadhi called "Garland of waves of the Vajra hero'

    Then the Blessed. One, Vajradhara, entered. the samadhi
    called "Vajra of universal sound", and brought forth from his
    vajra body, speech and mind this great vajra meditation word,


    74-75 At the centre of space visualise the holy sun mandala,
    and. according to the ritual, clouds of Buddhas, the most renowned.
    Three Vajras; to make them descend into body, speech
    and mind, visualise Cundavajri, white in colour, complete
    with every adornment; visualising Vajrasattva the great King,
    place the mantra word.

    In Guhyasamaja, Cunda vajri is the Tri-kaya of a particular samadhi:

    || vīravajrormimālā nāma samādhiḥ||

    atha bhagavān vajradharaḥ samantanirghoṣavajraṁ nāma samādhiṁ samāpadyedaṁ mahāvajrabhāvanāpadaṁ svakāyavākcittavajrebhyo niścārayāmāsa|


    khavajramadhyagataṁ cintetsūryamaṇḍalamuttamam|
    buddhameghān vidhānena trivajrātmā mahāyaśāḥ||76||

    pātanaṁ kāyavākcitte cundravajrīṁ vibhāvayet|
    sarvālaṅkārasampūrṇāṁ sitavarṇāṁ vibhāvayet||77||

    vajrasattvamahārājaṁ dhyātvā mantrapadaṁ nyaset|

    She translated "Kha Vajra Madhya" as "center of space", although there might be a little more to it.

    The subject of this samadhi is Vira or Heroine Vajra Urmimala Wreath or Garland of Waves.

    It is not exactly a samadhi from the system of Six Yogas unless it arises from the state of Candi, who typically has the seed syllable Ca, "to move", which Cunda also uses.

    Prior to that state, Pratisara, for example, can cause a powerful reversion of life force which can cause one's aura to ignite, and in the tantras, this produces an interface with Generation Stage goddesses. Khandaroha herself personally means Generation Stage, and so do Gauris or Kye Rim. I think the main "warning" in Buddhist tantra at least, is that we are not trying to force their appearance by Hatha Yoga. We are trying to eventually expose them by mostly mental practices. This very distinctly is its own realm of experience which is unlike a direct perception of voidness. It may be more of a struggle as to why we are not very good at it. This can also be summarized as Candali Yoga. Just like Isvari, the "inner flame" may become known as her more personal manifestations, such as Vajravarahi, Nairatma, or Mahamaya.

    As a universal aspect, it may be Vairocani or Pandara (as per Sukhasiddhi--Yeshe Tsogyal). If you are only thinking in terms of limited families or deities, then you could probably call it Pandara; if it happens after Six Families has become meaningful, you could call it Vairocani. As a famous name that continues in most all the tantras, Candali. As "the consort of the Mahasiddhas", Vasanta Tilaka or Springtime Drop in Avadhut symbolism.

    From the Dakini Jala approach, these deities are the contingents of Heruka.

    Manohara is also going to present herself. There are perhaps a few ways, such as Ganapati, that one could become familiar with the Hook in the sense of invitation and attraction, summoning, Akarsana. It is the first Activity, so, if it is flimsy, the rest of them cannot work any better. The general context of her name is "mind captivated by beauty". And so she is a bit of a mixture of Hook as conceived in any way, with Ila and Bhu, basic Vasudharas. She is made like this, and she, in turn, does something.

    It can be a little hard to see due to the abundance of other deities of similar appearance. Lha Chenpo is a terma that is a Mahadeva Avalokiteshvara which is prominent at Mindroling and gets mixed up with Jinasagara, which it is not a part of.

    Remarkably similarly in appearance to it, there is Red Jambhala, which is a terma "evidently based on" the system of Gayadhara, i. e. the Sakya system. This form of Red Jambhala belongs to the Nyingmapa 'Terma' - Revealed Treasure Tradition and was discovered as an 'Earth Treasure' by Trapa Ngonshe Wangchug Bar (1012-1090). Written on yellow parchment paper, it was extracted from above the door of the central shrine at Samye Chokor Ling. This famous 'terton' (treasure finder) is also responsible for uncovering the 'Four Medical Tantras.'

    The Sakya branch comes from:

    Jnana Dakini, Mahasiddha Virupa, Krisna, Damarupa, Avadhutipa, Gayadhara, Drogmi, Gyichu Khonton, Sachen...

    Here's the thing. The vast majority of modern available information is that of Pabonkha, who took Vajrayogini empowerments in Sakya, and then transmitted them in Gelug, while maintaining that it was a secret practice of Tshon kha pa. It may have been, and it may have been around the Panchen Lamas, but it had never really been a part of that order. Similarly, the Guhyajnana Dakini that is attached to King Konchog Bang is with someone who has no historical evidence, worse yet having a non-Indic name. Most of the Mahasiddhas have the opposite problem--there were two or three Indrabhutis, Sarahas, Nagarjunas, etc., of which the most clearly distinguished is Krsnacharya Elder and Younger. Coupled with the non-historical king are also White Taras that do not come from accomplishment of the Six Yogas system.

    The Sakya tantric system is chiefly patterned around the stages of groups of deities called "The Three Reds", and then there is a limited basket of Completion Stage practices. And so in Yoga, we are not necessarily "doing" Sakya or Kagyu or Jonang, but we have found that the context of Inner Meaning--Profound View and Nirakara--Shentong have continuity mostly in these sects. And so the Sakya system simply is highly instructive just as it is. It has nothing to do with whether they are among the first or most important political powers as well as lineage holders, or whether or not we are a part of it. The system is good at explaining all tantra, but, moreover, mostly in Red with a high preponderance of Lotus Family.

    So if there is a sort of "outer system" of Tara and Vasudhara, which is preparatory for a more esoteric or occult Vajrayogini system, this would adapt to the first rank of Three Reds which are:

    Three of the four Vajrayoginis of Nepal (Indrabhuti, Maitri, and Naro Dakinis)

    Well, the equivalent "Fourth Red" is Guhyajnana Dakini, who in turn is something of a publicly-known accomplice of Blue Mahacinakrama Tara. This is more accessible. The others are ways of bundling Vairocani, etc., in the way that composes Vajravarahi and Cinnamasta. Too advanced to really use, but, identical with what the Yoga system is working its way into.

    At the next rank, there are:

    (7) Kurukulla-Tara of the Vajrapanjara Tantra, (8) Red Vasudhara of the Chakrasamvara cycle of Tantras and (9) Tinuma, the activity form of Vajravarahi, also of the Chakrasamvara cycle.

    By the first it means Tarodbhava Kurukulla and Golden Drop Lakshmi, the second is Manohara, and the third is more fully called Tinuma Vajrayogini, who uses a close twist on the Four Dakinis' mantra. Since Guhyajnana has this, and, she can appear with Nyan's Ziro Bhusana Vajrayogini, there remains this type of alternate parallel. For the first two there is not. So we take a closer look at Manohara as an important manifestation.

    By using Lotus Family, Kurukulla gains an increase in power, and repeats herself in a layer with male deities, which by the numbers was out of order:

    (4) Kurukulla of the Hevajra Tantra, (5) Takkiraja of the Guhyasamaja Tantra and (6) Maharakta Ganapati associated with the Chakrasamvara Tantra

    That seems a bit odd that they have suddenly plucked out one of the Ten Wrathful Ones, Takkiraja. However he is the metamorphosis that causes Vajrosnisa. As this "inevitable male presence" arises, it is not hard to see that ultimately Agni is the principal deity in Homa, after, equivalently, Trailokyavijaya is accomplished by Vajra Humkara:

    Ṭakkirāja is described in the Niṣpannayogāvalī (mañjuvajra-maṇḍala) as follows:—

    “Ṭakkirāja is in the Agni corner and is blue in colour. His three faces are blue, white and red. He holds the blue staff, the sword, the jewel and the lotus”.

    [In the vajrahūṃkāra-maṇḍala his name is Vajrayakṣa. In the dharmadhātuvagīśvara-maṇḍala he is Vajrajvālānalārka]

    Usually, if something is in Agni's area, it shares Agni's nature. Ok, he is not quite "the Element Fire" which is Pandara. He is a Wrathful Bodhisattva who is red and fiery.

    The last name here just calls him Great Blaze. Takkiraja is the deity that responds with a Hook to Manohara. They Hook each other. And so in the strict sense, this would become the first time that deities Enter Union. As we see in most senses, it would mean finishing Upayoga preliminaries. Vajrahumkara manipulates the Wrathful Ones to foster Vajrosnisa or Fiery Crown.

    Meanwhile, Red Ganapati is still a Hindu deity who pursues Sumukhi Devi, who is a Pisaci aspect of Matangi. This in itself constitutes a vast field of preliminaries, is really an entire school of its own.

    Those deities are mostly for Subjugation and Power, as in Lotus Family generally, however Power is also Wang which is Abhisekha or Initiation, and so again Guhyajnana Dakini does this.

    Among limited types of other deities such as for removing Disease, Sakya uses a few others. Manjushri and Garuda are standard, along with:

    (12) Simhanada Avalokiteshvara from its own tantra and (13) Red Jambhala from the Chakrasamvara Tantra

    Because it is different in each sub-school, such as Ngor, Bodong, or Jonang, there may be the alternates:

    (14) Simhamukha Dakini associated with the Chakrasamvara Tantra, (15) Amaravajradevi also of the Chakrasamvara Tantra

    Ziro Bhusana could be described as similar, but all-red, to Simhamukha. This Jambhala is really an evolution. The first Red Vasudhara was Manohara, who is a bit like a tantric edge, and the second is Bharati, who is The Vessel or Sahaja of the tantras. Takkiraja is a Worldly Guardian whose nature and experience was changed. Jambhala is something else entirely. He is trying to get Bharati, who does not normally exist.

    Manohara was the Kinnara maiden involved with Sudhana in Amoghapasha's retinue. Bharati physically was Vairocani, who has expanded and risen and produced Nectar and rained back down into her origin (Navel). She is like the definition of a state, having little to do with whether you used any kind of Nyasa or any other details of your practice. And so if these are not yet in concordance, the only way to do Yoga is to shape everything around Bharati properly. That is also like a message to myself, from knowing her as the energetic condition, only, without the benefits and protection that the sadhana provides.

    And so the arising of Vasudhara and what happens with Jambhala is kind of important. Jambhala is similar to Acala, or has something like a root and Five Families. Manjushri is really the same way.

    Jambhala is similar to Ganapati and to Yakshas, and is mainly Yellow with a Citron which is a shiny bindu of retained semen, as well as a mongoose which typically vomits gems or i. e. Nidhana Treasures that fill Vasudhara or Lakshmi's Nine Vases.

    If you see it that way, then, it is filling the unknown-to-us Nine Moods, Nine Sampattis, or how Vasudhara is an Adi Prajna of Nine Families, the Buddhist Vasudhara or Lakshmi is like a scaling recipient of Gnosis related to that. Jambhala is something like an overall gatekeeper of the Yaksha Kingdom, in this sense meaning Amanusya or non-human classes, external or internal. The internal meaning is the Maruts, Dakinis, etc., which are the subtle body. Relative to the tantras, it is mainly in Jewel Family.

    As Yakshas, one or both Jambhala or Vasudhara is frequently dwarfish, and it is within their classes that are the dark dwarfish Raksasis such as Ekajati. In practice, it appears that a bond or Samaya to Vajra Family is what begets the operation of Jewel Family, which turns around and does something like causing a much more vivid appearance of Vajra Family. Intensification of this opens Karma Family.

    Rinchen Terdzo as part of Volume Tha shows a significant Jambhala and Vasudhara collusion.

    The first part of this volume uses the Four Dakinis, and the Six Arm form of Parasol that does not personally hold a parasol:

    This part goes through the samaya beings Ila:

    and Manohara:

    then there is Ganapati, and various scenes leading to the advent of Worldly Protectors such as the Four Kings and Tseringma. And so it is a story line giving Jambhala in different forms granting the benefits of these allies. He is not alone, because the rewards he brings are the outcome of his frolics with Vasudhara. And so he is going about his rounds in various ways such as Black Jambhala:

    as a more common Jambhala:

    Conjuring Yugu Chesum or the Three Sisters:

    So if you take into account, Black is more or less Blue, where he will be somewhat similar to Bhutadamara Vajrapani, Yellow is his normal playing field, and Red actually is part of the tantra at a very core level, then he and his colors and antics are perhaps more significant than others prior to him.

    The Yellow color is similar to Vairocani and to Vajravilasini and Varahi in Jewel Family.

    The final Gatekeeper of the Four Kings is Vaisravana, with whom Yaksha General Vajrapani is associated, as well as Jambhala. He nominally at least is associated with the domain Alakavati, and his personal palace is also used for such things as the teaching of the Mahamaya Vijayavahini dharani. That makes it a Lotus Family practice associated with Yakshas in some unknown way. Because it is also magic, and the subject mahamaya has a lot to do with colors, this is also something being focused here.

    It, so to speak, "crafts" Buddhakapala's retinue such as Citrasena and others.

    Manohara is a Hook power, which, in a broad way, is shared with others, and her specialty is that eventually she will turn it on Takkiraja. That means it is on part of the inner being of the practitioner.

    His somewhat strange looking name appears to be Pali in origin:

    Takkin, (adj. -n.) (fr. takka1) thinking, reasoning, esp. sceptically; a sceptic D. I, 16≈(takkī vīmaṃsī)

    Pretty close to the Vitarka or Nivarana as discussed above. The Pitha system intercepts this or "takki vimamsi" as Mimamsa, and evolves it to Dharma Praviccaya, this is the exact definition of Vimamsa:

    'Investigation' (vīmamsā) is one of the 4 roads to power (rddhipāda, q.v.) and one of the 4 predominants (adhipati; s paccaya 3). -

    i. of truth: dhamma-vicaya, is one of the 7 factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.).

    So as we see Vasudhara kind of spices things up running around, and so what on earth Hook on Hook could be must be lively indeed.

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    Default Re: Nirakara and Shentong Buddhism, Tara, Sadhanas, Sanskrit culture


    We found that essentially the first Union is between Takkiraja and Manohara, which is between:

    Takkin, (adj. -n.) (fr. takka1) thinking, reasoning, esp. sceptically; a sceptic

    manōhara (मनोहर).—a (S) That steals away the mind; charming, captivating, delightful, lovely.

    It is the same Anuraga which has been the driving force of many mandalas since Pramadya:

    Although one regularly meets with the beloved and is well-acquainted with the beloved, the ever-fresh sentiment of intense attachment causes the beloved to be newly experienced at every moment as if one has never before had any experience of such a person. The attachment which inspires such a feeling is known as anurāga.

    Takkiraja is "picked up" as a worldly guardian in the Agni or Fire area and affected by Vajrahumkara such that:

    In the vajrahūṃkāra-maṇḍala his name is Vajrayakṣa. In the dharmadhātuvagīśvara-maṇḍala he is Vajrajvālānalārka.

    In Sadhanamala, Takkiraja is in the Agni corner with Siddhaikavira Manjushri as usual, and he is also affected by Usnisavijaya 212 (Cf. RG 96).

    Vajrahumkara just has the mandala of Wrathful Ones, while he is being propelled into Vajramrita Tantra into this form:

    Vajrahūṃkāra, who has three faces and six arms, has to be placed in the centre of this maṇḍala, surrounded by a halo of trembling lights, embellished with ornaments, and encircled by four mudrās (Kelikilā, Vajrāstrā, Vajragarvā, Sparśavajrā).

    The text continues with a list, sometimes accompanied by iconographical descriptions, of the objects and the deities that have to be drawn in the maṇḍala; the latter include Umā, the Vidyās (Puṣpā, Dhūpā, etc.), the door-guardians, and the eight Bodhisattvas (Maitreya, Mañjuśrī, etc.). By making oblations to deities (bali), by making offerings of food to living beings (balya), and by drinking liquors and juices, on the eighth and fourteenth days of the black fortnight, the practitioner should throw (an animal) made of powdered grains into the maṇḍala and offer it ritually.

    This is the same as Mitra 28.

    Mitra 25 is Krodhahumkara, i. e. normal Vajrahumkara, followed by Six Cakravartins i. e. Dakini Jala, followed by Vajramrita Tantra mandalas, including the increased Vajrahumkara. It says basic Vajrahumkara is not well-known in Tibet.

    His Two Arm form is disguised in the big Laughing Ekajati thangka in the first post. It is all about the Mudra, the one used for holding Bell and Dorje.

    Takkiraja then becomes called:

    Vajrayakṣa (वज्रयक्ष) is one of the sixteen samādhi deities appearing in the Vajradhātu-mahāmaṇḍala, according to the Nāmamantrārthāvalokinī v5.32-35. Correspondingly, he is the Northern associate of Amoghasiddhi in NSP 19.

    Vajrayaksha is almost certainly conflated with Vajraraksha who has the same position in the mandala. Sumda Chun in Ladakh has one of the best Amitabhas, ever, and examples of this deity spelled both ways. However, in another Namasangiti commentary mixed with Vimalaprabha, the two are distinguished.

    According to Tsem Rinpoche, he is unmistakable because he holds a suit of Armor. The second picture of the ones in Ladakh is pinkish and looks like it was doing this.

    In Vajrosnisa Tantra and Charyamelakapradipa, it is asserted that self-generation takes place in Kriya Tantra. It could. This again is a touchy subject because you ought to be using it by the time you start Yoga Tantra, but, to respect the protocols, it cannot really be suggested to do it with anyone until you get the empowerment. That is the main difference. It is ok to Hook almost any of these deities, as an outer view or in the sky, or build a retinue, just not on yourself.

    The weird lens of the mandala that is not "slightly shifting" this retinue, but, baptizing it with new identities entirely, NSP 11 says Vajrahumkara (same as the Humkara sound) is equivalent to the Trailokyavijaya Mudra and name.

    The "conversion" he does to the usual Ten Wrathful Ones goes:


    For example, these have also been perturbed by Vajrakilaya, while in Dharma Samgraha, the above is a standard set. Hevajra is nearly identical, but has placed Humkara at the Zenith or Usnisa. Vajrosnisa is a synonym of the whole Vajrasekhara system. Roughly put, it covers the whole Kriya--Charya Tantra. And so we are looking into dharani-based equivalents similar to the goddess or Guhyavajradhatu Mandala. The goddesses are more immanent and convey initiations in the inner sense.

    What it seems to me is that this "Pinnacle" goes crashing in to Vajrasurya, and on the other side is Vajramrita Tantra. Vajrasurya Abhisekha is the main way in which that tantra was produced; and the changes above are at least somewhat related to the esoteric Sun of Sarvadurgati Parishodhana, i. e. female Vajramrita.

    Analarka, here, is a regular, ordinary blaze and smaller name compared to the final state of Takkiraja or Great Blaze in Sadhanamala.

    Vajrajvālānalārka is also a personal emanation of Akshobhya on a somewhat large scale:

    He is four-faced, eight-armed, stands in the Alidha attitude, and tramples upon Visnu, who is accompanied by his wife. He is blue in colour and has a terrible appearance...his four-faces display the sentiments of love, heroism, disgust, and compassion.

    So Takkiraja and Humkara are both up to something, but, at the same time, Takkiraja is more or less answering Manohara's call. She is a Vasudhara who can be communed with and can place this character in subjugation--willingly it looks like.

    She has a relatively obscure personal name, although close to:

    2) Manoharā (मनोहरा).—A nymph of Alakāpurī. Once when Aṣṭāvakra went to the court of Kubera this nymph gave a performance in dancing in honour of that sage. (Śloka 45, Chapter 19, Anuśāsana Parva).

    Amoghapasha is a tale of Serpent Noose, and of Sudhana Kumara winning the Kinnara maiden Manohara twice. It gives her father as:

    Druma, the king of kinnaras

    3) Druma (द्रुम).—The leader of the Kinnaras (heavenly musicians). Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 10, Stanza 29). He sits in the Durbar of Kubera (God of wealth) and sings. He was the teacher of Rukmin, the son of Bhīṣmaka and he gave a bow to his pupil Rukmin. (Mahābhārata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 158.)

    Druma (द्रुम).—The king of the Kimpuruṣas and Kinnaras (s.v.) stationed on the west during the siege of Gomanta;1 stationed by Jarāsandha at the western gate of Mathurā;2 attended the conference at Kuṇḍīna summoned by Śālva.3

    1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 52. 11 [11]. Vāyu-purāṇa 41. 30.
    2) Ib. X. 50 11 [5].
    3) Ib. X. 76. 2 [9-10].

    Druma (द्रुम) is the name of a Gandharva king according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XV). Accordingly, “The king of the Gandharvas is called T’ong long mo (Druma); in the Ts’in language, ‘tree’”. Note: Druma is best known from the adventures of his daughter, the Kiṃnarī Manoharā, captured by the hunters of king Sucandrima, wed by prince Sudhanu (Sudhana), pursued by her father-in-law Subāhu, retrieved in the Himālaya by her husband and finally brought back in triumph to Hastināpura.

    Druma is mentioned as the king of the Kinnaras (Kiṃnaras) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVIII). Accordingly, “some Śrāvakas heard T’ouen louen mo (Druma), king of the Kin t’o lo (Kiṃnara) playing the lute, singing and praising the Buddha according to the true nature of dharmas. Then Mount Sumeru and all the trees shook; the great disciples of the Buddha, Mahākāśyapa, etc., were unable to sit still on their seats”.

    2) A tree of Paradise.

    3) An epithet of Kubera.

    Druma is a Kinnara in MMK, Manohara is a Yakshi.

    As to Amoghapasa:

    This story was told by the Buddha Shakyamuni when his wife Yasodhara [glanced] down from the window to see the dazzling countenance of Buddha who was coming to the royal palace of Suddhodana after six long years of separation, He said that Manohara was no other that the present Yasodhara herself in her previous Life and Sudhana kumar was The Buddha himself. This story is related in detail in Divyavadana [and other places].

    Manohara is popular in Thailand, and Borobodur has an entire bas-relief wall of her story. As the youngest of Seven Kinnari, the original story has had embellishments, name changes, and migrations over wide areas. Nothing especially mysterious about her background.

    Paramartha Parasol ends with a Kinnari Sadhana that strongly resembles this, and seems to have no correspondence elsewhere in Buddhism.

    We found a first century edict against Bhikkus having sex with Kinnari women in an indeterminate proselytism. Cf. Sudassanavibhasha. To this day, Kinnaur only has about 84,000 people in an area the size of Delaware, if it were on the moon. Why all the attention?

    Polyandry was most prevalent in Kinnaur.

    There probably is such a thing as Kinnari nuns. Note that Kinnari is an unwritten language. Not many legacies about what happened.

    In Tibet the kinnara is known as the 'shang-shang' which is a play on the word for cymbal, as they are frequently shown playing cymbals. As celestial musicians they symbolize "enlightened activity." They are related to Karma Family, to Garuda, or Harpy.

    Their character is clarified in the Adi parva of the Mahabharata, where they say:

    We are everlasting lover and beloved. We never separate. We are eternally husband and wife; never do we become mother and father. No offspring is seen in our lap. We are lover and beloved ever-embracing. In between us we do not permit any third creature demanding affection. Our life is a life of perpetual pleasure.

    Kinnara (literally means "what human?" in Sanskrit) is related to the word Kimpurusha (meaning "what man?" i.e. hermaphrodite, half man-half woman).

    Manohara is a common story, but minor to absent in the tantras except in Sakya.

    The Thirteen Golden Dharmas of Sakya use Red deities, but, a special "offering thangka" uses gold color. The basket of dharmas is together in one place in this style.

    Beginning at the viewers top left and proceeding clockwise are Maitri Khecari, Naro Khechari, Rakta Ganapati, Indra Khechari, Takkiraja [with Manohara], donor figure, Rakta Jambhala, Simhamukha, Black Manjushri, Red Vasudhara [Bharati], Shabala Garuda, Tinuma, Gold Drop Kurukulla.

    So even while Manohara may be successful, it is still only implied that Bharati could have a consort. This means that a Red Jambhala is getting ready for her.

    On the "related" terma Four Arm Red or Rakta Jambhala, we can see a few things. The upper Amitayus consort is Orange, color of Long Life deities. There is a Black Hat or i. e. Karmapa on the left. Under him, there appears to be Takkiraja on the left, and, opposite him is actually a simple Padma Tara, over Green Tara and Ila.

    Perhaps in his male view, there isn't exactly a Manohara yet. Jambhala is watching or perhaps is behind what Takkiraja does.

    In Rinjung Lhantab or IWS, there is Red Jambhala and Bharati (IWS 319), then Four Arm Red Jambhala of the terma, and "Wealth deities", such as Mahalakshmi, Vasudhara of the Dharani, Gopali, and then Manohara (IWS 326) with Hook and Mongoose in Lalita:


    Om Manohara Hara, Om Ankusa Ankusa Hri Hri Hri Hum Hum Hum Phat

    She is evoked from Alakavati in front generation. This section of deities is not included in the older RG. As it appears to flow from the dharani, most of the preliminary Vasudharas also invoke her Cow Herder form.

    Ila with Gopali and Manohara:

    That sounds about right. Minor Vasudharas make Gopali, who is then counterpart to Manohara. Vasudhara is definitely up to something. First we depict her in some sort of infidelity with someone who takes a bit of tantric experience to muster.

    Takki and Manohara in their level of Three Reds:

    Manohara does this and I suppose you could say Increases the power of Hook, which means that more deities can be invited.

    When Humkara has conquered these Three Worlds where it is starting, he will go to Vajramrita Tantra.

    At that point you are probably moving towards Sahaja which is The Vessel which is Bharati. In the meantime there may also be such a thing as Yellow Jambhala with Vasudhara.

    If so they each carry a thing called Treasury Mice:

    If Manohara is first, you might be in "this" for a while, before there is a Bharati.

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    Default Re: Nirakara and Shentong Buddhism, Tara, Sadhanas, Sanskrit culture

    Gauris and Vajraraudris

    These are two retinue rings, the Gauris being almost universal in all the tantras, the others much more elusive. Or, almost. Gauris are always about the same, but change one to three members depending upon the lineage. There are two kinds of Vajraraudris--the Seven Jewels of Enlightenment, and the other shares members with a retinue only found in the NSP version of Samputa Tantra, which usually replaces the Gauris.

    The Gauris group is significant in Yogacara as they deal with the Eight Consciousnesses or Asta Vijnana and the Cemeteries. The Tri-kaya is Three Eight-spoked Wheels, and the Cemetery is usually another one stuck to it. In the Pitha system, it is just the last eight places. But the representative goddesses are diabolical, they may sometimes have animal heads but are not really the Tramen--Pisacis, they are more like wrathful counterparts of Offering Goddesses, therefor, Bodhisattvas. We will add a Cemetery system soon using these.

    Because Gauri and the others are called Pisaci in the Indian sources, it seems the Tramen are probably a different class, are probably the Cemetery deities as in the last eight sites of the Pithas. There is nothing that specifically suggests Pisacis are animal-headed like Tramen:

    Piśāca (पिशाच).—Description of a women of piśāca type;—A woman who has more or less than the usual number of fingers, is merciless during sexual acts, has the habits of roaming in gardens and fields, and of terrifying children, is treacherous, speaks with a double entendre, behaves abominably during sexual acts, has a hairy body and loud voice, and is fond of spiritous liquor and sexual indulgence, is said to have the nature of a piśāca.

    Piśāca (पिशाच) and the rest (yakṣa and rākṣasa) are lower classes of beings, ignorant of the law relating to what should and what should not be eaten; and it is they that eat meat (See the Manubhāṣya verse 11.95)

    In the Atharvaveda they are described as kravyād, ‘eaters of raw flesh’

    Agni--Kravyad is cremation.

    Generally it is a malevolent ghost, the devil. Tramen is a "hybrid". I am not sure that group has any correspondence in Generation Stage; and so while they say Pisacis are Tramen, we are going from their mantric identity led by Parnasabari. If it is obvious we are not talking about a person, they are a magical being, probably dwarfish and fat like their relatives, and Parnasabari:

    It is not clear to me whether she is the "Savari" of later tantras. It does seem understandable that there is a dharani system with Pisacis that pre-dates the written tantras considerably. Some of them have their own sadhanas, and some of them are Gauris.

    I have always been a bit confused about them because I could never figure out how the Gauris translation worked. If we take what I thought was their name in Tibetan:

    Kyerim (Skt. utpattikrama; Tib. བསྐྱེད་རིམ་, Wyl. bskyed rim) is the ‘generation’ or ‘development phase’ of practice—otherwise known as visualization practice—the goal of which is to purify our perception into the purity of our inherent nature.

    The most precise spelling I have found is "skyes":

    be born; be produced; be engendered

    Sogyal Rinpoche writes:

    The development stage consists of three phases, known as ‘the three samadhis’:

    The practice of Mahayoga begins with meditation on emptiness, the ‘samadhi of as-it-isness’ where all phenomena are realized as empty in their pure nature. This is the realization of absolute bodhichitta.

    From this state arise exuberant waves of compassion in what is known as the ‘samadhi of all-perceiving compassion’. This is the realization of relative bodhichitta.

    The union of these two is known as the causal samadhi, in which state arises a seed-syllable, from which rays of light emerge, purifying the entire environment of samsara and the beings within it into the nature of emptiness. One’s mind becomes this seed-syllable, which in turn transforms into the pure appearance of the deity. The mandala is seen as the palace of the deity. The form of the deity is the indivisible appearance of skilful means and wisdom. All experience is perceived as the retinue and activity of the deity. As one realizes that all perceptions, sounds and thoughts are the vajra-nature, one rests in this state of vajra dignity.

    Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche says:

    “To practise the Inner Tantra one should realize that everything is primordially pure. Accordingly all outer elements are not perceived as ordinary, but as the five female buddhas. The five aggregates within the body are also not perceived as ordinary, but as the five male buddhas. In the same way, the eight consciousnesses as well as their eight objects are perceived as the eight male and eight female bodhisattvas. In this way one will not only see the purity of all phenomena, but one will also perceive the ‘great evenness of samsara and nirvana’. So samsara is not considered to be something to be discarded and nirvana something to be achieved, but as the Great Union of purity and evenness. Such a state is not something which has to be fabricated anew; it has been there since the very beginning.

    The essence of kyerim, or Mahayoga is to recognize all appearances as the deity, all sounds as the mantra, and all thoughts as the dharmakaya. This is the most profound path, through which one can actualize all of the qualities of the body, speech and mind of the Buddha.”

    Allright. Mahayoga begins as a basic samadhi, and becomes profoundly divine. The Eight Objects are the Offering Goddesses and/or Gauris. But Kye Rim is not really the translation of "Gauri" because it means Generation Stage, which these goddesses are the main part of.

    Now I guess this is what RY Wiki is made of, and sometimes it may be better to have 3,000 pages on one page by looking in
    Rangjung Yeshe dictionary pdf:

    ke'u ri - female deity, female deity of fearful mien [JV]
    ke'u ri - fearful goddess [IW]
    ke'u ri - n. of a female deity [RY]
    ke'u ri brgyad - eight Gauris (Gauri, Cauri,
    Pramoha, Vetali, Pukkasi, Ghasmari,
    Smamani, Candali; ko'u ri, tso'u ri, pra
    mo, be'e ta li, pus ka si, kas ma ri, sme
    sha ni, tsan dha li), matrikas, female nature spirits found in wild and awesome
    places [JV]
    ke'u ri brgyad kyi khro mo - the 8 wrathful
    gauris {gnas kyi ma mo brgyad} [IW]

    So she or they are really spelled Keuri, which means Gauris, but is not quite her name, which can be spelled differently such as:

    ka ya go'u ri - Gayagauri (n. of a stupa in
    ancient Gaya in Bihar)

    Keurim is evidently equal in meaning to "the goddesses of Kye Rim", although I guess those are different words.

    In passing, I also sometimes thought the misspelled part of Guhyajnana's mantra might be related to Gaya; in RG, it has Dhuma Kaye, and IWS has something different that also doesn't make sense. If it is not Gaya, maybe it is:

    ka ye - 1) cry. 2) call. 3) oh! [RY]

    Anyway, the personal name is also spelled:

    ko'u ri - Gauri, 1 of ke'u ri brgyad [JV]

    Kouri is a member of eight wrathful females.

    dkar mo or White is not a sufficient name for a deity--could be Marici, Durga, or:

    gauri (purity of universal basis) [JV]

    Here are more spellings:

    ga'u ri ma brgyad - the eight Gaurimas

    This looks like they used "Ghori":

    gO ri brgyad - Eight Gauris [RY]

    Same as Mamos:

    gnas kyi ma mo brgyad - SA dkar mo [JV]

    gnas kyi ma mo brgyad - 1) {go rI ma}. 2)
    {tsO rI ma} 3) {pra mo ha} 4) {be ta lI}
    5) {puk ka sI} 6) {gha sma rI} 7) {sma
    sha nI} 8) {tsaN Da lI} the eight Mamos,
    [gaurima, caurima, pramoha, betali,
    pukkasi, ghasmari, smashani, candali]).
    Syn {gnas kyi khro mo chen mo
    brgyad} [RY]

    So there is not much confusion as to what they are, but it is confusing how to write it in Tibetan.

    Another confusing point is that Heruka does not really mean Blood Drinker:

    khrag thung - blood drinker, heruka drink blood [IW]

    It may be named for some of his forms, but, the original meaning is either a class of ghost that was not really used until "dakini" also entered the lexicon, or, in art, it just means a simple two-armed form. Most teachers will say his real meaning is based from the three syllables of his name. Some have said his etymology is in Ruci. Nothing in India really suggests it is blood, and that is why the system that uses lots of winged deities is not that much like Sarma. Those are more like extrapolations from Vajrakilaya.

    But Khrag thun ma is probably their way of writing Heruki.

    Evidently, the underlying Mahesvara subjugation myth has three main versions, which is the difference in STTS, Chakrasamvara, and Hevajra traditions. The Gauris seem to be copies of Bhairavis according to Davidson:

    In order to subdue this ungodly army, the Lord manifested his wrathful form and the eight goddesses, these latter
    having the same names as the eight consorts of the "Big
    Worldlies": Vetali, Gauri, Cauri, Ghasmari, PukkasI, Savari,
    Candali, and Dombini. The major retinue of Mahesvara was
    overcome by Heruka while Mahesvara himself and the seven
    remaining "Big Worldlies" and their consorts were overcome
    by the the eight Buddhist goddesses. The subsidary minions
    were all finally collected into the eight great charnel grounds at
    the periphery of the mandala. This being done, each of the Buddhist goddesses had the title "Adamantine" prefixed to her name,
    so that they become Vajra-Gauri, and so forth. The goddesses'
    names indicate their representative castes; Vajra-Ghasmari
    was the actual subjugatrix of Isana-Mahesvara, while Heruka
    converted Indra, Brahma, Mara, and the like: thus their positions as seats of the deities in the mandala. This arrangement is
    in accord with the explanations of the teachers of the tradition,
    and the chronicle is derived from the Tattvasamgraha, the Vajrasekhara, the Trailokyavijaya, and the Candraguhya-tilaka.

    For his own reasons, he just bound STTS, Vajrasekhara, and Trailokyavijaya into a unit, as we have done by following the symbolism.

    The "worldlies" they are consorts of are:

    'jig-rten chen po

    The first part translates Loka and is used in names of Avalokiteshvara and Trailokyavijaya.

    Woodroffe was able to come up with:

    Then again proceeding further inward, He came upon the daughters of the Rutras and of Rākṣasas, named respectively, Nyobyed-ma or “She who maddens,” Tagbyedma “She who frightens,” Dri-medma “The unsullied,” Kempama “She who dries one up,” Phorthogrna “She who bears the Cup” and Zhyongthogma the “bowl bearer.”

    The Glorious One united with these in the same manner, and from them, were born the eight Mātṛkās of the eight Sthānas (sacred places), known as Gaurīmā and so forth. These, too, possessed divine wisdom from their father and terrific features and shapes from their mothers.

    There are 24 Sthānas which are places of pilgrimage and eight great cemeteries making 32 in all. In each of these cemeteries there is a powerful Goddess also called Mamo, that is, Mātṛkā. These terrible Goddesses are..."nerve-leafs of the conch-shell mansion” (brain) respectively. These are the eight great Mātṛkās of the eight great Cemeteries, to whom prayer is made, that when forms are changed and entrance is made on the intermediate plane (Bardo), they may place the spirit on the clear light path of Radiance ['od sal]...

    ...Then going right into the innermost abode, he found that the Rutra had gone out in search of food, which consisted of human flesh and of Devas. Adopting the disguise of the Rutra, the Glorious One went in to the Consort of the Rutra, the Rākṣasi-Queen Krodheśvarī (Lady of wrath) in the same spirit as before, and blessed the act. By Krodheśvarī, He had male issue, Bhagavān Vajra-Heruka, with three faces and six hands, terrific to behold. Then the Glorious One, Hayagriva, and his divine Consort, Vajra-Vārāhī, each expressed their triumph by neighing and grunting thrice.

    Rudra's body is scattered in eight pieces and:

    Thus the eight Mātṛkās of the eight Sthānas, headed by Gaurimā and others: the eight natural Stūpas headed by Potala; the eight occult powers, which fascinate; the eight guardians (female), who enchant; the eight great trees, the eight great realm-protectors (Shing-hyong), the eight lakes, the eight great Nāga spirits, the eight clouds, and the eight great Dikpālas (Chyogskyong or Protectors of the Directions) as well as the eight great cemeteries originated.

    According to a Khmer Hevajra study, concerning the Gauris:

    There are eight of them in the eight points of the compass…They
    repeat a syllable of the Mantra of the four-faced deity and as each
    pada [syllable] is repeated they make a snapping sound with the finger
    and thumb of the left hand. By these means let him [the adept] think
    that he has expelled all mischievous spirits. Then in a flood of light
    issuing from the ‘hum’ in the heart, they proceed by stages to make the
    vajra-bhumi [ritual ground], next the wall, ceiling, ceiling curtain and
    network of arrows, and outside all a fence of divine flames.

    Occasionally the Gauris may be dispersed into something like Gatekeepers for a Mahakala Puja:



    Vetali is kind of her own thing, but, we can find why the three others have probably been selected.

    They are also gatekeepers in Dakarnava in a way we can only pull up by guessing:

    Caurī (चौरी) is also mentioned as the Ḍākinī of the northern gate in the Jñānacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15...The four gate Ḍākinīs [viz., Caurī] each has the same physical feature as the four Ḍākinīs starting with Lāmā.

    jñānaheruka is composed of multi-colored Apsarases such as Tilottama. Strangely, Gnosis is his lowest Element...but this lowest edge is so to speak the tip top of our Kaya Vak Citta, like a Vajrosnia or Pinnacle as a meeting-area. What are those Apsarases? Probably Jnanamudras.

    By Dakini Jala, this is just the end of the title that is usually referred to as Sarvabuddha Samayoga, or even just Samayoga. That is what the academics probably call it. It could be said to create the mantric being Dakini Jala Samvara, and it is this which becomes the principal male deity of Chakrasamvara Tantra. In fact we are working from Dakini Jala Samvara Rahasyam, i. e. the Secret Doctrine of Dakini Jala.

    As far as we can tell, it is the first exemplary use of Six Families, combined with Nine Moods--which did not really carry forward into current traditions. The intent of this teaching is imbued with the Gauris which as we can tell are kind of one-dimensional in the Zhitro or Hundred Peaceful and Wrathful Deities as ordinarily known. It is entirely possible, if not eminently likely, that they will be quite wrathful, but I don't think you can make a point that they are limited to this.

    Dakini Jala has a similar foundation to Zhitro, or Peaceful and Wrathful deities, and so in this case, Vajra Family is Wrathful, and the Gauris are more specifically the retinue of Heruka. This ring is changed or different in every family, the outer portions being constant.

    Dakini Jala Gauris are a little different than most retinues, they are not a ring of eight; there is an inner ring of four, and then the second ring has the others again in the cardinal directions, and then is filled with more deities in the intermediate directions (Capadharini, Khatvangadharini, Cakradharini, and Citrapatakadharini). They are listed in a standard casting order.

    These are a weird amalgamation of the Tri-shakti, Pramoha is invoked as Vajranarayani, Cauri as Vajracandesvari, and Ghasmari as Vajramahesvari. This is from Vajrajvalodaya which also calls Cauri a Khatvangi or Staff goddess. In the following form, she is like Tara Seventeen affecting the Three Worlds with her Feet.

    According to Anandagarbha,

    Gauri (E) is fair in colour and tranquil-faced. Eight-armed, she cuts off each of the four heads of Brahma by simultaneously firing arrows from four bows.

    Cauri (S) is red and fierce-faced. Wearing a chaplet of skulls she holds a goad-hook (ankusah) in her left hand at her heart with a skull-staff in the crook of her left arm resting on her left shoulder, and holds aloft an eight-spoked discuss with the middle finger of her right, pressing down on the three worlds with her left foot.

    Pramoha (W) is black and four-armed, with the face of Visnu's boar-incarnation (adivarahamukha, or, according to Humkaravajra, boar above and a red head below. Moreover, he has her raise with her two lower hands a wheel ('khor lo) rather than the earth). In her first left hand she holds a skull-bowl full of wine and in her first right a Vajra. With her other two hands she imitates the boar-incarnation by raising up the earth.

    Vetali (N) is white and joyful-faced. With her right hand she pours a stream of the nectar of immortality from a transparent skull-cup and with her left shows the Vajra banner gesture.

    Pukkasi [E] is multi-coloured (visvavarna) and dancing in a smoky cremation-ground full of strings of skulls and the like. In her right fist she clasps a five-pronged Vajra and in her left a wind-buffeted tendril from the wish-granting tree of paradise (kalpavrksalata).

    Candali (S) is dark blue and riding on a whirlwind (vatamandalika). In her right fist she clenches a Vajra-topped trident and with her left releases a whirlwind against her victims.

    Ghasmari (W) is black [?] and eating a corpse [?]. In her left hand she holds a blazing sacrificial fire-vessel (agnikunda-) and with her right grasps a sword. She also represents Samputa Tantra, or, i. e., this later synthesis must be derived from her influence, Secret of Food.

    Herukasamnibha (N), black like Heruka, holds a skull-cup [to her heart] in her left hand, with a skull-staff resting on her left shoulder, and a five-pronged Vajra in her right.

    What happens in the later editions of Gauri practice is that Pukkasi's multi-colored nature is swiped by Dombi, who goes in the final slot and offers her body to the principal deity, when they are all in a single ring of eight. The final deity in this version is guilty of being "just like" Heruka, who is the principal deity, so her intentions may be similar to Dombi's. Is she likely contiguous to Heruki, the Enlightenment Jewel of Dharma Investigation, probably so. That is what Mamaki is, or does, explain and guide us in Vastness, in the role of the Flask(s).

    At least four moods are readily apparent, tranquil, fierce, Boar faced probably intoxicated, and joyful. The impression I get is about producing Herukasamnibha. It does not say she is his consort here, and seems a bit more like "process of becoming". I do not see why you could not have a build-up like the stuff Vasudhara does. I can see why one might want to shorten her to Heruki.

    I have not looked heavily into why the commentators equate Ghasmari to the overall Samputa Tantra. But as we trace her back, we get Buddhist Mahesvari, who overpowered Isana Mahesvara. And then in her hands we find the rare Agni Kunda or Dharmodaya. The subject of Food is familiar enough, since in the Rahasya it is the Fifth Offering which corresponds to Void or Dissolution. Or:

    Kosa means "layer of mind." There are five layers of the human mind, in addition to the physical body, which—although technically not a kosa itself—is given the name Annamaya ("food") Kosa.

    Kamamaya Kosa (The Crude Mind)
    Manomaya Kosa (The Subtle Mind)
    The next three deeper layers of mind are collectively known as the Causal Mind. Causal sig - nifies that these layers are in the most direct contact with the Causal Consciousness from which the mind has evolved and within which it exists.

    Atimanasa Kosa (The first layer of the Causal Mind)
    Vijnanamaya Kosa (The second layer of the Causal Mind)
    Hiranyamaya Kosa (The most subtle layer of the Causal Mind).

    The translation of Dakini Jala says Ghasmari is "eating a corpse", but if we challenge this against the original, it actually says:

    mrta-carvanamukhi bhaksanadrstih

    and it may have to do more with catharsis:

    Mrta is dead, but the expression carvana is obscure, does not seem to mean "eating"; according to Rasa, or, the expression of emotion in theater:

    "Bhattauta, another scholar from Kashmir, in his treatise called Kavya Kautuka, also says that a dramatic presentation is not a mere physical occurrence. In witnessing a play we forget the actual perpetual experience of the individuals on the stage. The past impressions, memories, associations etc. become connected with the present experience. As a result, a new experience is created and this provides new types of pleasure and pains. This is technically known as rasvadana, camatkara, carvana."

    The next phrase, Bhaksana, is a deity's consumption of sacrificed food. Drsti has to do with eyes, view, wrong view, look, divine eye, or in theater, "has the look in her eye". Ghasmari's hands are busy, so, she does not seem to be eating a corpse the way some deities do, by hand. It sounds like she has a dramatic expression of eating the meditator's death. Mrta is not a noun, unless it means food obtained by begging, it is the adjective, dead, and the closest noun is mrtam, death, neither one of which is a body. If taken almost literally, it would say face of begging for food of catharsis, and satisfied look of receiving food offering. The closest term for "corpse" is Mrtaka; all other forms of "corpse use" abandon this word and use a form of Zava, or, occasionally, Kravya. Black corpse-eater seems to be a hasty translation, especially in context, they sound more like actresses, with expressions, gestures, and moods.

    drsti, "look in her eye", such as Gauri is:

    santadrstih (peaceful expression)

    I am not sure what it literally means, because I am more sure these phrases are the way they are expressing the Moods:

    santadrstih saumyamukha

    raudradrstimukha yajnopavitayogena

    adivarahamukha pramohadrstih

    harsamukhim mrtakotthapanadrstih

    nrtyamukhi nrtyadrstih

    mrtacarvanamukhi bhaksanadrstih

    herukarupa-samnibha, presumably having Heruka's mood

    Again taken from Genesis and Development.

    Vetali is laughing while having this look at death:

    Utthāpana (उत्थापन, “revival”) refers to “revival of form” and represents to the fourth of eighteen alchemical purification processes of mercury (mahārasa, rasendra or pārada). A religio-philosophic base was given to mercury-based alchemy in India. Mercury was looked upon as the essence of God Śiva, and sulphur as that of Goddess Pārvatī.

    Utthāpana is the “resurrection” of swooned mercury

    Ghasmari could be "tasting" death, or:

    Carvaṇa (चर्वण) refers to “relish”, according to the Mahānayaprakāśa by 12-century Kashmiri Śitikaṇṭha.—Accordingly, “By its unfolding, the will arises which generates (all things). It is emanation (sṛṣṭi). The supreme and the first, she is called the Pervasive One (vyāpinī). Whenever this will falls spontaneously on (any) external object, that relish (carvaṇa) (of its essential nature) is persistence and is said to be the Equal One (samanā). Assuming its own essential nature, (that same energy is) withdrawn because (of the ensuing) indifference (to the object once known and experienced) and the contraction of the expansion (in the previous phases). Thus, due to the power of the Transmental, withdrawal (saṃhāra) takes place”.

    Vetali is laughing about it, and Ghasmari appears to be an obssessed fiend of it. Since "she" is a part of one's inmost being, something in there has "assumed the essential nature" of death.

    Ghasmari is a Black or Dark Mahesvari with a Sword in her Musti--Fist and an Agni Kunda which is a Dharmodaya. This is not a name generally used in Buddhist sadhanas, but is readily understood as female Shiva:

    1) Maheśvarī (महेश्वरी).—The Goddess enshrined at Mahākāla;1 a name of Lalitā;2 Gā and Virūpā dropped out of the face of Maheśvara; also Rudrāṇī and Mahādevī; was Mati, Smṛti, and Buddhi; asked by Mahādeva to bring the world under control by Yoga.3

    1) Matsya-purāṇa 13. 41.
    2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 10. 7; 14. 3; 28. 89; 29. 102; 40. 2.
    3) Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 5.

    In the Asta Matrika of Katmandhu, she is:

    Māheśvarī or Rudrāyaṇī

    where one would probably say that Camunda is Candi.

    Vajramahesvari continues in Samputa Tantra. That is one reason Ghasmari could be considered the tantra's equivalent. But it is only as this mantra. She rephrases herself:

    bhakṣaya sarvaduṣṭān nirmatha hṛdayaṃ

    She may be eating evil (dusta), or, if evil is Food, the symbolic version as described, if eaten will place you in Dissolution.

    Her heart is composed of something which could be violent, sexual, or mantric (Fire by Friction):

    Nirmatha (निर्मथ).—(-nirmatha), adj. (to Sanskrit nir-math-, used of churning the ocean), churning, i.e. doing violence to (a figurative ocean): sarvasattvābhiniveśasāgara-nirmathānāṃ (bodhi- sattvānāṃ) Gaṇḍavyūha 188.23.

    2) The wood used for producing fire by friction.

    3) Rubbing two pieces of wood together to produce fire.

    Mātha (माथ).—[math-ghañ]

    1) Stirring, churning, shaking about.

    2) Killing, destruction.

    manmatha (मन्मथ).—m (S Stirrer or agitater of the heart.)

    That is multi-faceted in a way you can't argue against the facets.

    When calling Cauri Candesvari, it is a bit more difficult as it may also reflect a "consort of Shiva", but not necessarily here. Candisvara is with Gauri in Paramadya Tantra, and the obscure name Candesvari is not present there.

    This is explained in a footnote right under Rukmini = Vishnu consort (rather than Rupini) and Bhimadevi = Shiva consort (rather than Uma) in an alternate copy of Dakini Jala in the context where he is taking Hindu shaktis by force for enjoyment, in a motif that seems to intend replacing Raudra with Saumya. One is evidently also lifting Prasanta Devi from Prajapati, and Ratipriti from Kamadeva.

    In this Buddhist Tri-shakti, Candesvari has been taken in a context where she appears to over-write a Brahmani character. She perhaps is the result of Brahma's advice.

    This first Wrathful Cauri is Red with a Wheel, Hook, and Staff, in Tandava on the Three Worlds by way of implication. That is the same way you understand Gauri as having eight arms, by firing four bows.

    She has approximately one other specific appearance in Buddhism with Sixteen Arm Mahakala:

    [The sādhana further adds that Mahākāla should be surrounded by seven goddesses, three in the three cardinal points, (the fourth being occupied by his own Śakti) and the other four in the four corners.

    To the East is Mahāmāyā (consort of Maheśvara); To the South is Yamadūtī; To the West is Kāladūtī; The four corners are occupied by the following Goddesses: Kālikā (South-east); Carcikā (South-west); Caṇḍeśvarī (North-west); Kuliśeśvarī (North-east).

    Caṇḍeśvarī in the North-west corner has yellow complexion, carries in her two hands the grass and the deer, and stands in the ālīḍha attitude on a corpse. [...] These four deities are nude, and look terrible with bare fangs, three eyes and dishevelled hair. [...]

    By examination, Candesvari is not Mahesvari there, either.

    But she is still known:

    Candesvari aka Candika, Nepal

    Inscribed Indian figurine, ca. 7th-9th century.

    First name after Durga in her Puja.

    Modern title about her festival.

    From Keith Dowman's site:

    Ekajati: Cantishwari: this shrine is in visual range of Banepa. Ekajati and Devi Candika have one essence.

    It is one of the best sources of folklore, but not the most technical description of Vajrayogini or Mahakala tantra. So we are looking in a deep ocean wherein, ostensibly, Candika = Samadhi, Ekajati = Pramardani = Final Samadhi. If Ekajati is with Karma Family Tara, that is equivalent to being with Candi.

    Second line of 108 Names of Cinnamasta uses Candesvari.

    Attributed to the location Kalipitha.

    Mentioned before Carcika as a goddess of phallic rites and serpents at Hingulaja.

    Mentioned by Buhnemann with respect to its Bhairava mural.

    Her temple is the site of the Asta Matrika's daily Nityakarma or dance in a relatively interesting history. She is tall, and transforms into a snake.

    Candesvari is among many Candis in the battle for Sonitpur against Bana.

    At that point it is like the Pitha system, including Pracanda--Cinnamasta, along with the "Sonitpur resident" (Bhima), Kotari. So that would say "one essence" with various Candikas as aspects. But we do not want to lose the point of Vajra and Karma Families distinguishing them.

    Koṭarī (कोटरी, “naked”).—One of the names of the Goddess, Devī

    Koṭarī (कोटरी).—

    1) A naked woman


    Koṭarā (कोटरा).—An evil spirit and mother of Bāṇa. Appeared naked and with dishevelled hair before Kṛṣṇa who had deprived Bāṇa of his chariot.

    Koṭara (कोटर).—mn.

    (-raḥ-raṃ) The hollow of a tree. f. (-rī) 1. A name of the goddess Durga, 2. A naked woman: see koṭavī.

    Koṭavī (कोटवी).—f. (-vī) 1. A naked woman. 2. A name of Durga.

    a form of Durgā and mother of Bāṇa

    Name of the tutelar deity of the Daityas, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

    According to Wiki, there is a Durga form called:

    Hingula Devi (the red goddess or the Goddess of Hingula) and Kottari or Kotavi.

    Hinglaj, a town on the Makran coast in the Lasbela district of Balochistan

    Hiṅgūla (हिङ्गूल, “cinnabar”)

    Hiṅgula (हिङ्गुल) refers to “vermilion”, a preparation of mercury with sulphur.

    [that just revealed the sacred alchemy]

    According to a Pitha study, it is the site of the brain or third eye, and the corresponding Shiva is Bhima Locana.

    Pinga, Karburi, Kotari, Candi, Syama, Bhairavi, Bhima, Mahasuri meaning Maha Asura is a trand of her epithets. Rajasi, Rakta Danti, Skanda Mata, Vijaya follow.

    Candesvari is the legs in virgin worship.

    She is a recipient from Shiva of:

    K A K A C A N D l or K A K A C A N D E S V A R l or K A K A C A N D E S V A R l - M A T A (or -TANTRA)

    which is a Rasayana doctrine.

    Found in Nandavaram, Kurnaul.

    Cauri in her own name has a few things.

    Her name is perhaps not a fan:

    1) Caurī (चौरी):—[from caura] a f. a female thief. (heart-) captivator, [Kathāsaritsāgara vc, 54; civ, 168]

    Wrathful Cauri found in Thailand with a Peaceful Plough devi.

    In Hevajra, Cauri holds the Deer Sign (Moon), which sounds like our question about Hare Moon on Tara Eighteen. It also echoes her form with Mahakala.

    The basic Pancha Daka format makes them the Four Activities, such that there is White Gauri Hook, Yellow Cauri Noose, Red Vetali Chain, Green Ghasmari Bell.

    On Varahi, there is Cittavajra--Varnani--Heart, Vakvajra--Cauri--Throat, and Kayavajra--Vairocani--Navel. Cauri uses two Hums and Phat. So she also has the Humkara nature of Tara who hits the Three Worlds with her Feet. Now she is Varahi's Voice.

    Or see Short Chakrasamvara translation. This is--what?--makes her a mantric fulcrum between the two aspects of Cinnamasta.

    On Nairatma 228, Cauri is Sabda--Sound. In the Hevajra system, the Gauris mainly become arms of the Asta Vijnana or Eight Consciousnesses, such that Cauri is Sound and Ghasmari is Taste and so on. And so it is not surprising to find this, but, I was not aware that Cauri can overtake the Speech Mandala.

    Tara Seventeen uses her Feet like Cauri, and is related to Hum, and the same Deer symbol as with the next Tara.

    Tara Eighteen is usually Mayuri who is sometimes found using a Camara or Whisk, and it is entirely plausible to say there is such a thing as Cauri or Fan made of camara deer hair.

    Cauri and camara without further clarification are generally understood to be the same item, although a cauri could also be made of feathers. It may be a bit unusual to take an ordinary word and apply it to a goddess that can hardly be found using the item. She has the Hook or i. e., power of Manohara, and Staff, meaning she knows she has a consort and knows his mind and abilities, but he is somewhere else. She seems to be a Red emanation of Tathagata Family by displaying the Wheel; Red Varahi is the same way. Moreover, she is like a Manohara who has Accomplished her consort and been re-emanated by Vairocana. She has the raudra emotion, not the personal name of Shiva's consort. We have discussed it before and of course it is possible to be violent and beautiful at the same time. Is it "terrifying" or "terrific"? Even in English, terrific could mean terrible, it just means "very infleuntial, awe-inspiring". Ugra also means "fierce", as does "canda", so it is hard to say any of these mean bad, ugly (vikrita, aparupa, .

    Mitra's Jinasagara 62 comparatively "is centered" on Tathagata Family, although he is with Guhyajnana and the Four Dakinis and Messengers or Dutis of the Four Families, Vajra, Jewel, Lotus, and Karma. The following Eight Arm Padmanarttesvara 63 with Pandara has effectively "centered" Lotus Family and pushed Blue out to the West. His retinue includes Vilokini--E, female Vajrasattva--SE, Isvari--S, Ratnasattva--SW, Bhrkuti--W, Padmasattva--NW, Tara--N, Visva--NW. It says three of these are from Lotus Family in Dakini Jala, the first place to use a Six Family system. It then also has Four Offering Goddesses and the usual Gatekeepers.

    Gauris start in Samputa Tantra Chapter Two:

    The nature of the letters and colors visualized in the development stage,
    And the order and arrangement of the deities’ arms.

    With Two Arm Heruka:

    Alternatively, he should visualize him,
    With strong faith, as reddish-blue,
    Picturing him, the venerable one, in the sky above
    As being of adamantine origin and filled with great compassion.

    “He should worship him by means of visualizing
    The eight goddesses of offerings, adorned with all kinds of jewelry:
    Gaurī who is holding a moon disk,
    Caurī holding a sun disk, {2.3.18}

    So, they are similar to Offering Bodhisattvas. Interestingly, they are holding "Deer Sign" and "Egg":

    gaurī mṛgalāñchanadhartrī caurī mārtaṇḍabhājanaṃ

    Gauri and Cauri effectively just took over almost every thangka you will ever see, although Gauri is in the normally-male role of Moon. As actually parts of a trinity, it is as if they are passing something to Ghasmari farther along, and "Heruka-alike" is the recipient overall.

    The lord should be worshiped by these goddesses
    According to the elaborate ritual procedure for offering. {2.3.20}

    This roster is a bit like Hevajra's. The Gauris do an Offering Ceremony, and the situation proceeds:

    Then he should become the nature of all phenomena,
    Which is free from any reference.
    He should visualize the seed syllable between the moon and sun disks,
    Which emerge from the vowels and the consonants respectively. {2.3.21}

    “That cognition is precisely what is called the being
    Whose nature is the supreme joy.
    Forms of light identical to his own body emanate forth,
    Flooding the expanse of the sky. {2.3.22}

    These do Hook Rays and return, and then a new Heruka form arises:

    The lord frolics in a charnel ground,
    Surrounded by the eight goddesses.

    He has Four Arms representing the Four Joys. Now he is with Vajravarahi, surrounded by Eight Vajraraudris in Pleasant aspect.

    “The syllable hrīḥ of the goddesses
    Should then be placed on the petals.
    It should be joined with the four seed syllables
    That are the nature of the four types of offerings. {2.3.54}
    “It should be joined with the first sound (oṁ), and so forth,
    And placed on the female gatekeepers all around.
    Then the practitioner should insert
    His vajra into the bhaga. {2.3.55}

    Aside from the mandala, it appears to be sexual yoga. The way that reads, the Gauris start it, the scene changes, and then the Vajraraudris are there for the occasion.

    Samputa Tantra Chapter Three expects your Heruka to melt as directed in Samvarodaya. Subsequently, four Gauris give verses of imploring Heruka or Hevajra--Nairatma to arise and fulfill their desires. He comes back with Sixteen Arms and Nine Moods, using Shastras or Weapons, so this is not the typical skull or cup Hevajra. The Eight Gauris appear and are similar to, but not identical to, their Dakini Jala forms, and they express the Moods.

    Caurī is red in color,
    And is known to hold a wheel, a goad,
    A skull cup, and a ḍamaru drum.
    One should visualize her as divinely beautiful. {3.1.21}

    She has a Boar, and here, Pramoha has a Plough and a Tortoise. Cauri has added a Cup like Bharati.

    They have another appearance with Nairatma 3.3.1, they all have four arms and are beautiful.

    One should visualize a corpse there,
    Which is the seat for each of the fifteen goddesses. {3.3.4}
    “Above it there is a moon disk,
    And above the moon disk is the seed syllable;
    Resting upon that is a sun disk.
    From the meeting of these two disks comes great bliss. {3.3.5}
    “The moon is then transformed into the vowels
    And the sun into the consonants.
    The meeting of the sun and the moon
    Is also known to be Gaurī and the other goddesses. {3.3.6}
    “The moon represents mirror-like wisdom,
    And the sun, the wisdom of equality.
    The symbols of the chosen deity along with their seed syllables
    Are said to be discriminating wisdom.

    All the goddesses manifest in full
    From the nature of skillful means and wisdom.
    The vowels are wisdom and the consonants, means,
    Reflecting the distinction between the moon and sun. {3.3.11}
    “Since Gaurī and the others should appear one by one,
    Following the division of the colors,
    He should make every effort
    To correctly execute the maṇḍala procedure.

    This is what you follow and correctly execute:

    They are different colors, very wild,
    And adorned with the five mudrās.
    They have one face, four arms,
    Three eyes, and are divinely beautiful.

    If we can't assign the colors, we can be reasonably confident that they are better-looking than Gauris in most other tantras.

    Chapter Eight is mainly on mantras and uses several deity forms.

    8.124 (or 8.4.8) begins a Hrih-arisen Heruka followed by the Gauris from Dakini Jala ending on Herukasamnibha. These have fairly violent mantras and seed mantras such as:

    Of Caurī, Oṁ eṁ svāhā!
    Of Vetālī, Oṁ aiṁ svāhā!

    Those are exemplary because Aim is an almost-hidden Shakti styllable in Buddhism; further, Cauri is E which in Brahmi script is the downwards-pointing triangle, or Yoni or Dharmodaya. Cauri is related to Sound and Speech Mandala and this important syllable.

    In his Heart mantra, he is called Picuvajra.

    This chapter comes after the teaching of Transference and Jnanadakini, which is called Yoga Tantra, and begins by saluting Vajramrita and has its Vajraraudris.

    It has a special Hook for Transference:

    “One should attach the hook of Ghorā (kṣuṁ),
    And so forth, to the syllable of Vajrī (suṁ).
    One should imagine Ghorā pulling [the consciousness]
    Through the twenty-four places in the ten directions. {8.3.14}

    I am not sure if Ghori was Cauri; it is an Earth syllable, and Vajri is Sum--Sumeru--summit of Mt. Meru.

    Comm1 (643) explains, “‘Ghorā’ is at the navel as Caṇḍālī, who, because of incinerating all thoughts,
    is difficult to implement; thus it is the place that frightens those of meager
    inclination. Through the hook-like shape of its light rays . . .”

    Ghora is in the retinue at the same time as Candali, but, here, it is mainly using her Hook. Jnanadakini is an extremely powerful syllable Nyasa once you understand these deities.

    It gives Seven Syllable mantra for "the king of spells" (8.4.27), followed by those of Vairocani, Marici, Parnasabari, Amoghasiddhi, and Vajradakini. Followed by:

    “And further:

    “Oṁ, Vajraḍākinī! Hūṁ phaṭ svāhā!
    Oṁ, Ghorī! Hūṁ svāhā!
    Oṁ, Caṇḍālī! Hūṁ svāhā!
    Oṁ, Vetālī! Hūṁ svāhā! {8.4.38}

    “Please strike, kill, haul them over, and make them dance!”

    Those are actually four prongs of a vajra with Jnanadakini as the central.

    And then another Jnanadakini. There are other goddesses, but, she is probably the Isvari of this tantra.

    The following mantras are for "the retinue of Heruka", although they do not seem to be attached to a mandala. Since it refers to two Two Arm Herukas--one fond of charnel grounds, the other on a seat of Rudra--and his Seven Syllable form, that seems to be what they would match.

    The Gauris' original mantras in this section give Gauri the title Smasanavasini:

    oṁ vajraguhye siddhaparamayogeśvari kapāla mālādhāriṇi rudhirapriye
    śmaśānavāsini hūṁ phaṭ svāhā | gauryāḥ || 8.4.9 ||

    Candesvari is Cauri:

    oṁ vajracaṇḍeśvari khaṭvāṅgi mahāvajriṇi kapālamālāmakuṭe ākaḍḍa •
    ākaḍḍa sarva duṣṭa hṛdayam ākaḍḍa rulu rulu bhyo hūṁ phaṭ | cauryāḥ ||
    8.4.10 ||

    Guhyesvari is Pramoha:

    oṁ vajrāparājite paramaguhye kapālamālāvibhūṣite {C81r} sarvaduṣṭamohani
    priye ehi • ehi bhagavati vajraguhyeśvari bahu vividha veśadhāriṇi
    sarvaduṣṭa nivāriṇi hūṁ phaṭ | pramohāyāḥ || 8.4.11 ||

    Vetali with Akash syllable:

    oṁ vajravetāli kha kha khahi khahi sarvaduṣṭān vikṛtaveśadhāriṇi
    vikṛtālaṅkāra bhūṣite | hana hana daha daha paca paca mā vilamba mā
    vilamba samayam anusmara praveśaya maṇḍalamadhye utthāpaya sarvaṃ
    hūṁ hūṁ phaṭ | vetālyāḥ || 8.4.12 ||

    Guhyesvari is Pukkasi strongly related to Narta or Dance:

    oṁ ehi • ehi bhagavati vajraguhyeśvari bahuvividhaveśadhāriṇi
    sarvatathāgata puṣṭe samayam anusmara hana hana raṅga raṅga raṅgāpaya
    raṅgāpaya pūraya pūraya āviśa āviśa sarvabhūtān narta narta nartāpaya
    nartāpaya haḥ ha ha ha ha hūṁ hūṁ phaṭ | pukkasyāḥ || 8.4.13 ||

    Sula or Spear and Akarsa or Hook power are with Candali:

    oṁ vajraśūlāgri bhinda bhinda sarvaduṣṭahṛdayam ākarṣaya ākarṣaya hana
    hana daha daha nirmatha nirmatha māraya māraya mā vilamba mā vilamba
    samayam anusmara hūṁ hūṁ phaṭ | caṇḍālyāḥ || 8.4.14 ||

    Mahesvari is Ghasmari:

    oṁ vajramāheśvari haṁ haṁ haṁ haṁ haḥ rulu rulu bhyo hūṁ phaṭ |
    bhakṣaya sarvaduṣṭān nirmatha hṛdayaṃ hūṁ phaṭ svāhā | ghasmaryāḥ ||
    8.4.15 ||

    Sumbhani and Dipta--Lamp is Heruki:

    oṁ sumbhani dīptasamayavajre hūṁ phaṭ | herukasaṃnibhāyāḥ ||
    8.4.16 ||

    In Chapter Eight, they clearly copied the names and mantras from Dakini Jala, which makes it a bit odd that you might change one or two of them in the retinues previously described. It is probably because the Samputa is intended to prepare you for Hevajra Tantra, in which case retaining the names and mantras like this becomes the odd thing.

    According to one definition:

    In Sanskrit, the aura is called prabhamandala, "luminous circle," or diptachakra, "wheel of light."

    Vajrakilaya is a tantra that adds the base of the spine center; his consort is Diptacakra.

    In the Pitha system, base of the spine is inhabited by:

    Cakravegā has for her husband the hero (vīra) named Mahābala.

    Vega, high power.

    This begins a trend of a consort appearing lighter blue.

    Sumbhani--Nadir plus Dipta would seem to have this meaning for "Heruka-alike".

    Chapter Nine presumes you can access Five Gnoses and make Nectar:

    Should one wish these activities to occur incessantly,
    One should please all the yoginīs,
    But without sexual addiction;
    One should not become attached to bliss.

    and then you offer it to deities including Rudra and his consorts, including yoginī Śūlakālī, and several others which are incorporated into Pithas elsewhere. These are invoked in the wilderness, in "places all around", followed by "yoginis dwelling in the villages" who are not named.

    and then:

    He should also summon the five ḍākinīs
    Of the five great elements who accomplish every type of activity, {9.2.21}
    “And the great queen of the maṇḍala of the union,
    Along with the mighty vajra lord.
    In the great assembly of the tathāgatas
    She is the stainless emanation from the union.

    “By the command of the vajra queen [Vajra Gharvi, et. al.], he should invoke all of them
    from all their respective places.

    The original reads slightly differently; Five Dakinis of the Mahatattva:

    pañcaḍākinī mahātattva

    Queen (Rajni) of the Yoga Mandala with Vajra Isvara Prabhu:

    yogamaṇḍalamahārājñī vajreśvaraprabhus

    Body of All Tathagatas:

    tathāgatamahākāye nirañja yogasṛṣṭikā

    And "vajra queen" is Vajra Isvari:


    The commentaries flex on this:

    Comm1 (687) has the “great queens,” in the plural,
    referring to a few sets of four goddess, such as “Pukkasī and so forth,”
    whereas it treats “the vajra ladies” (instead of “the vajra lord”) also in the
    plural, as referring to the four goddesses, “the Horse Faced One,” and so
    forth. Comm2 (1027) has this whole verse, including the second two lines
    and even the “vajra queen” in the next verse, as referring to the “five queens
    of the maṇḍala: the main vajra lady, Samantabhadrī; the body of the
    tathāgata, Locanā; the stainless (nirāmaya), Māmakī; the bestower,
    Pāṇḍaravāsinī; and the vajra queen (from the next verse), Tārā.”

    This is before Purifying the Nectar with an additional Three Syllables prior to personal use. This is also something ultra important I did not know about when I did it. This means Bharati or Sahaja, i. e. the admixture of white and red Bodhicitta which makes Mercury. That even sounds poisonous. And it actually is that way without a special Muttering for it.

    Everything prior, from an initial mixture, to a hot one, to a hot one that has melted Heruka, is mostly under the aegis of Taste or Rasayana where it is Orange and not really dangerous and the way the Samputa talks about it is "you fill their mouths with it". Before we can exactly have a keg party, we have to get a drop, to a few drops, and so on, and works more like an alchemy lab, Rasayana. This is like the One Taste of Nine Tastes. Something like nectars characterized by one or other of the Moods. Until someone is actually able to manifest the cool silvery Nectar of Immortality, just about anything starting from initial results of Pranayama falls in here.

    The Reality Source, Dharmodaya, or Triangle is at first White and in the presence of Locana and Prajnaparamita related to Gaganaganja Samadhi. Then it is Red and Inverted and in the hands of Dharmadhatu Vajra, the Object or Bodhisattva of the Sixth principle. Then it becomes fiery in the hands of Ghasmari. This becomes equivalent to the inner version in the Navel. Ghasmari is similar to the digestive fire of Agni. Ghasmari is the Purified Sixth Element. So, when we are looking for a heat source, why is the triangle red and fire, etc., then in a yoga sense, Ghasmari is very appropriate.


    These are a particular ring that in the main example, become the Seven Jewels of Enlightenment with Vajradaka.

    The six similar goddesses from Samputa Tantra are:

    Vajraraudri, Vajrabimba [Ekajati], Ragavajra [Mahamaya in Vajradaka 1.16], Vajrasaumya, Vajrayakshi, Vajradakini

    The main difference from Vajradaka's Jewels of Enlightenment is that these are Pleasant or Saumya, and we see the presence of Vajrasaumya, who does not have a direct equivalent in the wrathful Vajradaka format. Vajraraudri and Vajradakini are the same, Raga expresses Lotus Family, Ekajati is almost certainly in the place of Heruki, we could quickly make a case that a Yakshi is like a Bhairavi, and would be left with Saumya--Moon in place of Bhaskari--Sun. I am not sure if that is what is supposed to happen here. I am sure if we pursue the scaling ladder of Samadhi that it goes in the domain of Candi, and that Samadhi intensified into a Jewel of Enlightenment is defined as Vajraraudri. There is nothing after that. Just the combination.

    In Samputa Chapter Two, these Raudri goddesses are pleasant, but, "of different colors". In Chapter Three, the colors just match the directions as if it were Akshobhya-centered, so White Vajraraudri in the East, followed by yellow, red, and green, and then the corner deities are blends, such that the Agni occupant is:

    In the southeast, yellow and red Vajraḍākinī

    Exactly why this circle is completed by Sabda and Prithvi has not even been questioned. In Tibetan, Yakshi is Nojinma, Raudri is Dragmo. Saumya is Zhi ba mo; Bimba is Vajravisva or rdo rje gzugs brnyan. Ragavajra is from the same style as Sabdavajra, and is listed as a deity personifying the true nature of the faculty of taste.

    M51 in Mitra's Mandalas is Maitri's Seven Syllable deity, which the author did not know also has thangkas--there is at least one from the 1100s and the one at Tibet House--nor did he try to give Sanskrit names of its retinue. Two of them are identical to these--Dragmo (Raudri) and Dorje Khandro (Vajradakini). Jigs byed ma is separate (Bhima or Bhairavi). He also lists Krag thun ma, Drag gtum ma, and sNan byed ma.

    If we stuck to the Tibetan, we would probably conclude that the Vajraraudris as Jewels of Enlightenment are not quite the same as the retinue used in Samputa, perhaps most obviously because Vajraraudri is Pleasant. Her function is elusive and indeterminate, unless she is simply carrying forward the "pleasing to the mind" role so the practitioner does not swerve from the thought of enlightenment. If then it is possible Prithvi means Touch:

    rdo rje sa

    then it is possible Bimba could be "Sight Object". And then it would just be Four Sense Objects intermingled with Vajraraudri, Vajrasaumya, Vajra Yaksi, and Vajradakini.

    It certainly means Earth.

    IWS 70 identifies his consort (Gegmo) as Lasya. Its retinue includes He ru ka ma (Blue Heruka/Heruki), Jigs ma (Yellow Bhima), Dragmo (Red Rudrani), dBan byed ma (Green), rNam [lhas] ma (Smoky), and White Vajradakini. This does not quite match the Japanese version above. This is Mitra's Avalokiteshvara, who is in an aspect of Vajradaka, or, this retinue is part of that sadhana. And so those Sanskrit originals are definitive and give their assignments. It is kind of up to the Tibetan to figure how they fit.

    RG 23 is the same Heruka Avalokiteshvara, using Blue Herukama, Yellow Jigma, Red Dragmo, Green Wang jema, Smoky Nam ta ma, and White Vajradakini. In this case, they are seated.

    In both texts, the following Sahaja Heruka is Picuvajra.

    For the Green name:

    rdo rje dban byed pa

    It has a meaning of Power, similar to Wang Je ma. and is also the power of the Sixth Heaven:

    mastery over other's creations heaven

    i. e. is the "power or mastery", with "others' creations" being a different Tibetan word.

    The Smoky name--kind of fuzzed out--is probably:

    rnam mkhas ma

    clever and wise woman [JV]

    learned woman [IW]

    rnam mkhas and "Nam ta" probably both boil down to the more familiar Namkha.

    In the Bön and Vajrayana Buddhist traditions, a namkha is constructed as the temporary dwelling, or temenos, for a deity during ritual practice. The structure of the namkha is traditionally made with colored thread symbolic of the elements (blue, green, red, white, and yellow; space, air, fire, water, and earth respectively ), the sequence, and the shape of the namkha differing for each deity or yidam. The namkha is placed on the practitioner's altar or shrine and an image of the deity may be placed beneath. The namkha is often accompanied in rites and ritual workings with the tantric and shamanic tool, the phurba. Pearlman (2002: p. 18) states how Padmasambhava consecrated the land for the building of Samye Monastery by the enactment of the rite of the Vajrakilaya dance which employed namkha to capture malevolent spirits and thoughtforms.

    Ngak’chang Rinpoche comments: "These threads symbolise the ‘thread’ that is the literal meaning of the word ‘tantra’ and describe the manner in which each point in time and space is the warp and weft of the loom of experiential / existential emptiness."

    Aro says:

    ‘Namkha’ is the Tibetan word that means ‘sky’, and also ‘space’, ‘sphere’, or ‘dimension’. In Tantra, we talk of the ‘skies’ of the five elements: earth, water, fire, air and space.

    Each element is a sky (dimension) of meaning, and each element is associated with an emotional confusion and a liberated energy. Weaving ‘skies’ of coloured wool links our energy with the energy of the elements, through the Tantric craft of sound and vision. The beauty of the sky weaving (empowered through mantra) magnetises personal ‘demons’ (neuroses, fears and obsessions); and releases them within the skies of each element.

    There is a Bon sky goddess Kaladugmo (mkhah.la.gdug.mo) or Ma Namkha (ma.nams.mkha) or 'Mother Sky'.
    She is in a famous Refuge Prayer that saved Sakya Monastery.

    The first line usually changes her nature and associates her with the number infinity:

    All mother sentient beings as infinite as space

    Palyul Translation:

    I and motherly sentient beings, equal to space,

    If it is one singular mother--Ma, and she is Equal to Infinite Space, this might be a better translation, something like Mother Khasama.

    As to whether the Vajraraudris of Samputa are the Seven Jewels retinue, it seems unlikely. At this point, it is only clear they share two members. The Jewels of Enlightenment are above and beyond sensory transformations which are being done with deities such as Raga, Sabda, etc. in Samputa. Chances are, these are incidental to the Gauris, who are probably more of active agents.

    Samputa Vajraraudris have the appearance of:


    Bimba, the South goddess, has a Sula--Spear and Noose.

    The fourth goddess is drawn in the West, having a "flame thrower":


    They are drawn in an unusual order, and have skullcups of varying contents, semen, blood, water, fat, substances (Dravya). This last one also has a Kalasa--Pitcher.

    “The syllable hrīḥ of the goddesses
    Should then be placed on the petals.
    It should be joined with the four seed syllables
    That are the nature of the four types of offerings. {2.3.54}
    “It should be joined with the first sound (oṁ), and so forth,
    And placed on the female gatekeepers all around.
    Then the practitioner should insert
    His vajra into the bhaga. {2.3.55}

    In Chapter Three, they make a more standard appearance in a large, vivid mandala.

    3.4.38 is White Six Arm Vajrasattva in response to the subject:

    “What, O Blessed One, are the secret vajra and lotus families?”

    They are simply described as Tathagatas and Goddesses, and then you are abruptly given a visualization without any further explanation. In the second ring, there is:

    “White Raudrī in the east,
    Yellow Vajrabimbā in the south,
    Red Rāgavajrā in the west,
    And green Vajrasaumyā in the north. {3.4.48}
    “In the northeast there is white and yellow Vajrayakṣī;
    In the southeast, yellow and red Vajraḍākinī;
    In the southwest, red and blue Śabdavajrā;
    And in the northwest, green and white Pṛthivīvajrā. {3.4.49}

    One can find Hevajra mandalas where an example such as Green and White Prithvi is apparent; but only if drawn according to Abhayakaragupta--NSP.

    In Chapter Seven, Mamaki is used as a basket of Guhyamantra, while Cauri gains a certain feature:

    In the pleasant maṇḍala with three corners
    Is the secret lotus, Māmakī. {7.3.2}

    Now I will give you the auxiliary heart mantra. One should take the second
    letter of the seventh group (ra), join it with Vajraḍākinī (u)...Caurī (e), who is the
    highest boon. {7.3.6} [F.129.a]

    There is a sudden praise of Locana and mantra of Vairocani. He then explains more Mamaki and that she is the consort of Ratnasambhava.

    After Pandara it says:

    Mahākoṣavatī always generates energy,
    Which fosters the Dharma
    Merely by reciting the mantra,
    Similar to the words of Vāgvajra. {7.3.13}
    “Oṁ, Vajradharma hrīḥ! Svāhā

    There are no Gauris in this assembly.

    Pandara's energy is nearly meaningless unless we take into account Kosa as discussed earlier.

    It has followed a standard casting order, whereas Chapter Two has the same list, but does it strangely:

    First, Second--South, Third--North, Fourth--West, Fifth--Northeast, Sixth--Northwest, Seventh--Southwest, Eighth--Southeast.

    “There is Vajraraudrī
    And also Vajrabimbā.
    Vajrarāgī is the third
    And Vajrasaumyā the fourth. {2.3.58}
    “The fifth is Vajrayakṣī
    And the sixth Vajraḍākinī.
    The seventh is Śabdavajrā
    And Pṛthvīvajrā is the eighth.” {2.3.59}

    And so it is hard to say if Vajradakini is in the Southeast and you draw her last, or, if it means the last one, Prithvi, went there. That sounds unusual, but this is written weirdly and separated.

    The Samputa is rather obscure here, since this is a unique ring that does not seem to match anything. Vajraraudri's only known appearance is in the Seven Jewels of Enlightenment. This Seven Syllable deity is known here, in Chapter Eight, where he is closest to the Dakini Jala Gauris. Vajrasattva's retinue has the Vararaudris in "letter" form; Heruka has the Gauris as full mantras; Nairatma (Mitra 10) mixes them, changes a little bit and uses Gauri twice. There are multiple Hevajras (Mitra 14-17) and Herukas with only their own mantras. According to the author, NSP states that for Mitra 15-18, the Gauris are replaced by Vajraraudris. The last of the Samputa mantra males is Seven Syllable deity (M51). He is followed by Vairocani. This meeting point is what we are studying and practicing.

    Some of Mitra's mandalas at Tibet House are linked but unidentified. The work on these is production grade probably for this purpose. You cannot miss Seven Syllable deity which is a rather large image:

    Lasya is supposed to be red, but she is lighter blue like Diptacakra.

    Circle of Bliss explains Samputa Vajrasattva's retinue (Vajravali 3) as eight Jinas and Prajnas, then eight dakinis:

    Vajrachandi, Vajrarupini, Ragavajri, Vajrashanti, then Vajrayakshi, Vajradakini, Sabdavajri, and Vajrabhumi.

    Here they have Candi instead of Rudrani; NSP 3 says Vajraraudri. They do not seem to be equivalents, because in Buddhism, they are different Families, and in Hinduism, Rudrani is the consort of Shiva, Candi is not.

    M27 is Vajrajvalanalarka, the last of the Sarvadurgati Parishodhana mandalas. These are rare. Mitra includes Paramadya and Vajramrita, he has pocketed quite a few things missing elsewhere. That positions the really big blaze above and beyond Trailokyavijaya, meaning Humkara has "changed" the wrathful males. Actually I am a bit off here:

    Vajrajvalana (वज्रज्वलन):—[=vajra-jvalana] [from vajra > vaj] n. thunder-flash, lightning, [Kāmandakīya-nītisāra]

    Analārka (अनलार्क) is another name for Vighnāntaka.

    Vajrajvālānalārka (वज्रज्वालानलार्क) is another name for Ṭakkirāja.

    Whereas the long form of the name is equivalent to Encircling Blaze of a mandala:

    Encircling blaze: Om vajrajvalanalarka hum hum hum

    It is the final component of protection, used by Seven Syllable Vajradaka in a way that caught my attention, since a lot of mandalas lack Vitana--Curtains, but, this one has in addition, Sarajala or Arrow Shield.

    Elizabeth English calls him the Head of Vajra Family and has an identical list. Jamgon Kongtrul uses it.

    All of the mandala components are the accumulation of Thirty-seven point Enlightenment, and so you normally find the Seven Jewels of Enlightenment in their ordinary symbols, Horse, Minister, etc. The protective items, however, are this strand of things that has grown to include Ground (Vajrasattva), Fence (Sukla Tara), Canopy (Panjara), Curtains, Arrow Shield, Encircling Blaze. If this last item is buried at the end of Sarvadurgati practices, it is something more than a picture and symbol.

    Gray describes his form as a footnote to Vajrapani's dominion in the planes:

    In the Paranirmitavaiavartin [heaven] he disciplined criminals as the Fierce One Trailokyavijaya; the obstacle demons
    {vinayakam} were disciplied in the Nirmanarati [heaven]
    by the Fierce One Vajrajvalanalarka, in Tusita by Vajragarbha, in the Yama [heaven] by the Fierce One Vajrahumkara, and on the peak of Sumeru by Vajrapani. Then
    Mahavajradhara established himself as the manifestation
    body Sri Heruka, who is inseparable from the Four Bodies
    [of a buddha]. Vairocana [offered him his] palace which is
    the mandala with perfected wheels. Amitabha [offered him]
    the vase of nectar in a brimming skull bowl. Amoghasiddhi worshipped him with the gods [who consecrate]
    the sense media and the blessing goddesses. Through the
    complete gnosis of mantra that is a glorious treasure, Aksobhya consecrated him with his vajra, [giving him] unexcelled authority as Lord of the Clan. Vajrasattva taught
    him the supreme bliss of the play of passion in the form of
    the fierce Samvara who completely embodies the nine
    dramatic sentiments.

    There was a previous origination of this gnosis in the krtayuga of the first eon.

    That was taken over by Bhairava and Kalaratri, until Vajrapani cleared it in this eon. Practice is the reverse, you climb Mt. Meru first where there is Vajrapani Abhisekha, and then you are in the planes, starting as Humkara in Yama Heaven. Then according to this, Trailokyavijaya would be a higher form of him, and so by that name the mandala shows union. In between is Vajragarbha, the interlocutor in many tantras generally understood as Mantra Wheel, and then what is a very serious Six Arm Form, Vajrajvalanalarka. The Grounds of Meru have, so to speak, been built up to Blaze. The nature of his plane means you get whatever you want. The highest plane of Trailokyavijaya is a bit weird because it means that others bring and offer you whatever you want. And so it is a lot like looking at the human ego in terms of this.

    If a website would perhaps replace "also known as" with something like, a different form, because...

    An inscribed Trailokyavijaya and Eight Mahadevas shows there is not just a "the" Trailokyavijaya mandala. According to a Nepalese mural, it should be the Bhairavas. This one makes a bit of sense in the light of the Vajraraudris:

    Bhairavas and saktis are here depicted in peaceful mode, but the Bhairavas' residences are usually cremation grounds. Here, then, Trailokyavijaya is seen in his function as transmogrifier of the wrathful forms of Siva perceived as dynamic aspects of the divine ego.

    It is noted this rare deity is found repeatedly here in these murals, where he is considered an aspect of Vairocana. That is because he has a complex parallel relationship with Acala. We could say it appears that Candamaharoshana Vajrapani emanates Acalas of other families; it is more like a state or power level, immovable, meaning Acala or Trailokyavijaya establish the "boundaries" (Sima). Regardless of family, it appears accurate to say that Trailokyavijaya is the Six Arm Form of Humkara.

    If one can reach the plane of Trailokyavijaya, what is above that is Akanistha or Seventh Heaven. Roughly put, it becomes the meditations of Completion Stage. Here, one would find, for instance, those Apsarases of Dakarnava. "Above" the Akanistha is Formlessness.

    Humkara uses about the same gesture as Vajrasattva and Vajradhara, but, he is almost always standing. There are not a lot of representations of him, but, the medieval mandalas show us something the text does not say--Union:

    We would also say it is not a simple Heruka form.

    In fact it looks like this outstanding 1600s Sakya Khyenri style which the site says is from Abhidhana Tantra, although it is probably him in Vajramrita Tantra; they give one as a source for the other:

    Given the previous information, the way we will do this on a dharani basis is because Mitra's M51 is called Trailokyavijaya mandala, but, what it means is Chapter Two of STTS, which is the "goddess Vajradhatu mandala" in the first post. Yes, it looks like he "did something" to the Wrathful Ones. And, he "sounds" a lot like Tara's song.

    The art site says he can have various numbers of arms; although his oldest representation must be this Indian stone:

    As something that may be almost too much resource, 900 pages of Padmavajra's Hevajra has Gauri over a hundred times. But it showed up.
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    Default Re: Nirakara and Shentong Buddhism, Tara, Sadhanas, Sanskrit culture

    Ishvari, Gauris, Vajrayogini, Lamas, and Carcika

    It is unlikely we will find images of Gauris meeting Anandagarbha's description for Dakini Jala. The art site barely has anything about it, but says that Chakrasamvara is a composite, using Dakini Jala [Toh 366] and Guhyasamaja [Toh 422].

    Aside from one thangka, their only known source is a modern compilation of IWS and a few more things.

    Publication: Tibetan Mandalas of the Tantra-Samuccaya (Gyu de kun tu)

    Tibetan Mandalas (Vajravali and Tantra-Samuccaya)
    Prof. Dr. Raghu Vira and Prof. Dr. Lokesh Chandra
    International Academy of Indian Culture. New Delhi, India, 1995.

    The set takes eleven pages to list. It was intended to be comprehensive, complete, all the lineages they could muster up.

    What they say about a 1500s mandala at the Rubin:

    Buddhasamayoga (Tibetan: sang gye nyam jor. English: Secret Union of the Enlightened One) arising from the tantra of the same name.

    Wrathful in appearance, blue in colour, he has four faces and eight hands. The first pair embrace the consort Ishvari. In a dancing posture atop a corpse he stands in the center of a lotus surrounded by eight seated figures of various colour. Four further attendants and four door guardians sit outside of that.

    At the four corners of the top and bottom are sixteen seated buddha figures all identical in appearance.

    Well, it is "almost" the same name, depending on how much of it you want to write. We can guess it could be a specific name for "form of Heruka", since all of the related tantras have him changing around while doing different things, and only a few fragments of this tantra are available to us.

    It has the goddess, Ishvari, who is the Queen of the rite, which suggests the male is some similar aspect of Heruka. If so, here are Heruka and Ishvari, but not with the Gauris:

    That would make one tend to think, there probably is an individual Heruka track in Dakini Jala, and we can only say for sure that the Gauris are in a particular kind of Heruka mandala related to Six Families.

    Above, those are the Buddhas and Prajnas, such as Red Amitabha and Pandara. Here, we can see compared to most mandalas where Yellow is Jewel Family in the South, who receive a noticeable Blue Mamaki--now the South is Blue and appears to have received Yellow Mamaki--or, more likely, it is an Offering Goddess resembling her. This also has Tramen Gatekeepers, who then make it seem like White in the East was also some kind of switch. Its Offering Goddess is still White. The east has one unit and the south has two units of alteration from the resident color.

    From the Samuccaya, there are two line drawing mandalas related to this, Sarvabuddhasamayoga, and Sanksiptakula Sarva-buddhasamayoga Vajrasattva. We cannot yet tell what these are supposed to be, it is like Paramadya, it is not a "the" mandala, because the tantra could contain any number of them. In the contents of all tantras, these mandalas are after Yamari and Vajrabhairava, prior to Chakrasamvara and Vajrayogini.

    Allright. We have in mind a Generation Stage similar to Krsna Yamari, which is an obvious precursor, here, combined with things that are intended to cause bonds with the practices that are inside Chakrasamvara, rather than copying its full practice as a non-initiate. The somewhat missing "root Samvara" or Dakini Jala occupies this territory.

    In some cases these drawings are useful, such as when we say Thirty-seven Point Enlightenment, or Kaya Vak Citta. Vajrayogini is surrounded by the Four Dakinis, then rings of eight goddesses in rings for Kaya, Vak, and Citta, and then the ring of Cemeteries (i. e. Gauris) appears exterior to the others. The Hexagram is for the Armor Goddesses, who, like the Dakinis, are frequently only shown as Nectar Vases or Bliss Whorls.

    Before posting it, let us have it fall in the appropriate place in something called Nastika Notes. This site is an Indian guy who is very knowledgeable about his Sanskrit heritage. He continuously uses the term Astika which is like saying it is orthodox and probably has continuous Agni Fires for 3,000 years and so on. By the opposite term Nastika, he is saying the Buddhists have taken the deities, but not god. Generally it is understood as "idol worshipper", as if the thangkas and statues were called god and worshipped. That is not quite what we are doing. Although this is written by a critic who frames it as Buddhist tantra being a shill copy of Shaivite tantra, almost everything he is saying is true:

    This is better understood by considering it in the context of the fundamentals of the mantra-shAstra expounded in the saMpuTa tantra. One way of understanding the first kArikA is that the root cause of the experience of the worlds is due that great lady, the goddess of the system (sparshavajrA), who is the experiential goddess of akShobhya [The Rubin museum in navyarkapura in krau~nchadvIpa has an extraordinary painting of akShobhya conjoined with sparshavajrA that is worth seeing]. She is depicted as the vowel ‘e’, which in the brAhmi script (or nAgarI) has the shape of the yonI by which she is symbolized. Of course, this is also the symbolism behind ‘e’ in shrIvidyA’s first kUTa. The virAma kShaNa appears to indicate that instant of the consonantal pause, or the hiatus where the “pure experience” is manifest. A full explanation for this not easy to render in words because it requires, in addition to a knowledge of texts of the Indic tradition, a certain gnosis shared only by mantra-shAstra insiders.

    That is something like a literal fact. It is like saying Yoga is relatively pointless unless one has an interest in Samadhi and that Prana might be real. Because that is the key ingredient for mantra in our school, his, or wherever, gnosis as Atma Vidya as experience of the effects is a mystery to novices everywhere. It is a realization of Vidyadharas anywhere. We are saying they have wisdom, and Buddha's doctrine has Complete Wisdom. Because the Six Yogas are almost a mirror of Patanjali's, and because it has subsystems that are not known to exist other places, that is why the practice of Pranayama, the Third Yoga, is significant. The ordinary person cannot really do Dharana of Vajrayogini when we look into what that state consists of. At that point you have the Pithas and you go from Pracanda in the forehead to Dissolutions. It is, however, possible we could develop Pranayama, which barely has anything to do with physical breath.

    The kAlikA purANa 67.69 states that heruka was also worshiped in a li~Nga in a shmashAna at kAmAkhya. I was informed by the vaiShNava that in the original sarva-buddha-samAyoga-DAkinI-jAla-shambara, which is a precursor of the yoginI-tantra category, heruka is described as a similar shmashAna deity who fights against mAra-s and such demons.

    Well, that is not a really difficult piece of information, but, as to why that specific title might be uttered by a Vaisnava in modern times is outright bizarre.

    The insight says it is almost certainly older than all of the other advanced tantras:

    Another peculiar tantra that arose around the same time as the yogottara tantra-s was the sarva-buddha-samAyoga-DAkinI-jAla-shambara. This text had the central deities of the maNDala as emanations of the buddha-s engaged in actual maithuna with their praj~nA-s and surrounded by a kula of DAkinI-s. This tantra was to be the precursor of the final group of tantra-s the yoginI tantra-s. I am of the opinion that a version of this text and examples of the yogottara tantra-s (see below) were in place by 650 CE.

    Thus, they are in sense reminiscent of the saMvartAmaNDala sUtra-s with which the Astika kubjikA tantra-s, like kubjikA-mata or ShaTsAhasra saMhitA, open.

    ‘e’ is verily the lady praj~nA (the nAstika equivalent of shakti or dUtI) having the nature [or of the form] of the instant of the pause and the like [virAma=the consonantal end like k or g without a vowel]; this root is pointed out as [said to be] the experience [perception] in the three worlds.

    vajrapANi who is mentioned as becoming brahmA through the vajra body, maheshvara through the vajra speech and viShNu of great opulence through the vajra mind

    In removing Mahesvara and his emanations:

    To take them out, vajradhara emanated 62 beings headed by heruka and his consorts, including mahAsukhadevI-s to counter the umA-s and samayadevI-s to counter the mAtR^ikA-s. They started behaving like maheshvara and his gaNa-s, wearing tiger-skins, osseous ornaments, imbibing blood and holding gaNa-chakra-s in crematoria. Then they absorbed the consciousness of rudra and his gaNa-s, so that rudra would become the tathAgata of ash in the future, and sat on the preta-s of their counterparts and removed the duality between them. The 24 bhairava-s are usually stationed in 3 circles of 8 each around the central deity of the heruka maNDala-s. Likewise, they may also be surrounded by 8 DAkinI-s corresponding to the 8 mAtR^ikA-s. Thus, from relatively transparent myth preserved by the Tibetan Lamas we can see that the bauddha-s appropriated bhairavAchAra whole scale via the medium of the heruka deities of the yoga tantra-s.

    This re-manifested Tathagata of Ash is Mahakala.

    It has little meaning outside of that Samadhi characterized by Smoke.

    Uma Mahesvara stoneworks.

    The heruka-s and their corresponding yoginI-s of the yoginI tantra-s assumed several distinct forms which resulted in the proliferation of several distinct forms of these tantra-s:

    chakrasamvara with vajravArAhI – chakrasamvara-tantraM
    hevajra with nairAtmyA – hevajra tantraM
    chaNDamahAroShaNa with vajrI – chaNDamahAroShaNa tantraM
    buddhakapAla with chitrasenA – buddhakapAla tantraM
    kAlachakra with vishvamAtR^I – kAlachakra tantraM
    mahAmAyAhva with buddhaDAkinI – seen in sAdhana-mAlA

    Ok. Mahamaya is one of the most famous tantras. Why not ask the Vaisnava if it has not meant illusion magic of all times?

    Those ladies are not exactly from creative art class, you could perhaps call them different samadhis associated with different mantras and visualizations.

    Additionally, the vibhava of viShNu, hayagrIva, who was already incorporated into the bauddha maNDala-s in charyA layer, came of his own as a heruka figure: hayagrIva with his yoginI who is either mArIchI or vajravArAhI. However, the root yoginI tantra of hayagrIva appears to have been lost (though there are clear allusions to it in Tibetan sources) and his sAdhana-s appear in the sAdhana mAla.

    Alice Getty thought Hayagriva's consort was Marici. It is like a whisper in the background that is difficult to ascertain. Most researchers wind up concluding that Marici is Vajravarahi. I do not quite think that is the case. Marici does not go easily into words, but, she is a hypostasis of, at the very least, Prajnaparamita, Vajradhatvishvari, Vajravarahi, and Vetali. Therefor on a dharani basis, she more or less incorporates most of the major tantras.

    The eight yoginI-s who in the heruka myth are supposed to counteract the 8 mAt^ikA-s of rudra’s assembly and surround the central heruka figure also might differ from maNDala to maNDala. This arrangement also might not be something new to the yoginI tantra-s. In an earlier period they (as saptamAtR^ikA-s) were incorporated into a maNDala from an obscure kriyA tantra, the vidyottama-tantra. Here the tathAgata, calls the Astika goddesses rAkShasI-s and asks them to be a part of his maNDala, surrounding the bodhisattva vajrapANi. They are to be worshipped on the day before a full-moon with mada, mAMsa and rakta by a bauddha mantra-vAdin in order to attain extraordinary siddhi-s. However, in the yoginI tantra layer they are no longer the sapta-matR^ikA-s called rAkShasI-s by the buddha but accommodated for the siddhi-giving rituals. Instead, they come of their own as major goddess, just as the aShTa-yoginI-s and their derivatives of the kaula system among the Astika-s. Thus, we encounter octagonal assemblages such as:

    Clockwise from 6 o’clock position (south) surrounding hevajra: chaurI, chaNDAlI, vetAlI, DombinI, ghasmarI, pukkasI, gaurI and shabarI.

    That sounds like Hevajra, where Dombini and Savari have taken over a couple spots. This is due to the influence of Mahasiddhas. If we see this, then when we swing round to the Nyingma lineage and see one called Smasani, we start to wonder if they are talking about the same thing. If we think in the original Dakini Jala style, then it ends on one we could write for short as Heruki, and all of a sudden she has continuity in Armor Deities, with Varuni, and so on.

    In that situation, Ishvari is the consort, and Heruki is in the eighth position, which in a sense is futuristic. This is the same as in Hinduism, as there are Seven or Sapta Matrikas, but, when though of as Worldly Directional Guardians, there are eight. Because the Path is the reversal of manifestation, that is why the Directions are the Nirmanakaya, from where there is so much internalizing, that it is easy to be unaware that the Seven are the real thing or i. e., are not a preliminary path of inspiration, but are the Bodhisattva Path. Because this is the same as the Paramitas, that is why that system is also related and to be practiced at once and the same time.

    Vidyottama is the root Vajra Kilaya tantra, transmitted by Prabhahasti (Luminous Elephant):

    Within the mind direct transmission lineage or the dharmakaya, Buddha Shakyamuni and Vajrakilaya are the same basic nature, without any distinctions or differences in realization. Buddha Shakyamuni as Vajrakilaya gave one hundred thousand different Kilaya teachings, which are condensed in the Supreme Knowledge Tantra, sometimes called the Vidyottama Tantra in 100,000 Sections. So there are many different teachings on Vajrakilaya.

    The Vajrakilaya tantra belongs to the enlightened mind sub-category of the enlightened activity category.

    In other words, one must first attain Extremely Wrathful Karma Family, and increase it to Citta Cakra. In goddess terms, that is Vajrasrnkhala.

    According to Davidson, in this tantra, Vajrapani says that a particular mantra is made of Dravidian words. He doesn't think that necessarily means that tantra is South Indian, but, we can reply that a Vajrapani practice was conveyed from South India to Tibet in Taranatha's time. From what it looks like, it probably pre-dates any surviving writings.

    According to Skorupski, this tantra uses the Kilikila deity, as does Parasol, and it can find Nidhi or Terma. Well, yes, esoterically, we are mainly tracking One-Pointedness or Ekagatta through the Six Yogas system of samadhi, and so i. e. this Kila or Peg being in the actual layer of Samadhi or the Sixth Yoga.

    Within Candi.

    As the yoginI-tantra-s developed we find that the yoginI-s (i.e. the female consort of the central heruka and their female retinues) assume prominence and take a life of their own as the sole deities of their maNDala-s. Thus, these maNDala-s become ekavIrA or with the goddess alone at the center. This evolution may mainly be traced through the “explanatory” tantra-s that sprung out of the chakrasaMvara substratum and include the following main tantra-s:

    abhidhAnottara; vajraDAka; saMvarodaya; DAkArNava; yoginI-saMchAra; chatur-yoginI-saMpuTa; herukAbhyudaya.
    Of these tantra-s the major move towards the ekavIrA maNDala-s are seen in yoginI-saMchara and chatur-yoginI-saMpuTa and feature the mighty goddess vajravArAhI. In addition, tArA, a female deity of the charyA tantra layer (in all likelihood she had a charyA tantra of her own but I am not aware of one surviving in Sanskrit), started rising tremendously in parallel with the yoginI tantra developments and broke free as an ekavIrA deity of her own. She moved away from her charyA beginning and via lateral interactions with her Astika form and the yoginI-tantra-s and kaula tantra-s(Astika) started acquiring a distinct system of her own. Along with her, her attendant ekajaTA also rose to prominence.

    Yes, but, mantricly, it is the stratum of Dakini Jala Samvara, which reminds us of a slightly different circle ending on Heruki.

    Tara and Ekajati rose to prominence as something that sounds like conveys one across the Charya process.

    She or they are intended as inlets to Vajrayogini:

    Ekajati mantricly relates to Vajrayogini, and can manifest her. In Sadhanamala, Vajrayogini is part of a Lotus Family initiation done by Saraha's Oddiyana Avalokiteshvara 35-36. She is related to Vadiraj (Lion) Manushri 48. She mantricly is Nagarjuna's Ekajati 127, she is part of the explanation of Varahi 224, and she is the final result of the whole Laughing Ekajati 123, which is the Sadhanamala explanatory thangka in the first post.

    So the triple ring is the Pithas and for the most part in preliminary practices, there is no reason to portray all those inhabitants and we just think of Kaya Vak Citta themselves, and not on Vajrayogini. The Gauris, on the other hand, yes, those are the Asta Vijnana of Yogachara, Wrathful correspondences to the Peaceful Offering Goddess Bodhisattvas. And so if we just follow the order in the book, the teaching of Six Families that also has Gauris comes first, in Dakini Jala, before you have this intricate Thirty-seven Point system.

    The hevajra tantra also appears to have incorporated the nR^isiMha of the 8-headed type into its 8-headed hevajra vidyA.

    ...we anyhow see certain late syncretic bauddha-Astika systems. From the viewpoint of the yoginI-tantra-s the most important of these was the system of ChinnamastA, wherein both the Astika and nAstika forms are well-mixed through reciprocal lateral influences. A similar phenomenon also began within the independent tArA system as mahAchina-krama-tArA was incorporated in the Astika system.

    I am not quite sure how big the "Cinnamasta system" ever was, but, we would like to say ours springs from Laksminkara, who would have to be called "early". Is she also a kind of "crossover" to Lankesvari, Carcika, and perhaps Ekajati, yes. Most good sources say that Laksminkara trained at a Smasana in Lanka, which may have meant the island, or, it may have been West Lanka, the Indian Coromandel Coast. Because Lankesvari appears at the very beginning of one of the Gilgit Manuscripts, we would have to say that yoga in this place considerably pre-dates Laksminkara. Headless deity forms considerably pre-date these writings. As Nastikas we are not going to claim to have started all that, however, we would say that Laksminkara is doing something different and revolutionary which is a major basis of what we are still doing. It is Tri-kaya Vajrayogini. Without Vairocani we are going to get nothing of her.

    ...After this period we mainly see compilation of mantra manuals, which were usually termed the sAdhana mAlA-s. They contain series of sAdhana-s irrespective of the layer of the tantra they belong to, but mainly the yoga, yogottara and yoginI layers.

    Ok. They are intended as something like bite-sized pieces of major systems. Again, this is a kind of strategy. You don't just "do" Hevajra, because it is a major daily commitment. Hevajra has no existence other than a kind of thing you can do, and most people can't do it. A person can, however, study and train in yoga at their own pace and derive benefit.

    Tri-kaya is an important mandala, since that is what is repeated in her Vajravali relationship, there is indeed a Yellow Jewel Family Varahi, and her Tri-kaya in Three Families is parallel to Vajrahumkara, here in his simple form as the text says.

    The deities of the four mandalas are: Varahi, Rakta, 37 Deity; Varahi, Nila, 37 Deity; Varahi, Pita, 37 Deity; Humkara, 11 Deity

    It is not really a Padma Varahi. In most situations, Red Varahi is in Tathagata Family.

    In the same relationship, we can also find Humkara's mandala with union, which we take to be the new, name-changed version of the guardians:

    Sometimes the Armor Deities are drawn. This version is very instructive. Indrabhuti's lineages are more or less tied with those of Laksminkara, so, this is the source of Cinnamasta. Indra Dakini is recognizable by having her right arm upraised. It is not quite correct to call her Vajravarahi. It is correct to say Indra Dakini can gain a second pig face, called a Ghona or Snout in her ear, and this is Vajravarahi. And so when we say the name, Vajrayogini, it is like Ishvari, or Dharmadhatu Vajra, something like an office which can be held by various individuals. That is how these Dakini Yidams act, so for example if you do Indra Dakini you are doing "that kind" of Vajrayogini. Indra Dakini makes both Varahi and Cinnamasta.

    Indrabhuti wrote commentarial works on everything from Dakini Jala to Samputa, and so it is probably at least three people. With respect to what is considered his personal masterpiece:

    Also, in his famous work Jñānasiddhi, king Indrabhūti opens it with an invocation to Lord Jagannātha, a deity intimately associated with Orissa and with no other area of India.

    And so if we look at the way Indrabhuti's transmission was remembered, and, it refers to a Sambalpur or Udayagiri location in Orissa, then, we see he has acquired Charchika from there. Indrabhuti was a Jagganath devotee, and also Carcika. So if we see the obscure, but potent, position she is in, that is why we will have her as one of the highest sadhana deities of Pranayama; in fact she can practically be used to define it.

    The following is showing us an Indra Dakini.

    At the bottom center is a white female deity with one face and twelve hands standing on a buffalo. At the left is blue Chanda Maharoshana (Achala) and consort followed by the standing red female deity Charchika. On the right side is the 'Very Secret' Hayagriva Heruka special to Sera Monastery followed by a blue yogini, either Kroda Kali Yogini or possibly Vajra Nairatmya.

    The white one could be Mantranusarini, or, perhaps, a preliminary form of Amaravajra Devi.

    In the Sakya system, there is someone above Indra Dakini and the Three Red Dakinis, Tinuma Vajrayogini. From what little we know of her, her mantra is a permutation of Four Dakinis mantra. Also, her icon has selected a few Suryagupta Taras, including one with a Dharmodaya, the role we are giving to Ghasmari.

    At the middle left, holding a red triangular object, is Tara Burning Suffering. At the middle right, holding a vase, is Tara Giving Rise to Attainments. At the bottom left riding a bird is Tara Greatly Increasing. At the bottom right riding a buffalo is Tara Accomplishing the Complete perfection.

    And again we are going to take almost the same parallel.

    And so instead of Tinuma, there is Nyan's Vajrayogini, called Ziro Bhusana. This one would be understood as the mistress or perhaps Guru of Guhyajnana and the Four Dakinis. She is not Lion Face Simhamukha, who is Wrathful Jnana Dakini. Notice the similarity of names. So this is incredibly close to, but, is not, directly, Janadakini. Ziro Bhusana is a Lion Face who is solid red:

    Guhyajnana is in a Minling de kun initiation card set, which appears to be about Jinasagara getting the Four Dakinis in Union. Due to her white color in one of the images, it is probably a terma, not a Siddharajni lineage.

    Indra Dakini is in the Four Dakinis here. So it is a lot like she intercepts Guhyajnana Dakini and continues her:

    In this Kagyu thangka, there are two identical Indra Dakinis, and then Vajravarahi is in the lower left. So the blue lower central one is probably closer to the deity's worldly interface. Varahi is kind of like a specific subset with these Vajrayoginis. Also, Sri reverses Mahakala on her mule:

    The Carya Samgraha could be called the Songbook of Vajrayogini. It uses the Hevajra circle of Gauris. Curiously, it has a song only using Ghasmari and Cauri:

    50. (NC. 97 no. song)

    rāga : karṇāṭi tāla : jhāpa

    śrīhevajra nerātmā devi tribhuvana nāthā

    pañcajina vyāpita pañcavarṇadehā||

    namāmi śrīgocchāgra (śrīgopucchāgra) caityā

    heruka śrīguhyeśvari vaja (vajra) yogini śunyatā||

    pūrvādigasthita bhairava nilavarṇa (nīlavarṇā)

    dahina pātradhāri vāmabindu dharā||

    ghasmari cauri yogini devi

    gāṁvati (gāvanti) nirāvarja (līlāvajra) hūmkāra saṁvajā (saṁvajrā)||

    In another, we see some of them as prior to the ignition of Candali, which is followed by the birth of Dombi and others:

    35. (NC. 14 no. song)

    rāga : mālava tāla : mātha (NC. omit)

    jinabhuva avadhuta heruva lāyā

    śrīhata gamane yogini pa-ise||

    dhrū.|| ānandaṁdida (ānandādi) vācchalī ānandādi devā (devo)

    pari nācati (nācanti) heruva manasā saṁpurṇā (sampūrṇā)||

    puṣkasi tahi maru nijakula heruva

    sarvari (śavarī) anehā pīva-i (piva-i) saṁtoke (santoṣe)||

    śrīvaṁdiyāne (śrī-uḍiyāne) jvala-i caṇḍāli

    gīta anehā kṛdanti (krīḍanti) vājaṁnti (vājanti)||

    ālikāli du-i pāda dharaṁnte (dharante)

    e ca-u yogini maṅgala gīte||

    pa-isa-i dvamvī (ḍomvi) adaya (advaya) saṁbhāve (svabhāve)

    kridanti (krīḍantī) kamalakuliśa vajabhive (vajrabhedi)||

    ghasmari (ghasasari) ghori caurivetāri (vetāli)

    lepana ca-usama heruva vālī||

    Song Eleven is a rather long Vajrakilaya. So it has Kili noises--but we have just been introduced to them in a song about Eight Mothers Circle saying:

    oṁ gaṇapatikumāra mahākāra (mahākāla) kṣetrapāla yoginigaṇā


    śavargajāte araṇye īśāne vartakapādapaṁ bhiṣaṇā (bhoṣaṇā ) bhairavā

    mahālakṣmi (mahālakṣmī) śvetā śaṁkhapālanāgā kilikili lāvāvarṣaṇa


    153 is a Mahesvari-based Nava Durga.

    Ninety is:

    ekajaṭi vaja (vajra) yogini

    156 is also directly to her.

    That is a massive compendium of things that are all relatively simple compared to what is in some of the samaptas and even some of the sadhanas.

    Tara does somewhat beckon us to Ekajati and then to Vajrayogini. There are quite a few ways to sense Vajrayogini other than Vajravarahi. The main definitive one is Yellow Vajrayogini Vairocani and Kurmapadi.

    Vilasini is here a few times; in Seventy-five, she is with the Four Dakinis, and, here, is Lakshmi of the Pithas and Charnel Grounds:

    70. (NC. not collect this song)

    rāga : madhumanta tāla : durjamāna

    likṣma (lakṣmī) kṣaṇahina (bhanayi) sarasūtra

    yesya devi yogini gaṇamaṇḍa (gaṇamaṇḍala)||

    namohūm śrīvajravirāsini (śrīvajravilāsini)

    catura viṁśati pithveśvarī gaṇamaṇḍalā||

    yasmābhāryyā sva sva sthāne ānandamuruti

    vajramaṇḍala padmāvali nida||

    aṣṭaśmaśāne jājvalamāna

    candrasūrya dinarātri tāture||

    dānaprati sarvavighna nivāraṇaṁ

    guru upadeśa mokṣaphalaṁ||

    Zhiro Bhusana Vajrayogini was the personal accomplice of Nyan Lotsawa, a less-famous contributor to the Sakya system. She perhaps is something similar to Trailokyavijaya.

    At this point, I think we have most of the needed background for the following. On this matter again, I am one of those people who is guilty of just kind of arbitrarily generating myself as the deity, i. e. Vajrayogini, and doing something, Chod. And so by now I see I had made poisoned nectar and so forth. And so I have tried to retract, and look at it more slowly, as something more like a medical fact that if someone is going to do various yogas, they may ignite the inner fire in whatever that system is. Then from a Buddhist Vidyadhara view, there are actually quite a few Tapas deities that do not quite use Vajravarahi and which at least have evolutionary stages that do not require Union.

    I am of the belief that the Crescent is the best symbol for relatively inexperienced people. Because it means you have to feel it. If a person does not understand Prana, you are in this, until you can feel a skilled motion reversing and flowing inwardly toward the center. Some people, like me, do this naturally, which is why we can be vastly accelerated by almost any kind of yoga.

    After some indeterminate period of time, you will be able to enter the Nirmana Cakra somewhat forcefully and this makes the Triangle. This is what is going to alter your existence as a human being. The Gauris are in the brain. And so they may produce incandescant visions. But if the practitioner is beginning to be able to really feel these forces, then a much more stable way to harness shaktis is to distill the universal akash and one's principles into the Flask:


    She eventually becomes an entire Buddhist Homa, which means it includes a specifically-Buddhist rite, for which the example is Mahattari Tara and Vajrayogini. And since it is possible to get Varuni to "work", we can give her at least these deities as room for expansion:

    Armor Deities







    Guhyajnana Dakini



    And we can divide those because the first group is more like gathering and handling a crucible of power. Carcika is Vajra Muttering or the Pranayama itself, and, Ghasmari is the Agni Kunda or Dharmodaya as the heat source which would be understood as the next physiological change. When you actually have this fire that begins another state, then, we can see there actually is a science of Rasayana or Ekarasa which is making the Nectar work effectively. And so the second group of goddesses are more like fruits that can happen as signs of success. We are going for the strange White Vetali and her Moonstone Chalice, and similarly if you can get Gauri to try it and she approves, you have Purity of Sight, and so on. If you are able to satisfy all these goddesses then you may manifest the Four Dakinis. If you can stabilize these on Guhyajnana Dakini, then, Ziro Bhusana Vajrayogini is able to manifest as the sixth principle; and you will enter the Four Joys. If you can stabilize these, you have Sahaja which is Bharati.

    The way that Samvarodaya Tantra explains Dakini Jala Samvara:

    This is the supreme pleasure (satsukha) of a multitude
    of dakinis through the union with all the heroes (10). (Here,)
    everything has become one; (it is) the amrta and is the goddess of
    dreadful appearance; it is the destroyer, the maker and the enjoyer;
    and so is the amrta of her womb (11).

    Kunda (the hearth-pit or a bowl to brew sura with) is said to
    be “the origin of dharma” {dharmodaya) ; the globular water-jar
    (golaka) is asserted to be the amrta. Suras (spirituous liquors) are
    vajrayoginis ; and intoxication is Heruka (12).

    "Dreadful appearance" here is Raudrarupini.

    Dacca is the general region of Vajrayogini town, where Parnasabari and Jambhala and many other tantric deities are found proliferously.

    As a tribe or tribes, Sabaras, are also sometmies called Sauras or Saurikas. In the spelling Sora, it is a female-centric polygamous tribe also using female oracles. They seem to follow Narasimha and Jaganatha.

    According to an Archaeological Survey:

    The Sabaras, the aborigines of the vast jungle tracts to the west and south-west of Bengal (now fast losing
    their pristine character, but still to be met with in their most primitive form
    in far-off localities, as e.g., the Juangs of Keonjhar State in Orissa) with their
    quaint apparel mostly restricted to leaf aprons, and their picturesque hunting
    suit consisting of quivers and bows are represented by over a dozen plaques found
    this year. It can be easily understood how the type of Sabara female wearing
    a leaf (Parna) such as is depicted at Paharpur, gave rise to the conception of
    the goddess Parnasabari in the Vajrayana form of Mahayanism.

    A 1922 article identifies her as Orion--the three stars of the belt, or, the three stars of the antelope's head are the three heads of Parnasabari. Vaisnavites molded this into Dattatreya and his dog (i. e., similar to Bhairava), and the Buddhists made it into Parnasabari.

    Well, she does have Body, Speech, and Mind, or Three Vajras view. But Orion is a bit new to this.

    In Bengal Iconography, there is a plethora of Hindu deities including certain rare forms:

    Radish Ganesh, Manasa, Carcika

    It is said that Buddha never entered Bengal, but it was a very early conversion center at:


    And so Vajrayogini remains understood as a location:

    Of the seated figures the most well-known, no doubt, is the deity from Sompara, Vajrayogini (Munsiganj), now in BNM. Tara is attended upon by Mahamayuri to the right and Ekajata to the left, and is surrounded by eight seated Taras representing the deliverence from eight great perils (mahabhaya). This image is therefore called Astamahabhaya-Tara.

    For their Parnasabaris:

    The pot-bellied deity standing in pratyalidha position trampling down two male figures representing diseases is three-headed and eight-armed. She holds clockwise in her six hands: elephant-goad, arrow, thunder-bolt, leaves, bow and tarjani-mudra. She is accompanied by two figures, one riding a donkey. Below on the pedestal is shown a crawling figure with an elephant head and holding sword and shield. The figure represents no doubt an obstacle or vighna. On top five Transcendent Buddhas are shown with Amoghasiddhi in the middle. The two images, one from Vajrayogini and the other from Naynanda, are now in BNM, and belong to c 11th century (Fig-40).

    And then for instance pdf p. 310 has the rounded Parnasabari in a temple at Vajrayogini in case it was unclear from the website.

    Pancha Raksa:

    The cult of these Five Protective deities was prevalent only in this area of Bengal.

    In Sadhanamala, we can see how Vajrayogini touches some of the forms that use Utpala Mudra:

    Vajrayogini Vadiraj 48, Vagisvara 69, Mahattari Tara 90, Vistara Tara 98, Eight Fears Tara 99, Sita Tara 104, Dhanada Tara 107, Mahasri Tara 116, Ekajati 123, Tarodbhava Kurukulla 172

    Vajrayogini is seeking man's activated gnosis of his sixth principle because she handles what is called the Seventh Consciousness or Klista Manas, subtle mind. Her name in relation to human beings has little other meaning. She exists only at a certain place, which is similar to an Acacia Grove of Tara mixed with an Asoka Grove of Marici. Elizabeth English hones in on this "location myth" in her Guhyasamaya Sadhanamala study, which gives a good feel of what the Mahasiddhas were doing.

    Vilasini, particularly, is at "the mountains of Vajrayogini", which is subtle, or i. e. it is going to penetrate and quell the seventh consciousness, calms the subtle mind by washing it with bliss. This is apparent in that the mountains' names can be simple noun--objects, adjectives, or even verbs. So as much as Khasama and many similar texts deal with the sixth or mental-only mind, Vajrayogini is above/beyond this, quieter, more subtle, far less apparent, having more to do with the Winds than psychology.

    The names of her mountains actually correspond to a type of Khasarpana Avalokiteshvara in Mitra's lineage, Cittavisrama, Mind at Rest Lokeshvara who is shown in IWS and a few other places.

    In relation to one of the main commentators of the Nirakara system:

    Ratnakarasanti after receiving mahamudra instructions from the legendary figure Savaripa at the twin mountains Manobhanga and Cittavisrama...

    The collection of twenty-six texts on non-conceptual realization is the result of blending the essence and tantric mahamudra teachings of Saraha, Nagarjuna and Savaripa with a particular form of Madhyamaka philosophy, called 'non-abiding' (apratisthana), which aims at radically transcending any conceptual assessment of true reality. This goal is achieved by "withdrawing one's attention" (amanasikara) from anything that involves the duality of a perceived and perceiver. The result is a "luminous self-empowerment," Maitripa's (986-1063) final tantric analysis of amanasikara.

    And so they are doing a very subtle practice in Mind Isolation or Mind Mandala, Citta Cakra, the highest two yogas, which corresponds to a stage in the Five Stages or Abhisambodhi practice:

    Cittavishuddhi is in the opening of Sadhanamala, and with Khasarpana.

    Maitri went to Khasarpana (probably Pundravardhana in Varendra) and then to Sabara at the two mountains. Maitri is known for Urdhvapadi or Akashadhatvishvari or "flying dakini" form(s), but he is also part of Vilasini's lineage.

    On p. 83 it defines Manobhanga as Destruction of Klista Manas and Cittavisrama as Heart's Repose Resting Place of the Mind, which each have five colored peaks. Or, by Klista Manas or Afflicted or Addicted Mind, is the meaning of Manobhanga, itself, whereas the additional text may have a "contra" or "destroyer" or "tamer" of the thing, just as Citta does not really mean heart unless you give it the specifically Buddhist meaning. Given the context of the journey, Manobhanga was not a big pile of refuse that stood in anyone's way, it was something that had been beautified. Elizabeth says:

    It is not clear from this portion of text whether the yogin is to visualize a
    pair of mountains named Manobhanga and Cittavis'rama, or whether the
    description is to be understood adjectivally as the mountain(s) "where the
    mind comes to rest (cittavis'rama) because of the destruction of the
    [defiled] mind (manobhanga)."

    Vajradakini Vajravarahi GSS 16 gives the sense the "mountains" may be nested dolls in one place:

    On Mount Manobhanga, which is the most essential [place] on earth, on
    this peak [or: within this dwelling] (tasmin kicte), in a pavilion (-mandape)
    that is the sole resting place of the mind (cittavis'rama-) for the greatminded, [is] the terrible...leader Vajravarahi."

    " Although the verse does
    not mention the second mountain, Cittavisrama, it suggests that on the
    mountain peak (kutam) there is also a pavilion (mandapah/m) that is the
    "resting place of the mind" (cittavisrama-).

    A similar kind of beautiful dwelling is also the abode of Vidyadharl VajrayoginI (GSS21), who is to be seen "entering a jewel dwelling (kuta-) (i.e., hut) made of masses of [red flowers] — Mandarava, As'oka, and Red Coral."

    The Manobhanga, Klista Manas or Subtle Mind is mainly destroyed or tamed by Citta Vishuddhi, Amanasikara, and Sahaja, pranic means, rather than a philosophy or attitude; then one is at a restful pavillion, canopy, or perhaps parasol or naga hood.

    The mountains may have been historical, and, themselves the foothills of Glory or Sri Parvata:

    Indeed the mountain(s) and the delightful dwelling become Sabara's abode, the
    place where he teaches the practice and the place in which a yogin may
    realize Vajrayogini through sexual yoga practice with his consort.

    Vilasini is in Vibhuticandra's GSS 43, in GSS 10, and as a class of ten in GSS 5.

    In GSS 10, Sabara is taught by his teacher Karuna to visualize himself as Padmanartes'vara. The Karmamudra consort may be seen as red or yellow, she has a Kartri and Noose.

    Keeping in mind Golden Deer or Antelope, Mango Yogini of Vaisali and Kokila:

    Both Vilasini practices are also located in the mountainous setting of Manovibhanga
    and Cittavisrama, here named as the place where Sabara first learned the
    sadhana of GuhyavajravilasinI from his teacher.
    (v. 4) Having set foot on Manobhanga [and] on the delightful
    mountain [called] Cittavis'rama, abundant with all sorts of jewels, fragrant with the odor of musk deer,
    (v. 5) in that very lovely place where highly fragrant flowers grow
    (-ds'raye), where the beautiful (sundara-?) mango trees glisten
    [and] the cuckoos coo low,
    (v. 6) in a glade massed full of red [-flowering] as'oka trees, on the
    lunar day of the "Asoka-eighth,"
    this [goddess] Vilasini was
    taught me by the teacher named Karuna.

    Maitri was part of the university system but:

    Maitri is prompted by a voice in a dream to leave his
    monastery and to set out, first for Khasarpana, and then for Manobhanga
    and Cittavis'rama in Daksinapatha—the place where he will find the adept
    who will be his preceptor, Sabares'vara. The monk has some trouble locating the mountains, and it is only after a period of Tara worship and the
    intervention of Tara herself that he leaves Udra (Oddiyana) and travels for
    fifteen days to the northwest, reaching the (two) mountains the following

    But only Sabara appears to re-baptize him as Advayavajra. The story goes on from there. Daksinapatha means south of the Vindhyas generally, and includes Sabara or region of such a tribe.

    Within Vilasini's procedure:

    ...in the visualization of the couple's
    consecration, which is granted at the hands of celestial beings including the
    two famous apsarases, Rambha and Tilottama. These nymphs often appear
    in Puranic myths in order to distract advanced sages from their development
    of tapas when it is set to become a threat to the power of the gods. Their
    involvement in the consecration of a Buddhist yogin is a telling inversion of
    the Indian classical tradition. Its object is to prove that the sadhaka is able to
    manipulate the nymphs for his own ends rather than the other way around,
    and thus to demonstrate that his sexual love is under his command.'
    The yogin's control over his mundane sexuality is achieved by one pointed concentration upon the goal of his practice, sahaja bliss: "The mind
    is fickle because of excessive movement; because it is motionless (nis'calanat)
    [it becomes] the means (mukham) of enlightenment. His mind set on [the
    bliss of] sahaja (sahajasaktacetasah), he should make the goddess tremble in
    sexual play."

    The sex is supposed to stop if the mind is "fickle" or prone to motion or activity, sahaja being the opposite direction.

    In the Hevajra system followed by our author, sahaja bliss
    is understood to be the final stage in a series of four "blisses" or "joys"
    (anandas). Each bliss arises at a particular "moment" (ksanah), the final,
    highest bliss occurring at the moment said to be free of both passion and
    nonpassion (HT2.3.8: vilaksanam).in The ultimate, sahaja bliss is described
    here as that final moment of intensity when he "excites the goddess," but
    retains his own semen:

    v. 90) The god and goddess should perform [the sexual movements of] churning and swinging (manthanandolanam)"
    according to their own mudra (svamudra). But one should realize that
    sahaja bliss has arisen in the moment of vilaksana. (v. 91) With
    his penis he should excite the goddess, and he should not emit
    his semen. If he emits his semen, how can there be great bliss?
    (v. 92) He should churn the ocean of the vagina through his
    desire for the ambrosia of sahaja, but in such a way that the poison (kalakutam) of passionlessness does not arise.

    The sadhana does a pendulum recitation that melts the three worlds into liquid gold, which dissolves into space, which dissolves into sahaja, which fuses the participants' identities, atmamelakah.

    As a more basic version, Aparajita also does something similar.

    A few other articles just use a basic Vajrayogini name:

    GSS40 opens with commentary upon the namaskara verse (GSSi: namah srivajrayoginyai sunyatakarunatmane. . .), which it interprets as an internal yogic meditation with drops based on the four consecrations in the Hevajra system.

    GSS42 Vajrayoginipranamaikavimsika (Stotra) (Twenty-One Praise Verses for Saluting Vajrayogini)^ A twenty-one-verse stotra (verses are numbered in the text) praising Vajrayogini: her embodiment of the four blisses, her compassion, her transcendent wisdom (in Yogacara terms), and her ability to manifest with many different forms, including as the supreme goddess in other religious systems (Sakti, Candi, "Vedavati," Kubjika, VaisnavatI, etc., according to the different religious systems).

    GSS45 Indrajitkramavajrayoginisadhan (Vajrayoginl Sadhana with the Method for Conquering Indra) This is very similar to GSSiy (see above) and prescribes the generation of a white, raised-foot-pose form of Vajrayoginl.

    I am less familiar with Naro Dakini because, with the other two, Maitri's and Indra's, there is a Thirteenfold evolution. This means that if you are at Tapas and Vairocani is manifesting, you greet her in a Ten Syllable mantra. She is capable of personally existing in the form of radiance produced by inner heat. This is like a single-follower form, which becomes the pedestal for mantric construction such as:

    GSS 16 is Maitri's thirteenfold goddess with cemeteries and palace, similar to what we know as Varnani; the sadhana was supposedly taught by the Buddha in the location of Mount Manobhanga and the pavilion, Cittavis'rama, a place associated with erotic manifestations of Vajrayogini.

    Elizabeth was able to detect there is a coherent scheme of the emergence of Vajrayogini which is based from Thirteen Syllable Vairocani emanating her "mirrored" firend Varnani:

    In the first stage, Vairocani ten and thirteen syllable version

    In the second stage, Varnani with retinue:

    Dakini (east) is blue-black, Lama (north) is green, Khandaroha (west) is red, and Rupini (south) is yellow. The iconography of the arms is shown in the delightful red dakini from Khara Khoto (plate 2).

    (Bhaga, Mahasukha Chakra, or Jnana Chakra)

    §11 The four goddesses are presided over by the buddha Ratnasambhava, bearing him as the seal in their crown. Between them, on the intermedi- ate petals, are four skull bowls that contain semen (bodhicittam). In simi- lar texts, other impure substances are mentioned inside the skull bowls, such as menstrual blood, or the five nectars and five lamps (see below), all of which are transformed into an elixir like quicksilver. The bowls themselves are pure white ("like a conch, jasmine, or moon") and may be visu- alized balancing elegantly on top of ornamental vases.

    Then eight wrathful animal-headed deities of Amoghasiddhi Family are added in the second half of that stage.

    The final part is Thirty-seven point with the Pithas.

    One version of Thirteen syllable Vairocani says:

    A four-armed form of Vajrayogini in warrior stance is found in a single sadhana in the Guhyasamayasadhanamala in a section dealing with inter- nalized practices: the Vajrayogini Sadhana in the Tradition of Indrabhuti by Vijayavajra {Indrabhutikramena Vajrayoginisadhana GSS35) . This sadhana takes the self-generation onto a more intensely internal level, as the yogin imagines the elements of the visualization within his yogic body.

    Following the emptiness meditations, the yogin first generates the cosmos, starting from a white letter a (GSS35 Kii8vi: sukla akarat) that is said to have the nature of Causal Vajradhara. Then, from a green hum, he produces a five-pointed double vajra, as the five limbs of his body (head, arms, and legs). In the center of that he sees a red inverted triangular syllable e (V) transforming into a blood-colored origin of existents (here masculine: dharmodayah) marked with vajras at its points, which he understands to be his torso. Within the dharmodaya is an eight-petaled lotus wreathed in fire, which represents his nine bodily orifices, while the four-petaled pericarp has the nature of four channels within the body. Vajrayogini is then generated upon a ferociously bright sun disk, as the transformation of a white chopper that represents the central channel, Avadhuti. Vajrayogini herself is a vibrant, light red ("yellow-red, like blooming saffron").

    So in that instance, white is the Avadhut. Does she sound familiar, yes, Mahacinakrama Tara arises from a chopper. Here they also refer to Saffron, which are rare aspects of Amrita such as Khaganana.

    But if we say Vairocani is the first-arising and is often Yellow, it is this color which moves forward as the form of the final, central Vajrayogini and the Avadhut:

    In the central portion of this [dharmodaya- triangle] is the syllable hrim, which is described as yellow in color, (v. 3) [Trikayavajrayogini] arises from it and is [also] yellow. She is by nature (svayam) situated in the avadhuti, but in lalana (Varnani) she is very dark, and in rasana (Vairocani) she has a white [color].

    Varnani is Pranava, Om, i. e. similar to Syama or Matangi, and from her syllables arise a circle of Vajradakinis including:

    10. Humkarivajradakini (white)

    11. Humnadivajradakini (blue)

    Vajradakinis are a class, a type of potency. In one sense they are Parasol and Marici, and in another sense they are also a host inside a special Flask used with Golden Drop Lakshmi and Tarodbhava Kurukulla. The Gauris and all of Heruka's retinue are Vajradakinis. Ultimately, Vajradakini is Upeksa with Seven Syllable deity.

    However, in the subject of Four Dakinis, there is Dakini who is in Vajra Family who is not necessarily the same as Vajradakini. She appears to also have the meaning of a magical human female.

    In Dakinis' Warm Breath, three levels of women are described:

    the sacred-realm-born dakini who abides in the places of pilgrimage is the highest of the three in realization, having attained the subjective clear light (osel); the coemergent dakini, a particularly fearless woman who is without
    embarrassment, has realized the stage of completion (sampannakrama
    dzog-rim); and the mantra-born dakini has practiced intently and has realized the stage of creation (utpattikrama, kyerim). In parallel form, the yogin could hope to attain the same level of realization as his consort, and
    her assistance in the practice of karmamudra was essential in this result.
    There is no available information on corresponding spiritual levels for
    male consorts.

    For the most part, there is such a thing as a mantra-born yogini. It doesn't mean she has to be all that great at it, but, more a matter of devotion. And so it was a little confusing, because there is such a thing as Elephant Head, who is the mysterious Vinayaki related to Ganesh, and can also be a tramen or gatekeeper form of Khandaroha. And so in that sense, Elephant Woman means a form who resembles Ganapati--but, this is not the same Family as Elephant Woman of the Yoginis. This means personality traits of people, and maybe only secondarily with looks, which are not animal faces.

    In this case, Elephant Woman is the character of Lama in Karma Family.

    Lāmā (लामा) refers to a group of female Tantrik adepts, according to the 8th-centry Jayadratha-yāmala.—Lāmā is not the commonly known Tibetan word “bla-ma” meaning “scholar”, but something different. The Lāmās otherwise called Rūpikā and Cumbikā flourish among the rare group of the Kāśyapīs. Association with them is conducive to spiritual success. They are called Rūpikā because they assume different shapes during their intercourse with others. They are called Cumbikā because they kiss at the very first introduction.

    In the Hevajra-tantra (Paṭala 3 fol. 6a) the Lāmās are referred to in the company of the Ḍākinīs and called Khaṇḍarohā and Rūpiṇī. The Lāmās therefore constituted a mystic group of female Tantrik adepts who had their special practices. The Sammoha-tantra (fol. 39b) in another place distinctly refers to a Tantrik practice (vidyā) called Lamayāmnāya i.e. the āmnāya of the Lamas or Lāmās.

    They are known as early as Jayadratha Yamala, eighth century.

    The Jayadratha-yāmala while describing the special practices of the Lāmās mentions the special language to be used with them. This language is described as monosyllabic (Ekākṣara-samullāpa) and may thus be considered to have belonged to the Sino-Tibetan family as the Lamas themselves belonged to the Tibetan group of mystics.

    The Lamas had twenty-four names, like the Horas, which are not mono-syllabic but include Rupini, Revati, and Karothi.

    Some of the 24 names enumerated are descriptive of such shapes which they could assume.

    They are considered as six shakti syllables which make terms like "dakini" and so forth:

    da ra la ka sa ha

    There is some garbled text and then he discusses "classes of Lamas" as if they were "classes of Vilasinis".

    There are linguistic comparisons to Limbu and Kirat and so I might be prone to toss this into the bag of Mahacina Krama. It is also called a Pisaca language.

    Are they perhaps also Kinnari women?

    The words belonging to the language of the Lamos discussed
    above therefore further corroborate the fact that these yoginis belonged
    to some Tibetan race and that the compiler of the Hindu and Buddh-
    ist Tantras had a real knowledge of their practices.

    Lama only means a human being, it does not mean a Puranic origin devi or anything like that. It is not really even a word outside of its mystic context. As a dakini form, she occupies the Karma Family or Karma Mudra area. As a heritage, she sounds like a close identity with Mahacina Krama. The Four Dakinis are with Dakarnava Heruka where they begin his Dark Blue Vajracakra:

    Ḍākinī & Vajraḍāka,
    Lāmā & Viśvaḍāka,
    Khaṇḍarohā & Padmaḍāka,
    Rūpiṇī & Ratnaḍāka

    It is normal for them to go backwards, which is anti-clockwise, like that. Lama is in the North, but, all of a sudden, she is second, not last, because something has drastically switched polarity.

    And so the Karma Mudra when you are approaching it from the conceptual to the actual level, is clockwise like most retinues and it is in last place as the Seal of Wisdom or Gnosis being sought and attained; but when you have actual Dakini energy--i. e. the goddess starting in the East here--then you are in some higher twist that Karmamudra is only the next basis of.

    The first one just called Dakini is equal to to any mantra-born female, who may herself not yet be very powerful, and can be any of them, not necessarily someone you have a Karmamudra with. A Yogini who is at least able to incline herself into Generation Stage. Then the second is a Bhairavi, i. e. powerful and successful and at this point it means sexualized. She is Accomplished, she has or is Karma Family and the Five and Six Families and the Six Yogas. The last two arguably are subjective, Khandaroha is Generation Stage, and Rupini is like Perfect Image as used in Abhisambodhi. And that is what you use as Jnanamudra or i. e., a high caliber of Apsaras.

    So the Four Dakinis are inner realities, while in the sense of Four Families, they are the women themselves or the Yoginis. The inner Dakinis can assume Tramen forms, but human dakinis are classed as four kinds. In actuality, it was normal in Indian society for daughters as young as twelve to be given out on a sexual basis, and so what is in the tantras is relatively mild compared to the way things usually were. The definition of "qualified female practitioner" means she is not in some kind of slavish legal burden stuck with whatever is forced on her, she is doing yogic disciplines, whether as a nun or more like a sabari being irrelevant in beginner terms. She is intact and mostly conducting herself by choice.

    Blue Lotus is at the beginning and so it should be obvious that Elephant Woman does not mean her face because the other ones are just items. It means someone in Lama's Family:

    In the Samvarodaya-tantra, these four are associated respectively with the four
    retinue dakinis by family: the lotus is blue, of the vajra family; the conch
    is red, of the padma family; picture is yellow, of the ratna family; and
    elephant is green, of the karma family.

    The lotus-type consorts are known for happy and joyful personalities,
    their love of singing beautiful melodies, and expansiveness. In sexual union
    with a padmini, the experience of expansive bliss is contagious and crescendos in gradual stages.

    The lotus-type consort was praised in biographies of living wisdom
    dakinls, such as Machik and Bandhepa. Taranatha details similar esoteric
    signs of the padmini, in writing of Machik.

    In particular on her navel there was an image of a red lotus with
    three roots; between her breasts—an image of rosaries of precious
    stones, reaching down to the navel, and on each of her shoulders—images of the svastika. At the back of her ears she had coils
    similar to those of a conch or lotus. Under her tongue there was
    an image of a sword of the color of the [lotus] flower marked with
    the [syllable] TAM (symbolizing the first syllable of the name Tara).
    Between her eyebrows she had the image of a banner with the
    sun and moon represented on it, and the image of a wheel with

    Generally speaking, the padmini is particularly valued because among the
    four she is the most passionate in tendency, and she gradually arouses bliss
    in her partner.

    In contrast, the conch-type consort is also very joyful but more volatile; her vagina is deep and narrow; and sexual union with her produces a very sudden arising of bliss and restrains the emission of bodhicitta for
    both partners.

    Kalasiddhi, the dakinl-girl raised in the charnel ground, was a classic
    conch-type consort of Guru Rinpoche who became enlightened meditating
    on the emptiness of the elements of the human body.

    The picture-type consort has enormous emotional range, and sexual
    union with her is sustained, maintaining the bliss without impulsive bodhicitta emissions.

    She has abandoned shame and is
    very wrathful; she always takes pleasure in quarreling. Her shanks
    are crippled; and she lies on her back. She has a hanging underlip and the voice of a turtle dove. A citrinl, who smells of meat
    and has her arms spread out, is said to be sporting an amorous

    She is enthusiastic to hear interesting stories. She keeps
    various small birds, parrots, and so forth. Always a group of children stands around her.

    The elephant-type consort has special capacity for realizing the ultimate truth and engendering this experience also in her partner because her torso, arms, and legs are large and very steady, and she can remain still for long periods of time. The hastini is described this way in the Samvarodayatantra:

    She smells of liquor; her shanks are stout; she has a round nose
    and a line of hair (above the navel). She is mad with passion; her
    body is stout; she moves to and fro; (the yogin) should make her
    sport amorously by the "chest-opening-embrace" (urahsphotabandha); she is like a pill to the touch. A hastinl has the voice of a
    crane and is pleased with songs and instrumental music.

    The elephant type is short; her limbs are broad. Her mouth and
    nose are thick. Her hips are larger than anything else. Her eyes are
    reddish; her hair, coarse; her shoulders, rounded. Her breasts are
    very large and hard like stone. She eats a great deal, and her voice
    is strong and anxious. She covers her whole body from head to
    foot with adornments. She likes adultery and low gossip. Most of
    this type separate from their husbands. She acquaints with large
    men of great strength and with all others she finds. As she has
    strong passion burning hard, she wants to sleep with even son
    and father. She needs to copulate many times each day. Though a
    hundred men do it, she is not satisfied. Her genitalia is very hairy
    and burns with heat like fire. It is always dripping wet and has an
    odor like that of an elephant. An adulteress like her is not suitable
    as a wife, but as she is vigorous in the act, she is renowned as the
    superior of maid servants.

    That is Elephant Woman--Lama Family; Elephant Head is a form of Khandaroha.

    If we refer to the Nepalese archive, we will find Vajrayogini also in one easily accessible manner:

    parabrahmasvarUpiNI vajrayoginI

    vajrayoginI mantrAnusArinI

    ugratArA vajrayogiNI

    vajrayoginIguhyeCvarI nairAtmAghyeCvarI

    vajrayoginyA CrImatmantrANusAraNI

    "Vajrayogini and Buddha" on the cover of Aparamita Ayur with Bhattarika Sragdhara and Bhattarika Ekajati

    Right after "Chum Dharani" (i. e. Cunda) is vajrayoginI parameCvara dhAraNI

    She is twice called Mantranusarini of the Pancha Raksha.

    Pramardani, if she is Final Samadhi, told us to use the others including Mantranusarini, who does not appear to be a local Pitha or cemetery goddess, but primarily Buddha's mantra. She, personally, obviously has almost nothing about her, until here we see that she must be an unfolding of Vajrayogini related to Vajra Family. But her expanded form is the white one which is in Jewel Family which is not drawn properly.

    We can find Cauri as Vajrayogini's Throat, and Mantranusarini as a branch of her. Carcika is the practice of Pranayama, which is mainly mantra.

    In the era ca. 750, Padmasambhava established a single monastery in Tibet, whereas India experienced the Pala dynasty who had several kings that were patrons of tantric Buddhism having Cunda as their tutelary deity. It is from this influence that most of the Bengali stoneworks are found.

    Prior to that was construction of the partially-Buddhist Ellora complex ca. 550-750. Sometimes it is thought to have been a westward expansion promoted by Saraha. Given the time frame, Dakini Jala appears to be in the Ellora era.

    It is probably correct to say, there were Saraha and Nagarjuna, among the first abbots of Nalanda ca. 500s, and a later Saraha and Nagarjuna, among the first Mahasiddhas, and another Saraha at the time of Maitri.

    Carcikā (चर्चिका).—

    1) Repetition, recitation, study, repeated reading, perusal.

    2) Discussion, inquiry, investigation

    3) Reflection.

    4) Smearing the body with unguents

    Cārcika (चार्चिक).—a. Conversant with the repetition (of the Veda).

    1. The goddess Durga. or Chamunda. 2. Cleaning the person with perfumes.

    Carcikā (चर्चिका):—(kā) 1. f. The goddess Durgā; perfuming; inquiry into.

    She is used with Krsna Yamari, Mahakala, and Kalachakra.

    She is in Skanda Purana:

    186. To the south of Gabhastīśa a devotee should visit Maṅgalā, the abode of the auspicious goddess Gaurī, and feed a Brāhmaṇa couple.

    187. They should be adorned in accordance with one’s capacity. There is no end to the merit thereof. One circumambulation of Maṅgalā has the same merit as the circumambulation of the Earth.

    188. To the north of Mukhaprekṣeśvara near Maṅgalā is the Goddess Vadanaprekṣaṇā. She is Goddess Śivā who causes all Siddhis.

    189. To the north of Mukhaprekṣā there are two splendid Liṅgas named Tvaṣṭrīśa and Vṛttīśa. They say that a visit paid to those two deities has the same merit as that of the gift of a plot of land along with gold.

    190. To the north thereof is Goddess Carcikā, a visit to whom is auspicious. In front of Carcikā is the Revateśvara Liṅga that causes peace.

    191. In front of it is the Pañcanadeśvara Liṅga that is conducive to great auspiciousness. To the west of Maṅgalā is the great splendid well Maṅgaloda (‘a well of auspicious waters’).


    ...let us get into the chariot and visit Nīlamādhava, the splendid ornament unto the holy spot named Puruṣottama. Many have told me that there are many Tīrthas there. If I know them directly from your words, they will be fruitful to me.

    Nārada said:

    7. Well, I shall show you the holy place and the Tīrthas present in that sacred place. I shall point out Śakti-Śaṃbhus[1] and tell you about the greatness of the holy place.

    8. You will directly see the Lord of Devas who bestows his own self on the devotee. You will see him quickly as he will be in fourfold form in order to bless you.

    9-10. By visiting him a man becomes a worthy receptacle of devotion...


    Śakti-Śaṃbhus: The various Śakti-goddesses and Śiva-liṅgas installed in the Puruṣottama Kṣetra

    Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम, “The Supreme being”):—One of the twenty-four forms of Viṣṇu through which Nārāyaṇa manifests himself. He is accompanied by a counterpart emanation of Lakṣmī (an aspect of Devī) who goes by the name Vasudhā.

    ...He went on observing the lands and territories as well as the forest regions on either side of the pathway. He was delighted and his pleasure was evident in his eyes. He reached the shrine of Carcikā[4] (Goddess Durgā) that marked the boundary of Utkaladeśa and was on their way. The deity was decorated with a garland of skulls.


    Now this goddess is worshipped at Banki in the Cuttack District of Orissa.

    92. The king got out of the chariot at Nārada’s behest. With great humility he bowed down to her with the eight limbs touching the ground and with great delight in his mind he eulogized her.

    Indradyumna said:

    93-97. Obeisance to you, O Goddess, O dispeller of all miseries and adversities. You are glorified through eulogies by Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Śiva and others. You are the cause of all the worlds. O primordial Goddess, O supreme deity, be pleased. O Śivā, without you this universe cannot have any power (or endure) even for a monent. The accomplishment of all undertakings in the mortal world and all auspiciousness is the result of propitiating your feet, O eternal Goddess, and not otherwise. O supreme deity, you are the Śakti (power) of Viṣṇu, the Lord of mobile and immobile beings. It is through this Śakti that the Lord creates, protects and annihilates the universe. O Goddess, bless me so that with my own eyes I shall see the Lord residing in the Nīla mountain, the sire of mobile and immobile beings.

    Indradyumna (इन्द्रद्युम्न).—A king who lived in the Kṛta yuga, and a devotee of Viṣṇu. He visited the Jagannātha temple in Oḍra Deśa once to worship Lord Jagannātha. The Lord was then hidden in the sand. When the King, disappointed at this was about to return, determined to fast unto death at Mount Nīla when a celestial voice cried, "Thou shalt see Him". Afterwards the King performed a horse sacrifice and built a magnificent Viṣṇu temple. Narasiṃhamūrti brought by Nārada was installed in the temple. During sleep the King had a darśana (sight) of Lord Jagannātha. Also an astral voice directed him to cut down the fragrant tree on the seashore and make idols with it. Accordingly the king got idols of Viṣṇu, Balarāma, Sudarśana and Subhadrā made and installed them in the temple. (Skanda Purāṇa).

    Mātṛs: These are divine mothers said to attend upon Śiva, but usually on Skanda. According to some they are eight: Brāhmī, Māheśvarī, Caṇḍī, Vārāhī, Vaiṣṇavī, Kaumarī, Cāmuṇḍā and Carcikā.

    In Puranic Encyclopedia:

    Śiva has two wives, Gaṅgā and Pārvatī (See under Gaṅgā and Pārvatī). He lodges Gaṅgā on his head. Umā, Kātyāyanī, Gaurī, Kālī, Haimavatī Īśvarī, Śivā, Bhavānī, Rudrāṇī, Śarvāṇī, Sarvamaṅgalā Aparṇā, Pārvatī, Durgā, Mṛḍānī, Caṇḍikā, Ambikā, Āryā, Dākṣāyaṇī, Girijā, Menakātmajā, Cāmuṇḍā, Karṇamoṭī, Carcikā and Bhairavī—these are synonyms of Pārvatī.

    What is probably the case is that some of these Parvatis have no wife-like role. Most of the Durgas are Tapasis or she is Ekavira or alone.

    In one sense, they are built in a Kila as Gauri and Marajit.

    In the Heruka-centered version of Dakini Jala, Karma Family has two extra goddesses, counted as one, Citrapadma and Citravajra, are found in front of the central deity in the sub-Mandala of Paramasva.

    In the Peaceful or Vajrasattva format, Paramasva has four mandalas thought to represent the Four Activities.

    In Sadhanamala, Carcika 193 is one of the few to do Tandava, and the only one to personally have a Bhairavi form:


    Damstra is a common term for "fangs", hers perhaps being Utkata or the most extreme. She is also the only "krangi" which can be taken as "emaciated", or:

    Kṛśāṅga (कृशाङ्ग).—a. lean, thin.

    -ṅgaḥ an epithet of Śiva. (-ṅgī) 1 a woman with a slender frame

    Name of an Apsaras, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

    There is such a thing as Fleshless Dakini which he implies she indicates.

    She is red in colour but changes to white and other colours in accordance with the different purposes for which she is invoked.


    Her Heart syllable, Cam, manifests a Jnana Cakra, which in this case is probably not that of Dakarnava Heruka, and is probably not a synonym of Mahasukha Cakra, and probably does refer to Wisdom Beings, as it is used elsewhere in Sadhanamala. Hers is more open, is more like "doing it at all" rather than "precisely and successfully in the following manner".

    She is a Hum-Arisen Vajra Family goddess like basic Mantranusarini; vajra is her main item. She is not the same as Mahacinakrama because she does not have a chopper, She does have a skullcup--in fact her items are Cup plus Five Family Emblems:

    dakṣiṇe vajrakhaḍgacakradhāriṇīṃ [Vajra, Sword--Karma, Cakra--Tathagata]
    vāme kapālamaṇikamaladharāṃ [Mani--Jewel, Kamala--Lotus]

    and she has them in such a way that she is mainly presenting Vajra and Cup, which is another masculine--feminine pairing as used in the tantras.

    For some reason he attached her to the Moods:

    Sunya manifests in different forms the nine "Rasas" or dramatic sentiments. For instance, Sunya will be Khadiravani or Lokanatha when benign (Karuna), Marici when Heroic (Vira), Vighnantaka, Heruka or Mahakala when awe-inpiring (Bhaya), Aparajita when wrathful (Raudra), Vajracarcika in its moments of disgust and loathsomeness (Blbhatsa), Prajnaparamita when peaceful (Santa), and so on.

    We can see how she is relevant to any Dakini or Yogini, since her basic definition means the same thing as what they have to practice to train into it. Carcika is not here called, but is, a dakini by her dance. She is the six arm form which grants those of other families, judging by her items and the statement about her colors.
    Last edited by shaberon; 28th September 2021 at 08:21.

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    Default Re: Nirakara and Shentong Buddhism, Tara, Sadhanas, Sanskrit culture

    Carcika, Ghoracandi, Khaganana, Sabaris

    Something happened which seems to be directly from thinking about her.

    It is from being unsatisfied with "also known as" lists of aliases. We don't want a glossary, so much as the reasons why there is such-and-such a deity and what is it about. In Buddhism, Carcika uses the Cam syllable, which is shared with Camunda, Cauri, and with Candali.

    If they meant Camunda, they would use that name; she is the consort of Vajrabhairava's protector Dharmaraja. She is a retinue member but I am not aware of her ever being the principal in any sadhana. Allright, we can agree she is a form. Her name is often taken as "head remover" with respect to her violence, but, there is another meaning, "motion in the head", referring to akash.

    And so while I was thinking about the syllable and about why the relatively minor Carcika can be found as something like a tantric Virgil, and the major Camunda is basically kept to a minimum, she responded with a yogic experience. I would describe it as a process that, firstly, I am familiar with, but, hasn't happened in a really long time. It is something that can happen in your head if there is not a lot of garbage in the way.

    At first it feels like flames in a torch, flowing in the brain. After a certain point, it became a Net, feeling like a knit toboggan, except internally. This lasts for at least fifteen minutes, perhaps half an hour. Made of "what", I don't know; I think it is reversed prana; I have not much difficulty entering the Crescent to some degree. Whatever it is, is good.

    From what I understand of the Pithas, that is Pracanda--Cinnamasta. I was unable to handle her well enough to get her into the Citra, but, at least there was an understanding that is the plan. I can understand that if someone newly experienced it, they might take it to be one of the great spiritual states, but no, it was more like a body effect in ordinary waking consciousness, which perhaps could be called "having" an Ajna center.

    According to the teachings, it must have come from some mantra I was using, except it doesn't matter if you were only doing it mentally, and thinking about Cam and Carcika for a while got it to come up on its own.

    She is called "one of the oldest" Pithas in Orissa, but, I am not sure if it is all that old. Post-750ish in South India, there was a massive proliferation of eight arm Durga statues. And so she may just be part of this wave. Ok. In Buddhist tantras, we could say there is a wave launched by Candi, which includes mandala retinue figures such as Carcika and Camunda, as well as Pitha goddesses such as Pracanda and Candaksi. But even here, we do not have much if anything that is about Candi by name.

    What we are calling the Sixth Yogini is Candi which is "the basis of all these forms". She is equivalent to Wrathful Karma Tara, and could perhaps be considered the consort of the Paramasva form of Amoghasiddhi.

    Again if we kind of go from Devi Mahatmya in its own words:

    In her first Charita the Goddess Mahahaxhmi who is formless and belongs to the original history of creation is the great power of God. She protects the whole universe and also Vishnu the preserve of the whole universe. In this role, she is the creator and having awakened by the prayer of Brahma who rose from the lotus-like the navel of Visnu and inspired her to kill Madhu and Kaitabha the two demons who came out the ears of the Bhagwan Vishnu. She is the image of bliss, content due to the ecstasy of creation and the prayer of Brahma.

    In the intermediate charita she is Maha Lakshmi, the embodiment of energy and truth. She is the Divine Goddess, killer of the demon Mahishasur having a manifestation in all the gods.

    Mahalakshmi is formless; Candi is more like active material energy, like the root form from which others arise and are absorbed back into. Her forms, associates, or what she is doing can be puzzling because it happens more than once:

    The basis for Chandi worship is found in the Devi Bhagavata as well as in the Markandeya Purana containing the well-known Saptashati. This narrates the three tales of Chandika fighting and destroying the evil forces in the forms of Madhu & Kaitabha, Dhumralochana, Chanda and Munda, Raktabeeja, Shumbha & Nishumbha, and Mahishasura. These stories are narrated in thirteen chapters in the form of seven hundred stanzas or half stanzas. Each of these is considered as an independent mantra, by repeating which one attains profound benefits.

    Chandika has two forms called Chandi and Chamunda who is created by the goddess Kaushiki for killing demons Chanda and Munda.

    Katyayini, Kaushiki or Ambika who killed Shumbha, Nishumbha and their fellow demons.

    She is not "a" shakti because she can only be summoned by collaborative effort:

    The great Goddess was born from the energies of the male divinities when the devas became impotent in the long-drawn-out battle with the asuras. All the energies of the Gods became united and became supernova, throwing out flames in all directions. Then that unique light, pervading the Three Worlds with its lustre, combined into one, and became a female form.

    Allright. This is relatively old, having a written form probably going back to the seventh century, but does not seem to use Charchika.

    I had something on her before; a few old links went out but in an attempt to preserve the note:

    Charchika appears in a list of Jagannath associates, not long after Vana Durga and Marichka. It also says the Sabaras still ask permission to do Vanayajna from the King in front of Charchika. Deva Pratistha is the technique of installing deities: vanayajna is to worship the forest that is the source of stone for the idols. It is a part of Navakalavera or Jagannath's car festival. See p. 93. The Jagganath Puri book is a major source containing a Charchika story from 1368 and that she has to do with chariots, according to Jaganatha, she is War Chariot goddess. She is considered perhaps the most important Odiyana Pitha goddess.

    Ok. The temple only records three or four supernatural experiences in many centuries, and so this goddess can be considered to have a living presence at a not-as-old historical period, compared to her possible origin. Because she is close to Jagannath, she should not be far from Indrabhuti and Laksminkara.

    The 1368 story is about Jagannath's bedtime ritual when he is honored by devas but:

    One day goddess Charchika of the distant village of Banki arrived late to the function.

    She misbehaves, slightly, and winds up as a servant. Eventually she reveals her divinity to a mortal, Bitarachha Mahapatra.

    If she was worthy of a Pitha considered powerful in the 1300s, she is still like Vairocani and not part of the standard repetoire in most Puranas. She may only be in Vamana Purana. This contains questions such as why Prahlada waged a war against Devas.

    Camunda in Devi Matamya fights Canda and Munda; but in the Matsya Purana, she is made by Shiva to fight Andhakasura.

    The Vamana credits the Matsya as being "the greatest Purana", which is why it would harp on the Andhaka story, but, it seems to have reduced the grotesque and violent Camunda to a milder Carcika who only drinks the spilled blood--or, it simply becomes her.

    The Vamana is weird:

    Another important aspect of this purana is – it has stories of demons. May be it is because the ‘Purana is narrated by Pulastya who is ancestor of demons’. Asuras are described as the followers of Dharma. Buddhist priest of Magadha are also called as Asuras in Vamana Purana.

    Vaishnnavism and Shaivism have equal importance in Vamana Purana. There are no quarrels between Vishnu and Shiva for superiority as we find in other Purana. On the other hand both of them point out towards the other one for superiority.

    The contents of the Purana do not agree with the information regarding the Vaman Purana contained in the Matsya and Skanda.

    Vamana Purana is the only Purana which gives a detailed and comprehensive account of the Avatars (incarnations) along with a number of other topics including characteristics of the Puranas...It lacks, however, all the five themes- characteristics of the older Mahapuranas. [which sounds like it is not qualified to be called a Purana]

    Historically it happened during the period of Harshavardhana (606 – 648 AD). His brother Rajyavardhana was Buddhist and father Prabhakaravardhana was a devotee of Aditya. Harshawardhana himself was a follower of Buddha, Aditya and Vishnu.

    The Saiva materials in the present Vamana as contrasted with the title and contents given in the Matsya and the SKanda, show that the Purana in its earlier form was a Vaisnava treatise, and that it was later recast by Siva worshippers who changed the work with additions and alterations in such a way that very little of its earlier contents was retained.

    Now since from around 750-ish until the brunt of the dark ages when Indian wisdom was largely snuffed by crusaders, almost all literature was of a Puranic and Tantric nature, this has a few possible results. Some of them are valuable as better explanations than had been around before. This could be "synthetic", such as if Samputa Tantra is a streamlined re-formulation of other tantras, the late Skanda Purana is something like this, like an upgraded foundry. It might be "new information", such as the reason for the ca. eleventh-century Adbhuta Ramayana--"no one had asked". It is the same principle why in Buddhism there are multiple dispensations of teachings--"no one to understand it". Devi Mahatmya and Lakshmi Tantra place Mahalakshmi in a similar light.

    Some things on the other hand are just "different", possibly more sectarian, such as the variations on what a Sharabha is and what happens to it. Or attempting to portray Buddha as one of Vishnu's avatars. Some things just seem to come out of the woodwork and are not as useful or more explanatory.

    In Astrology, there are Seven Planets, Nine when you add the Nodes of the Moon, and Ten if you count the Ascendant. This is an ancient science of Ujjain which I would think is related to Skanda Purana. And so it doesn't really have a group of eight. This seems to require Shiva's Bhairavas.

    Chakrasamvara Tantra has a difficult section where it appears the Six Yoginis become Seven Yoginis by interfacing with Cumbika and others of a Lama nature. I have not figured it out yet, but I know it is there. Anyway, the Mothers or Matrikas must similarly be in layers and patterns. And a kind of unspoken essence of them is that they bring Six Maya Seeds which produce the being Mars, Skanda, or Karttikeya, which is Manjushri. Then they are also spoken of in terms of increasing groups:

    Originally believed to be a personification of the seven stars of the star cluster the Pleiades, they became quite popular by the seventh century and a standard feature of goddess temples from the ninth century onwards.

    Devi Bhagvata Purana mentions 2 other Matrikas Varuni (shakti of Varuna) and Kauberi (shakti of Kubera).

    In lists of nine Matrikas, Devi-Purana mentions Gananayika or Vinayaki – the Shakti of Ganesha, characterized by her elephant head and ability to remove obstacles like Ganesha and Mahabharavi, omitting Narasimhi.

    So Narasimhi is in a kind of "contested area", like Vishnu Narasimha, where variations on this otherwise relatively brief tale have grown into completely different systems.

    The thing to do is to bind her form into Vajra Sphoti and into Ziro Bhusana and her being into Pratyangira, realize that Heruka does not mean blood-drinker but she or they do:

    After the battle, the Matrikas dance drunk with their victim's blood. This description is repeated with little variation in Devi Bhagavata Purana and Vamana Purana. The Devi-Bhagavata Purana mentions three other goddesses, Shaktis of other gods in addition to Saptamatrikas making a group of 10 Matrikas.

    Skanda's Mothers

    Chances are, the original Vamana was re-worked with inspiration from, but not a to-the-letter copy of, the Devi Bhagvata.

    So far the closest adjective I can find for Carcika from the Vamana is divine, compared to:

    his sweat mixing with andhaka's blood gave rise to a beautiful goddess charchikA

    or from Kamakoti, it it part of the origin of Bhairavas:

    a Kanya got formed from his sweat and spills of the Rakshasa’s blood and Maha Deva named her ‘Charchika’ and gave her the boon of a Symbol of Propitiousness to be worshipped by Devatas, Rishis, Pitaras, Yaksha, Vidyaadhas etc as also Sarpas, and Manavaas. There was also a boy who appeared from the sweat drops which were like sparks of fire dropped on Bhumi and Maha Deva named him ‘Kuja’ or ‘Mangala’ and made him a Senior of ‘Grahas’ (Planets) with the responsibility of providing ‘Shubha’ or Auspiciousness and ‘Ashubha’ or Inauspiciousness.

    The son sounds like Mars. From another source:

    In the Vamana Purana, the story of Andhaka's birth remains same. Andhaka was the son of Hiranyaksha and cousin of Prahlada. Andhaka and Prahlad along with their army defeated the Devas and their army making Prahlada the king of the three worlds [...] Kartikeya and Ganesha accompanied by the ganas destroyed his chariot. Shiva battled him and pierced him in the heart, but he was able to recoup and strike Shiva with his mace. The blood that fell on the ground from the wound in turn gave rise to the eight forms of Bhairava. Shiva lifted the impaled Andhaka on his Trishula. The sweat emanating from Shiva gave rise to a girl and a boy who was the colour of charcoal who consumed the blood of Andhaka before it fell on the ground. Shiva named the girl and the boy Charchika and Mangala and held Andhaka impaled on his trident for thousands of years which reduced his body to a mere skeleton-like. He begged for forgiveness and started praising Shiva upon which Shiva said he would only agree if he accepted Parvati as his mother. Andhaka did so and also accepted Shiva as his father. He was forgiven and made a gana-chief. Shiva took him to the Mandara mountain where Parvati also blessed the same boon to him and he later became famous by the name of Bhringi.

    Andhaka has a reason for an emaciated appearance. It took thousands of years which means Carchika probably had quite a feast. But again, unless something is really huge, instead of changing the text, it would be better to give the original and then be clear about what is commentary or interpretation, etc., and we have to do that somewhat manually from a
    Vamana pdf around p. 393 or pdf 449, which says the Blood of Andhaka forms the Bhairavas, as well as the girl dipped in blood, and the boy like a pile of charcoal. She has her name because she is smeared with blood; she is beautiful, puts on a lion's skin, and roams the earth and settles at Hingulata. Her name, in this sense, is "anointing", like they say about Christos. So she might drink it, but her name still does not mean drinker, it is Blood Bather.

    Although Hingulata Devi has been called "old", I am not sure if there is much evidence of this prior to ca. ninth century. That frames the Vamana as a latter-day record of this. Hingula is supposed to be Sulfur to Shiva's Mercury, while as a sister, Charchika is Blood to her brother's Charcoal. As far as I can tell, this is like the Two Stages, since Generation Stage is taking the latent heat of the unillumined earthy Mars and making the glow of the Red Planet, and then Completion Stage is going to harness this Red as Sulfur and Blood--Sun--Cauri and do reactions that definitely involve the Purification of Mercury. As in another Buddhist tantric metaphor, Mahamaya is "Two Shapes":

    The Mahamaya phase of creation consists of the lesser yoga of shape, which has two
    aspects: the natural yoga of shape and the emanation yoga of shape. For the first,
    through a simple procedure of creation—the instantaneous method or creation from
    a seed-syllable—one performs deity yoga in which one meditates on Vajrasattva, the
    basis of the emanation. The second, regardless of whether one practices the long or
    the short version, is the meditation on the heruka or the dakini, which is the emana¬
    tion itself.

    The lesser yoga of shape definitely belongs to the creation phase alone, whereas the
    supreme yoga of shape definitely belongs to the phase of completion. However, for the
    actual practice of this tantra, one may visualize oneself in various forms, such as Vajra-
    sattva, the male heruka in union, or the dakini Jnaneshvari.

    Charchika is at home in a place where her comfortable role appears to become Naked, which I had not noticed before, since that is unexpected as a form of Durga. But Hingula is Kotari.

    Her brother is Bhutas or Kuja, "the earth-born planet Mars".

    Andhaka repents and becomes Bhrngi, lord of Ganas.

    Csoma de Koros reported as early as 1836 that Charchika appears to be the most important deity to Rakta Yamari, using the mantra:

    Om Vajra Charchika Siddhendra Nila Harini Ratna Traya

    Yamari is Manjushri--Mars, and, he is Red there, and, this form seems to be a Union practice coming out of Black Yamari, which we found as a substantial framework for Generation Stage. Carcika is in both of these, so, it is entirely possible that what we just said about her brother has the same meaning here.

    Historically, in an architectural manual known in Indian research, "The Buddhist Pratimalaksanam enjoins that images of such deities as Brahma, the goddess Charchika, the Risis, the Brahmaraksasa, the celestial beings, and the Buddhas should be made according to dasatala measurement, and no images of others should be made in this manner."

    For some reason, she is the only goddess who should be the same size as Buddha.

    Although this work was also translated into Chinese, it has not much evidence prior to the twelfth century, and so i. e. Carcika is recorded as having this stature when things were translated into Tibetan in the late Sarma period.

    In one of her few other appearances, Page 128 of Roar of Thunder equates Charchika to Locana.

    She is the Mother of Citra:

    Her beautiful saffron complexion resembles the color of kumkuma, and her garments are the color of crystal. Her father is Catura, the paternal uncle of Suryamitra. Her mother is Carcika-devi and her husband is Pithara.

    There are other gopis who mostly collect transcendental herbs and medicinal creepers from the forest and do not collect flowers or anything else. Chitra-devi is the leader of these gopis. The chief gopis in Sri Chitra’s yutha are Rasalika, Tilakini, Saurasen, Sugandhika, Vamani, Vamanayana, Nagari and Nagavallika.

    She can nicely make various kinds of nectarean beverages. (There are also eight other gopi maidservants, headed by Rasalika-devi, who are expert at making various nectarean beverages.)

    Catura is Krishna's foremost spy.

    Radha's Gopis were hardly known prior to the fifteenth century. Does that mean that Carcika can go back in time and become the Mother of the Nectar Clan? If she produced a Gopi, it is possible no-one knew until then.

    From an attempt to focus on an unknown-to-me Tamil poet:

    According to the Vāmaṇa purāṇā, Koṟṟavai was the name of an ancient goddess at Hingulas in Baluchistan, who was later renamed Hani by Scythians, and Carcika by Hindus, during the Gupta period.

    In fact, in ch. 49, 46-47, the goddess Carcika is said to reside on mount Haingulata.

    Korravai or Suli is a Tamil War goddess, not a native Hinguli. The cave has a natural association since Sati's Vermillion Tikka fell here. The area has this name in the Jain and Pali Buddhist texts.

    Hingula is also a name

    of the tutelary deity of the Dadhi-parṇas

    which has little meaning other than "Man, the Seven-Leafed plant" as in:

    Kinnara (किन्नर) is the name of the Yakṣa...The Kevala tree for him is called Dadhiparṇa or Saptacchada.

    Tantrachudamani equates Hingula Pitha with the Brahmarandra. They say the name comes from a Tatar in the Treta Yuga. Another legend has Dadhici using a Hingala mantra against Parasurama to protect Jayasena. They say:

    Hinglaj mata mandir is very old and has history of being in existence even before Mahabharata times (Dwapara Yuga).
    Sindh ruler Jayadratha (Saindhava), brother-in-law of Kauravas built many temples around Hinglaj Mata Mandir.

    A random basket about Hingula tells us:

    Although the Hingula shrine in Balochistan is considered to be a true Shakti Peeth, other shrines dedicated to the goddess exist in India and Sri Lanka. One important shrine is located 14 km from Talcher in the state of Orissa in India. King Nala of the Vidarbha region of Western India was an ardent devotee of Devi Hingula. He was approached by the King of Puri for help. In order to start cooking 'Mahaprasada' for Lord Jagannath he had to procure Devi Hingula as fire for the temple kitchen. The Goddess agreed and moved to Puri as fire. [Nilachala = ancient name of Puri]

    along with mantra translations:

    Translation : "Mahaamaayaa (Queen of Illusions) who represents the supreme virtue by reigning over all three virtues, has Bhimalochana as her Bhairava, and derides the worldly trappings by dancing naked, resides in this cave of Hingula that enshrines her sacred head."

    Translation : "Oh Hingula Devi, she who holds nectar in her self and is power incarnate. She who is one with Lord Shiva, to her we pay our respects and make this offering (swaha)."

    She is in Kularnava and Kubjika tantras as a not-the-crown pitha.

    In this case, we can say she pre-dates writing, was exported to Orissa, as Fire, which perhaps became the Charchika Pitha there.

    Charchika or Budimaa shortly before Sabari Tantra.

    Carcika as Hingalaj and Kotari among the Rajputs:

    Charan men are also known as the sacrosanct guides of camel and pack oxen
    caravans through the Thar Desert, and as traders in horses, wool and salt, suppliers
    of food and weaponry to armies, and perhaps most importantly, as the devotees of
    Shakti and the poets and priests of cults dedicated to Charani Sagatis, living
    goddesses of Charan origin, thought of as historical women recognized as living
    goddesses during their lives or deified after their deaths. Such women, born to
    Charan lineages, are believed to be the multiple manifestations of the “first” or
    “original” goddess, the Mahashakti Hinglaj.

    She has a cat form. This is from the Kadambari where she is Jatamatr devata or watches childbirth and has the face of a cat. That is from a study of stonework which says:

    1. Animal faced mother goddess: One of the earliest evidences of a
    therianthropic figure is an elephant -faced female figure (F!G.43:d) depicted on
    a terracotta plaque exposed during the excavations at Rairh (Jaipur),
    Rajasthan (Puri n.d.26) and dated to c. 1st century B.C. Scholars tend to
    identify the figure with Vainayaki{Agrawala 1978:21)

    Carcika is also worshipped by Vanadurga mantra.

    She is Kubjika in Manthanabhairava Tantra.

    Tantric goddess of Bengal says:

    Camunda and Carcika held a position of greater significance than other dreadful aspects of the great goddess Candi is historically substantiated by the archaeological findings and epigraphic records of Bengal.

    A neighbor of hers:

    In the Oriya Mahabharata (15th century), the Goddess Sarala was popularly known as ‘Sarola Chandi’. The worship of the goddess Sarala derives from the worship of Chandi in the Markandeya Purana.

    Archaeologists and scholars have concluded that the worship of the Goddess Sarala in Jhankad began during the 8th century CE.

    Folklore regarding the goddess goes back to thousands of years, to the age of Parashurama. It is said that it was the god Parashurama who carved the goddess with the tip of his arrow.

    In Hindu culture, 'Maa Sarala' (Mother Sarala) is a Goddess who acts as a patron of the followers of Vaishnav and Shakta. It is rare for a single deity to straddle both of these Hindu denominations. She is sometimes suspected to be a Buddhist tantric figure, as she holds a book, Veena and handbell, which are Mahayana symbols.

    Carcika is usually an Eight Arm Durga:

    She displays khadga, shula, katari and varadamudra in her four right hands whereas the four left hands represent severed head, blood-cup, ‘’damru’’ and leaving a finger of the remaining hand soaked in blood.

    But the remarkable point is the enshrining deity Maa Charchika on iconographical point of view can be assigned to the 9th – 10th centuries A.D. i.e. Bhaumakara rule in Odisha. It is believed that the Charchika idol was created by Parashurama.

    Hingula is self-arisen, Carcika and Sarala were carved by Parasurama's Arrows. The oldest written evidence in Orissa is aware of the non-human post:

    The earliest reference to
    Stambheswari is found in the Teresingha
    copper plate of king Tustikara.
    Paleographically, it is assigned to the fourth /
    fifth century AD

    About 32 km from Bhubaneswar, in the district of Khurda (that also includes the city of Bhubaneswar)
    we find the temple of Goddess Barunei or Varuni, on the bank of the stream Svarna Ganga flowing from
    the mountain.

    With a bit more detail, Hingalar is over a really big desert, and houses a steam volcano of initiation:

    It is said that when 'Bhagwan Parashurama' came after killing the Kshatriyas 21 times, the remaining Rajaghans went to the shelter of Mother Hingula and pleaded for their protection. Then the mother called him 'Brahmakshatriya.'

    It is believed that there are Kamakhya of Assam, Kanyakumari and Tamil Nadu, Kamakshi of Kanchi, Ambaji of Gujarat, Lalita of Prayag, Vindhyavasini of Vindhyachal, Volcano of Kangra, Vishalakshi of Varanasi, Mangaladevi of Gaya, Sundari of Bengal, Guhyeshwari of Nepal and Malwa In these two forms, Adyashakti is embellishing as Hingla Devi.

    In front, there is a statue of Goddess Hinglaj Devi, who is in the form of 'Mata Vaishno Devi'.

    In the terms of others:

    Kotavi or Kotari, that is, an uncovered goddess, is a Hindu mythology deity and the tutelary goddess of the Daityas. She was the form of Goddess Durga


    Chhinnamasta are the malevolent war goddess Kotavi and the South-Indian hunting goddess Korravai.

    She was the form of Goddess Durga, and the mother like tutelary goddess of the demon Banasur. [Vishnu Purana]

    Seeing that Bana summoned his mother like presiding deity, who came as Kotara (or Kotari), a nude women with dishevelled hair and fought with Krishna.[Bhagavata Purana]

    In someone's view of shakti's forms:

    Bhudevi, Bhumidevi, Bhumika, Bhairavi, Santeri, Lajjagouri, Lanjika, Mahakoteshwari, Yogambika, Nitambini, Kotari, Chinnamasta etc. are associated with the trunk of Devi Renuka. (The head of Renuka is Yallamma that is Jagadamba.)

    Koṭavī (कोटवी).—The goddess enshrined at Koṭitīrtham.*

    * Matsya-purāṇa 13. 37.

    In Vishnu Purana, when Krishna tries to kill Bana with his Chakra:

    As he was in the act of casting it, the mystical goddess Koṭavī, the magic lore of the demons, stood naked before him[4]. Seeing her before him, Kṛṣṇa, with unclosed eyes, cast Sudarśana, to cut off the arms of Bāṇa. The discus, dreaded in its flight by the whole of the weapons of the demons, lopped off successively the numerous arms of the Asura. Beholding Kṛṣṇa with the discus again in his hand, and preparing to launch it once more, for the total demolition of Bāṇa, the foe of Tripura (Śiva) respectfully addressed him...


    Koṭavī is said to be an eighth portion of Rudrāṇī, and the tutelary goddess of the Daityas, composed of incantations. The Hari V. calls her also Lambā, and intimates her being the mother of Bāṇa, and as identical with Durgā. The word in the lexicons designates a naked woman, and is thence applicable to Durgā, in some of her forms.

    Kotari of Hingalaj:

    Brahmarandhra Kottawisha Bhairavi

    Brahma Vaivartha Purana calls Kotari the village deity of Sonitpur, and places her in a chariot in the middle of eight Candis, following after the Bhairavas and Rudras, followed by the Matrikas. The Matrikas include Bhairavi "of terrific form" and are led by Bhadrakalika who "looked terrific because of her protruding tongue".

    In that version, there is no intervention when he gets smashed to pieces; Shiva salvages Bana and places him at the feet of Krishna. The presence of Kotari and the Candis is not mentioned in the battle. Nothing says anything about her clothes. Because Bana is a Shaivite, all of Shiva's forces equate to his army.

    It is similar to the other war: Vaisnavite Prahlada abdicated the Daitya Kingdom and gave it to the Saivite Andhaka.

    In another area, Durga should move in the upper region, together with Kotari, Kali, and Ugrachanda. Shiva has just cast a "circle of protection" on the guy, how does a chariot go to the "upper region"?

    Durga is then called Narayani and the illusion of Vishnu.

    At home, she may be Naked Blood Bather Brahmanrandra together with Third Eye Bhairava, but she also goes out like Sukra--Venus acting as Daitya Guru at least in the era of Bana. Therefor this Hingula Devi has fused in both Himachal Pradesh and Orissa since about as early a time as can be detected.

    Krsangi does not necessarily mean Carcika is "emaciated" in Buddhist sadhanas. For example, Ratimanjari explains a Padmini woman by:

    bhavati kamalanetrā nāsikākṣudrarandhrā aviralakuca- yugmā cārukeśī kṛśāṅgī | mṛduvacanasuśīlā gītavādyānuraktā sakalatanu- suveśā padminī padmagandhā

    A Padmini is typically slender, not anorexic.

    Here is a Hindu Yellow Charchika:

    Bhattacharya's Nepalese sketch of Vajracarcika with fangs and vulture-like claws was made to his order. There is nothing in the sadhana that says she has claws, and rather than being skeletal, she might be a Padmini:

    So far, everything seems to say...she is *not* Camunda. There is not a reason to give her this appearance, unless you think she is Camunda. Carcika is a Bhairavi; this is Ananda Bhairavi:


    3) A girl of 12 or a young girl representing the goddess Durgā at the Durgā festival.

    The word comes from Bhi or Bhira, or Bhaya, Fear, which Amoghasiddhi's Abhaya Mudra dispells.

    bhīrū (भीरू).—f S (A fearing or timid one.) A woman.

    If she has fangs, so does the blue face of Usnisa Vijaya, which can be hard to determine, but I think this is fangs in a Drukpa version:

    But it is also true that in the orient, or at least in Japan, showing someone your teeth is the equivalent of a middle finger in the west:

    I could see why it might be an expression that is like "Threatening Gesture", Tarjani, and Carcika just happens to be better at it than anyone else.

    Circle of Bliss 114 appears to mistakenly call a similar lower left deity "Four Armed Khadga or Guhyajnana", but their image also has six arms. Himalayan Art's copy of the same 1700s Nepalese image is not that great, but, they got as far as to call her "six armed Vajrayogini":

    At Hirapur:

    Hirapur circle of yoginis also names Varuni as Vrddhi.

    This is Carcika's Indian temple, sunyavahini mandapa:

    As the corresponding ancient fragment which, to me, suggests there must have been a very old esoteric connection from Orissa to Pakistan, the Gilgit manuscripts from ca. 400 include Pratisara, which, notwithstanding a few damaged elisions, has a different beginning than other versions, which might not be that important, except we will find Lankesvari in a primordial spot, where she may be "giving" what is to come:

    [13] man.icud.a ca svarn.ake´sı pingala cama {...} nı ekajat.a ca maharaks.ası |

    tatha buddha {...} vara |

    tatha lanke´svarı dhanyaanye 'pi bahu {...} raks.anti yasyeyam. mahavidya hastagata {...} [ka]´s caiva ´sa˙nkhinı kut.adantı (ca)´srıya devı ca sa {...} baddha raks.arthepratisaradharan.asya nityam. ya dharaya {...} bala |

    This begins with Ekajati, then [Lokesvara?], then Lankesvari, followed by Sankhini and Sri Devi, Raksa Artha Pratisara Dharani, which evidently causes one to hold Bala.

    As another aspect of Candi, in the Seven Jewels of Enlightenment is Ghoracandi as Priti--Joy.

    Ghoracandi has only a couple of existences, one in Bengal. It pertains to a legend about Indra leaving his abode and touring heaven and earth:

    With the company of Vyasamuni, Indra after leaving his
    kingdom travelled extensively in heaven and earth but when
    he returned to heaven he found it desolate. Indra asked
    Vyasamuni of the cause of its desolation. Vyasamuni replied
    that it was due to the wrath of Ghora-Candi who was displeased
    with a Gandharva king— the king of heaven during the absence
    of Indra, who obtained the blessings of Ghora-Candi from
    Mahadeva by practising austerities.

    At this Indra felt inclined to worship Ghora Candi, and
    by her blessings, he once more recovered his own kingdom.

    Vidyadhara, an honest man, heard about the omnipotence
    of Ghora Candi and worshipped the goddess. Through her
    grace, Vidyadhara became the king of Campakanagara.

    An old man prayed to the goddess, and he was rejuvenated.

    But owing to the discourtesy shown by Pihgala, one of
    the wives of Vidyadhara, Ghora-Candi disappeared from his
    home and Vidyadhara became an ordinary man.

    Sri Pitha Stava has as the first line:

    brahmani tattvarupa vividha ghanarava ghoracandi ca raudri

    followed by references to Kaumari who drinks intoxicating honey, Vaisnavi, Varahi, Indri, and Chamunda as aspects of Lakshmi, followed by five couplets describing Ganesh. Ca could come at the end of three things meaning "and"; written this way, Ghoracandi and Raudri appear to be the objects of "many thundering forms of Brahmani". The likely reason for stating both is that Candi is Puranic Durga, but Raudri would be associated with Shiva.

    Then it gets back to Brahmani with several yellow attributes; she is Brahma Sakti of Purva Pitha, Prayaga.

    Next is Golden

    māheśvarī mahādevī mohamāyāniraṃja

    of Uttare Pitha, Varanasi. In her verse, Mahesvari is Maha Humkara Nadini.

    Next is Four Arm Red Maharaudri Kaumari of Agni Pitha, Kolapura (Kaumari is also regarded as Guru-Guha the intimate guide who resides in the cave of one’s heart). Next is Dark Green Vaisnavi of Nrttya Pitha, Attahasa. Then Red Varahi of Yama Pitha, Jayanti. Then Sakresvari who is Mahavajradhara Devi of Naga Pitha, Cirana. Then Chamunda of Marut Pitha, Ekamaksa. Then Sword Mahalakshmi on Lion has the powers of Gandharvas and Vidyadharas, and is at Isana Pitha of Devikota. Finally appears a compound of eight forms, for Catus Pitha Nitya Eight Yoginis, which is the Good Pitha of Bhadra Kali. The article finishes with ten or so couplets about the male. It makes a jumble of things like ghora, bhima, and bhairavi as adjectives; raudri is used with Kaumari and Candi.

    It appears Hindu but is filed in Chakrasamvara literature. Four pithas--chakras always make Eight Kshetra Vasinis using a bindu of a thousand suns seems to be the only specifically Buddhist statement. That would not make sense if it just told me there are eight pithas. It does if I understand why there are four major pithas, and that the group of eight is probably useful to keep my life from flowing out the exits or cemeteries.

    bhadrapīṭhe sthitā nityaṃ bhadrakālī samāvṛtā (veil)

    At the end, all diseases are pacified, Dirgha Mayura Vapyate (is sown). Dirgha means long, or extended in time or space, most commonly as in Dirgha Pranayama or the most basic at the level of Fourfold Om. Mayura has almost no other meaning than peafowl, although according to the Guptas, it is a contraction of Mayapura, which is the Vajradaka sacred site where Bhima is, or, a name for the body, city of illusion. In Pitha Stava, it is Kaumari's mount, and then in Nepal, one of the most important Buddha stories is Golden Peacock.

    Pitha Pitha is Fire blended with all elements.

    There is a similarly-named:

    Ghoradakini with Jnanadakini

    So there is a Vermillion Pitha which is very interesting, and then there is one of another kind. This goddess also has an Eighteen Arm form which means she is probably the sadhana form of a 1,000 arm deity, which in this case is Guhyesvari. She is also Saffron, the color of Nectar of Immorality, and so is something like a step up from Prasanna Tara. At the same time, she is a Pitha goddess, whose meaning in terms of the body is at the Tip of the Jewel. In tantra this is considered the same for men and women. On women it is her clitoris, represented by a bird's beak, which on men is the tip of the penis. The difference between the sexes is considered the Root, which is Open, Lotus, or not. And so we wind up having a few different things, but, the Khaganana deity is similar for everyone.

    This Pitha is in Nepal and described in Kathmandu Valley as a Water Pot:

    Khaganana the Goddess of a Bird Face. According to the legend in the Svayambhu-purana, she had lived in
    a bottomless hole at the root of the lotus flower from which the Bright Light of Svayambhu
    emerged. And Manjusri Bodhisattva received the first initiation of Cakrasamvara in Nepal with
    her water on the day of Samvarodaya-dasami. In secret Newar Tantric Buddhist songs caca in
    Newari, caryagita in Sanskrit sung by Vajracaryas, therefore, Guhyesvari is often called
    Khagamukha-devi the Goddess of a Bird Face. In this description, she is also Agniyogini. Agni Yogini; "goddess" or shakti is Kakini.

    This is considered the Vagina and Cervix Pitha, whereas the menstruating pitha of Assam is thought of as Ovaries and Uterus. Sati may have neglected any Pithas for specifically-male anatomy. There is, of course, an entire tradition of Shiva Lingams as well, but in Buddhism, I have not noticed any need to pay attention to them.

    We have found a bit more attention on Sabaris, Lamas, and women of Kinnaur greatly exceeding the proportion of their numbers. Also that Mahacinakrama would have probably have been understood as involving sexualized shaktism since close to the time of Dakini Jala. If the Kinnaur laws are any indication, there was vastly more to it than that, but, we doubt there were orthodox Hindu sources for it because firstly, of copying Mahacinakrama out of Buddhism at a later time, and then the close counterparts such as Radha Krishna and Ananda Bhairavi not arising until later.

    Much later, as a synthesis in the standard system with Air = Heart center, Swami Purnananda in 1526 around Guhawati, Kamarupa, Assam says:

    Here dwells Kakini, who in colour is yellow like unto new lightning, exhilarated and auspicious; three-eyed and the benefactress of all. She wears all kinds of ornaments, and in Her four hands She carries the noose and the skull, and makes the sign of blessing and the sign which dispels fear. Her heart is softened with the drinking of nectar.

    Pandit Purnananda Svami says that there is Sakti Kakini in Anahata Chakra. mattā = exhilarated. Kakini is exhilarated. pūrṇasudhārasārdrahṛdayā = Totally Pure nectar softens her heart. The nectar flows from Sahasrara Chakra. She wears the skin of a black antelope.

    Meditate on Kakini, who is in the Fat holding in her hands a noose (PAsa), trident (SUla), skull (KapAl), Drum (Damaru). She with a bending pose, is of yellow complexion, likes to eat Dadhy-anna (curd and rice) drink VAruni (Rice wine).

    The Sakti whose tender body is like ten million flashes of lightening is in the pericarp of this Lotus in the form of a triangle (Trikona). Inside the triangle is the Siva-Linga known by the name of Bana. This Linga is like shining gold, and on his head is an orifice minute as that in a gem. He is the resplendent abode of Laksmi.

    Pandit Purnananda Svami tells of the triangle (Trikona) in the pericarp of Anahata Lotus. trikoṇābhidha = In the form of a triangle. Sakti appears as a down triangle with apex down. The down Triangle is symbolic of female escutcheon or Yoni which also appears like an inverted triangle, which is below Vayu-Bija. Within the Triangle is the BAna-Linga.

    The Heart Lotus of the color of Bhaduka Flower has vermilion letters from Ka to Tha on its 12 petals with Bindu above them. Hexagonal Vayu Mandala of smoky color is in its pericarp; above it is Surya Mandala with the Triangle shining like ten million flashes of lightning within it. Above it is Vayu-Bija of smoky hue sitting on a black antelope, four armed and carrying a goad (Ankusa). In the lap of Vayu-Bija abides three-eyed Isa who like Hamsa extends His two arms in gestures of granting boons and dispelling fear. In the pericarp of the Anahata Lotus is another red lotus wherein abides four-armed Sakti Kakini of golden hue, yellow raiment, many jewels and garland of bones carrying PAsa (noose), the KapAla (skull), and making Vara (boons) and Abhaya (fear-not) signs. Her heart is softened by the nectar. Golden-colored Siva in the form Bana-Linga with crescent moon and Bindu on his forehead abides in the middle of the triangle. He is joyous with a rush of desire. Hamsa Jivatma below him is like the steady tapering flame of a lamp. Below the pericarp, there is a red lotus of 8 petals with its head turned upward which contains the Kalpa tree, the jeweled altar surmounted with an awning, flags and the like and is the place of mental worship.

    Allright. Well, that talks about the nectar melting and softening the heart, which is what we mean by Citta Cakra, and the Thir Joy, and the Circle of Inverted Stupa. As "timing", it is the last stage prior to Sahaja.

    As yoginis, Sabaris were lower than Dombis and Candalis. They are also the most desirable as consorts. It is taken to the extent that "sabari" is synonymous with "tantric yogini" in the Charyapadas or tantric songs.

    Tantrism arises from the Kadambari text, and flesh offerings to Candi in this hill country, which can also be shown to be the particular domain of the weaver caste which also spread to or influenced Bengal.

    Sabari girl wears peacock feathers. The sabaris were said to wear garlands of ganja and their lovers were high all the time, gladdened with passion. Saraha takes this as a metaphor for Buddhist tantric practice.

    So this characterizes the Mahamudra heritage of Saraha and Sabari pa. Sabara followed a master who spread Karuna; Lokesvara's teachings induce a thoughtless trance of sublime compassion, which results in Mahanirvana, not the nirvana of extinction. And so it is still part of Mahakarunika.

    According to Bhattacharya on Vajra Tara:

    The following are some of the instances in which the mantra of Vajratārā might be applied with success. Let a knot be tied at the end of a cloth over which the mantra has been recited seven times, and its wearer can go even to the most inaccessible regions of the Vindhya mountains without being molested.

    Vajra Tara sadhana is something like the power of increase from various consorts to sabaris and then ever-intensifying degrees of these at all levels of the Vindhyas, or, in mandala terms, safe passage across the slopes of Meru.

    Mudra is the term used to describe Dombipa's "mystic consort." On the sensual plane she is the "other body", the karma-mudra, employed in sexual yoga. On the non-dual, ultimate level she is the jnana-mudra, the "seal of awareness" stamped upon every experience of body, speech and mind.

    As a slight retelling of the three levels and Four Kinds of Women:

    As the incantation-born female yielded a predominance of void, the field-
    bom female a predominance of pleasure, so now the together-born female
    yields the experience of pleasure-void (sukha-sunya) in equal measure.
    This pleasure-void involves a sequence of four joys (ananda), produced by
    the melted white element in the central channel of the body.

    The Groups of Four and Five

    A fine summary statement of the goddesses considered as consorts in
    the Anuttara-yoga-tantra is given by the Tibetan author Klon-rdol bla-ma :

    The “means path” of another’s body is the four families of “seals”
    (mudra), namely: Padmini, Sankhini, Hastini, and Mrgi. Moreover,
    each of those has the three varieties “together-born female”
    (sahaja), “field-born female” {ksetraja), and “incantation-born
    female” (dharanlja). The “together-born female” enables one to
    attain the illusory body and the Goal Clear-light. The “field-born
    female” enables one to attain the Symbolic Clear-light with the
    arcane state of body, of speech, and of mind. The “incantation-
    born female” is the yogini at the final limit of the “stages of produc-
    tion” {utpatti-krama).

    The object to be summoned is (a) the god maiden (surakanya),
    (b) the demi-god maiden {daityakanya), (c) the four kinds of human
    maidens— Padmini, Sankhani, Hastini, and Mrgi. They on all
    circles (mandala) of earth, are summoned from everywhere. The
    first is summoned from above the earth; the second, from beneath
    the earth; the third, from upon the earth.

    So in other words we...are not exactly avoiding the Daityas, in fact they are the main source of Bliss and Sambhogakaya.

    Cam--Carcika is also Candali, and also Cauri or the Sun or Red Void. In Hevajra:

    The word candali is composed of canda (the fierce one) which refers to Wisdom (prajna) because Wisdom is
    fierce when destroying afflictions and distresses, and ali which refers to
    Vajrasattva. Canda is Wisdom and [the seed-syllable] am. Ali is Vajrasattva and
    [the seed-syllablej hum. Thus, Candali is composed of am and hum-
    When these two seed-syllables become one aggregate in the form of a
    drop (bindu) within the channel of the Vajra Gem situated in the navel,
    the Great Bliss-filled Fire of Passion blazes.

    Canda is the Source of Nature (dharmodaya) and is red. Ali is the first letter of the
    alphabet, the seed-syllable a. By attentively compressing and churning
    that radiant seed-syllable together with the winds, the experiences of the
    eye and the other sense organs, the Five Buddhas in their entirety, the five
    elements and the ego are all burnt and the Moon establishes the supreme

    Prajna is Fierce when destroying afflictions, which has something to do with inner fire. So that is Candi, Ugra, Bhima, etc., in terms of their intended meaning.

    The original male-based yogas did not speak of Vam Vajravarahi. Namasangiti takes fivefold form under Space Element--Vijnana Skandha as Vam--Vajrasattva, who is Pancha Jina or five skandhas, and five mantras or syllables, the White Male seed. Then, to use his Hundred Syllable mantra is the addition of sixth element, Manas or Gnosis, and increases to Six Directions, which, when unified, is E Dharmadhatu, the Red Female seed. The two syllables together are Evam or first word in the common "Thus have I heard..."...when the six are ‘unified’ they are the E syllable Dharmadhatu; “five syllables and greatly void” is called semen and moon; “voidness in the bindu with one hundred syllables” is called blood and sun.

    Whoever shines brightly and (praises) the Buddha here in Jambudvipa becomes the (evam) of pleasure in the middle of the pure triangle in the form of "e". When there is pleasure in the triangular mandala, it is called Vajra Arali (also bhaga of the lady and dharmodaya).

    Marpa on the Deer Sign:

    As for the syllable HAM , its actuality (svabhava; ngo-bo-nyid) being the moon (viz "containing a hare"), it is Vajrasattva or Vajradhara, or the bodhicitta (byang-chub-gyi sems). This intuitive awareness of the great bliss (mahasukhajnana; bde-ba chen-po'i ye-shes) drips from the mahasukhacakra and, by means of the body of the yogin identified with Hevajra, it induces the experience of the co-emergent (sahaja; Ihan-cig-skyes- pa): "Not otherwise is sahaja called, nor elsewhere is it attained."

    So, the channels are filled up with the [dripping] bodhicitta. As it has fallen down to A, the drop is dissolved, [and] you will grasp the meaning of the inseparable bliss and voidness (sukha-sunya).

    Gradually milk the 'Cow of the Heavens'

    If you do not know what has the four applications, [that is the pranayama practice], you are in danger of turning [its] virtue into fault. If you do not know the sameness of taste (samarasa) of the four elements (bhuta), even if you meditate, no experiences would arise. The methods of curing are innumerable, but the tool of the mystic heat is very crucial.

    So Sahaja is past the heart softening stage and nectar returns to the navel. But here, if you can do the former, the last is not too hard to attain. And if so, you want to be able to restrain it, so that you do experience distinct Joys of the Throat and Heart for at least a few minutes, to as long as you like.

    Dharana is much different:

    one proceeds to the Cittavisuddhi-krama, namely to visualiza-
    tion of the mental substance (cittanidhyapti) as the three light stages or
    three voids, the arcane mind. The arcane body or illusory body consisting
    of the winds and that mental substance is the topic of the Svadhisthana-
    krama (stage of personal blessing). Stationed in the illusory-like samadhi
    {mayopama-samddhi), one enters the Clear Light with the illusory body by
    means of the two simultaneous meditations called “contraction” {pinda-
    graha) and “expansion” (anubheda), described in the Abhisambodhi-krama.

    The expression “three knowledges” means the three lights, Light, Spread
    of Light, and Culmination of Light, constituting the arcane mind.

    And so the Fourth Yoga involves the ability to do the Three Lights technique, as well as Dissolving into Void. That is like maximum fulfillment of the Dakini Jala Rahasya, and then you can do a Sadhana, which is the Fifth Yoga, which means Completion Stage based on Seven Syllable deity.
    Last edited by shaberon; 29th September 2021 at 11:35.

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    Default Re: Nirakara and Shentong Buddhism, Tara, Sadhanas, Sanskrit culture

    Khaganana, Manohara, Lama

    I am not yet sure why I have said that the Shakti Kakini "is" the Buddhist Agniyogini.

    We can say the latter is an outer form of Khaganana, who in turn is Guhyesvari. And then Guhyesvari is not strictly Fire.

    As the "fourth yogini of Nepal", Guhyajnanadakini is now something like the door sign for Mahacinakrama Tara as well as for Agniyogini, at this spot. If we look at Nepal Mandala on Guhyesvari:

    Her pitha, paired
    with the majestic Pasupatinatha, lies on the op¬
    posite side of the Bagmati in Mrigasthali (Map
    6:29). Now walled around to limit access to ac¬
    cepted castes, and sheltered by a gilt palaquin, a
    gift of Pratapamalla, Guhyesvari’s shrine is hy-
    paethral. She is manifest as a water-filled pothole
    surrounded with the carved stone petals of a lotus.
    Thus at her pitha the celebrated goddess appears
    little different from a minor locality godling such
    as Bhaktapur’s Khana-devata (Plate 553). Like all
    pitha-devatas, however, Guhyesvari also manifests
    herself in images. Their normal locale is in the
    deochem or private agamas, from which on occa¬
    sion they are taken to the Mrigasthali pitha or
    other places, as ritual demands.

    Guhyesvari is one of the chief national divinities,
    and is ardently worshiped by all Nepalese. But
    they conceive of her in different ways. To Siva-
    margis she is Guhyakali (Durga) and sakti of
    Pasupatinatha, the nearby complementary Siva
    shrine. Buddhamargis claim her as Prajnapara-
    mita, but worship her variously as Nairatma, the
    fearful consort of Heruka, or as Fire Yogini
    (Agniyogini) named for the subaqueous fire that
    is said once to have emanated from the pothole.
    As Agniyogini, Guhyesvari completes the comple¬
    ment of the Valley’s Four Yoginis. Her compan¬
    ions are usually identified as Vidyasvari (Kath¬
    mandu) and the two famous Vajrayoginis, one of
    Sankhu, the other of Pharping.

    As with all the pithas where the deities are wor¬
    shiped in natural, undatable objects, we have no
    way of determining the antiquity of Guhyesvari’s
    cult. Nor, in the particular Valley circumstances,
    can we be sure whether Guhyesvari was first a
    local, a Hindu, or a Vajrayana divinity. The chron¬
    icles assign her discovery to Pratapamalla, but a
    colophon entry establishes her existence under this
    name by at least a.d. 1405. Buddhists claim that
    she was discovered by Manjusrl when he drained
    the Kalihrada. At this place, they say, was rooted
    the lotus that supported Svayambhu Jyotirupa, and
    the flower's recumbent stalk (looking to the mod¬
    ern eye very like a rocky ridge) still joins the two
    deities."" The Buddhist assessment may not be too
    far wide of the mark, for whatever the origins of
    the evolved Guhyesvari, she was very likely grafted
    to an indigenous trial or ajima long worshiped at
    the site of the phenomenal subaqueous fire that
    once glowed in Guhyesvarl’s pltha.

    Guhyesvari is more likely Watery Fire, i. e. a sacred stage in alchemy, Antimony, not a gross form element.

    Aside from Kakini, with the others, Dakini, Sakini, etc., it is a system of syllables and chakras. But these again are arranged differently by various schools. And so if we highlight Kakini, she is not an "is", but is considerably different in these variations, or is said to work in three chakras. In one way of making this series, the point of the first two, Sakini and Kakini, is that the first is Prakata Yogini, who is physically manifest, and the second is Gupta Yogini or Hidden:

    ... in the vital sheath and function secretly like the mind caught in a

    dream state. the swapna derives its experiences in this state of consciousness


    Allright. In Buddhism, Svadhisthana is not really a cakra but a Stage, however it does perform what we call Svapna Yoga. They are calling it the second chakra above the physical muladhara. In this associated Nyasa, Kakini is a Ghorarupa who invokes Camunda. Her appearance in Svadisthana Chakra is in the system of Lalita Tripurasundari.

    Or she is in the Muladhara with Ganesh and is Kundalini.

    Or in the Heart is the "first time Kundalini goddess appears beautiful".

    Here, the way she resembles Agni is in the Lightning or Vidyut aspect of Fire, rather much like Vairocani is described by the Hindus. In Mahanirvana Tantra, the heart is golden, Hiranyagarbha, with Ishvara, Bhuvanesvari, and:

    ...the three-eyed Kakini Shakti, lustrous as lightning, with four hands holding the noose and drinking-cup, and making the sign
    of blessing, and that which dispels fear. She wears a garland of human bones. She is excited, and her heart is
    softened with wine. Here, also, are several other Shakti, such as Kala-ratri, as also the vija of air (vayu) or
    "vang." Inside the lotus is a six-cornered smoke-coloured mandala, and the circular region of smoke-coloured
    Vayu, who is seated on a black antelope. Here, too, is the embodied atma (jivatma), like the tapering flame of a

    Her "yellow" color is Nava Tadit Pita, like "new lightning", and she is also Vidyut koti samana, the same as crores of lightning bolts.

    Allright. We are not going to dispute the small flame-like Jivatma that lives here. I would say that in our practice, before this is revealed, you are going to arc through the brain and experience Wrathful Deities, which seem to be largely owned by Vajra Family, who turn out to be the main peaceful residents of our heart chakra. The way the Hindus are describing the heart, I would put more as "whole aura". We largely overlook the heart, until there is something like this Kakini, whose foodstuffs are Yogurt and Nectar, and she processes them in order to soften the subtle heart. So we do want her inner meaning. Here, we also see Air = Prana = Smoke, which is Tara and Candi. So the inner meaning is almost the same, but the deity forms and syllables are not Buddhist.

    In this system, Red = Fire = Agni = Solar Plexus or Navel, Nabhi, Manipura Chakra, which does not resemble the Buddhist Golden Nirmana Cakra, but it does represent the potential furnace or Triangle that we are trying to cast there. If we kick out most of the mechanics they are using, then, you would have something pretty close to this Mainpur as stage one of Pranayama, the Red Triangle, and then the Kakini is quite a bit like the successful ignition or Vairocani as we seek to call it. Vairocani carries the movement forward until there is really softening of the heart and you can do Citta Cakra.

    A few more examples of Kakini such as among the yoginis for Ayappa at Hirapur:

    33. Dakini Madasalini - - Shining with rapture 34. Rakini Papa Rasini - - Destroyer of sin 35. Lakini Sarvatantresi - - Ruler of all tantras 36. Kakini Naganartaki - Who dances with Nagaraj 37. Sakini Mitrarupini - - Friend 38. Hakini Manoharini - - Mind Stealer 39. Tara Yoga Rakta Poorna - Who in union bestows complete passion 40. Shodashi Latika Devi - Creeper Goddess 41. Bhuvaneshwari Mantrini energy of all mantras 42. Chinamasta Yoni Vega - With dripping yoni 43. Bhairavi Satya Sukrini - Supreme Purity 44. Dhumavati Kundalini - Primordial energy of self 45. Bagla Muki Guru Moorthi - Form of the guru 46. Matangi Kanta Yuvati - Youthful beauty enhanced by Love 47. Kamala Sukla Samsthita - Residing in the Semen 48. Prakriti Brahmandri Devi Goddess residing in the crown 49. Gayatri Nitya Chitrini - Eternal core of the energy of Self

    54. Ganga Yoni Svarupini - Energy of the Yoni 55. Aprajita Samaptida - Who Bestows Orgasm 56. Camunda Parianganatha - Ruler of sacred erection

    Vaisnavi of Liquid (Ap) is said to work with Kakini.

    That somewhat peculiarly gets Kakini close to Hakini Manohara.

    Candramukhi or Moon Face Kakini has Four Faces and is the power of Bhuvanesvari.

    As the sage of nectar, so to speak, Dadhici's bones or spine became Indra's Vajra.

    So when we get to Manohara, she seems to be a Kinnari in the Amogapasha Sutra, she is an aspect of Vasudhara that is beyond or within the simpler forms, and she may be the first of them to represent Union, but this is not all she does. She leads a barrage of naked frolics done by Vasudhara, which eventually beckons Jambhala.

    The first two Activities, Hook and Noose, are a common pair of items such as with Ganapati. They are Aversion and Attachment, which we are trying to release, while holding their underlying powers in a poised and balanced manner, effortlessly on the fingertips. Not Grasping. Ucchista Ganapati with Candalini Sumukhi Devi have a big clue that they are similar to Embrace and the racy romps of Vasudhara:

    Ganesh is sometimes said to have two wives, Buddhi and Siddhi, and you will find these in normally-dressed images. He, however, has an almost unwritten shakti, Vinayaki, who resembles a Buddhist Elephant Head deity (Khandaroha), and also probably is the Red Pisaci Sumukhi taking this form. In the relatively few times she is found, she is often pot-bellied or Lambodara, standing on a donkey:

    One of our dharani goddesses is Ganapati's heart. The dharani, itself, is mainly to Ganapati, and so his shakti would almost only be identifiable by mystic means. Nevertheless, Gaṇapatihṛdayā is described in the Dharmakośasaṃgraha of Amritananda as follows:

    “Gaṇapatihṛdayā is one-faced, two-armed, exhibits in her two hands the varada and abhaya poses, and shows the dancing attitude”.

    Along with Varuni, she is in the Matrikas in Skanda Purana:

    Brahmāṇī, O Māheśvarī, O Vārāhī, O Vināyakī, O Aindrī, O Āgneyī, O Cāmuṇḍā, O Vāruṇī

    along with:

    O Gaurī, O Gāndhārī, O Mātaṅgī
    O Kirātī, O Mātaṅgī,

    What is that doing there??

    Here is a study on the history of tantra and/or puja compared to the Vedas, placing the first identifiable Pancha Ayatana (Five Senses exercise) at ca. year 300. It then places this in the context of Bhima Devi temple, and finds the elusive Vinayaki. They think the Buddhists call her Ganapati Hrdaya.

    The strange Pratisara with Sasthi continues by giving a name to no less than Ganesh--Vinayaka's consort Vinayaki:

    He shall first worship vinAyaka meditating on him embracing his shaktI madanAvatI.

    According to, I suppose, the most Vaisnavite source in the world, ISKCON:

    Mādana (मादन).—A category of highly advanced ecstasy in which the lovers meet together and there is kissing and many other symptoms.


    madana : (m.) the God of love. (nt.), intoxication.

    and by this name, Madanavati is a minor deity in Kubjika tantra, associated with Kama and Svadisthana cakra.

    Going by the visuals, we will have to say, yes, Ucchista Ganapati has about the same Hook as Manohara; the related dhyanas say for example "he is trying to have intercourse". And so that is simultaneously present with dharma topics that may seem to be about something else. If you are going to get into Generation Stage and "feel something", it is supposed to be this blend.

    Kurukulla usually has the same two items, Hook and Noose, plus being an Archer. She is an interior phase of Tara or of the Three Reds system. Her "worldly connection" can be found as pre-union Takkiraja and Manohara with Hook and Noose in an unusual modern Nepalese Kurukulla with a Drum:

    Hook is an original summons from afar; Noose is an invitation to remain. It is Pravesaya, a form of entry, you enter my consciousness, someday I will enter your mandala. As an item, it is not that difficult to find it being trained on a few deities.

    The Gatekeeper Noose or Pasi on a flat plane is usually Yellow; she can be found as having a more personal existence, as with Jamgon Kongtrul, Aparajita and Aparajiti. Female Aparajita is not Vasudhara, but, is probably exemplary for Noose like Manohara for Hook.

    As a collision of "generic noose power" similar to how we found Takkiraja getting caught up by Hook, it can be seen in Generation Phase as Mahabala and Pasha. This is also in The Small Golden Key by Thinley Norbu, and as shown in a set of deity flash cards:

    The Generation Stage outline is based on The Small Golden Key and Longchenpa. It is Nyingma and uses a lot of Tibetan, but, also, has written commentary in an English conversational style. It is the same thing we are doing, in terms of the outline and its main meaning, but we are patching in Sanskrit methods. Generation Stage as a whole is Vase Initiation, which is actually Entering the Mandala, along with the yoga of vase breath.

    Mahabala goes in the opposite direction as Takki, becomes conjoined to Sumbha or the Underworld or Nadir, the color Blue, and Varuna's Serpent Noose. This appears to be related to Janguli. Amoghapasha is meant to "move you in" to tantric experience. The Noose as handled by devis is similar.

    Because we already know Janguli is related to Krishna Yamari, it is hard not to find her in this next piece. They also appear to be using an "emaciated" Red Camunda. Here again, yes Camunda is supposed to do this in many Indian accounts, but it does not necessarily seem like it should also represent Carcika. Either one of those could be the deity intended here. The first or "heart eater" is probably a terma Ekajati.

    At the middle left is a maroon deity, wearing a human and tiger skin, holding aloft a knife in the right hand and eating a heart with the left. Below is a blue deity holding in the right hand a representation of mount sumeru and an axe upraised in the left. Attired in various skins he stands atop a blue buffalo. At the middle right is an emaciated female form, maroon in colour, holding aloft a vajra hook with the right hand and a skullcup with the left; wearing a leopard skin lower garment. At the bottom right is a maroon deity with the hair of the head a mass of upward rising snakes, holding a staff of sandalwood in the right hand and a vajra tipped lasso in the left, both upraised; attired in various unusual skins.

    It is a Krishna Yamari terma that is also accepted in Drikung:

    Aparajita and Janguli are "extraordinary" uses of Noose, while we are kind of fidgeting with any amount of Hook we can scrape together.

    After we gain one Noose, a Net is a Noose of Nooses, like Tara whose pants are roundels of mini Taras gathering the Suryagupta and Atisha traditions.


    If Sabari is something like a "prime consort" as known from south India, it seems the Lamas were likely the same in the north, especially in Kiratic areas probably such as Kinnaur. In its definition it says:

    Lāmās otherwise called Rūpikā and Cumbikā flourish among the rare group of the Kāśyapīs.

    which has two possible meanings--earthlings, which is not such a rare group, or the descendants or Gotra of Kasyapa. Since "descendants" includes Nagas and basically everything else in the world of animate bodies, there is still nothing rare until you get to some specific practice in his Rishi Gotra or teaching lineage, which I cannot. So this is murky.

    Then in the same place, they drew information from Hevajra Tantra and Sammoha Tantra, which, to me, does not sound related.

    The Sammoha is however the major basis for what is in these definitions, and the bulk about what is said about tantric Gotras or Amnayas. According to Okar:

    The Sammoha Tantra speaks of the Tantric culture of foreign countries like Bahlika, Kirata, Bhota, Cina, Mahacina, Parasika, Airaka (Iraq), Kamboja, Huna, Yavana, Gandhara and Nepal.....according to the Sammoha-tantra, goddess Nila-Sarasvati was worshipped at a place supposed to have been included in Mongolia....

    The Sammoha Tantra deals with various traditions and mantras, the geographic classification of the Tantras (into four areas -- Kerala, Kashmira, Gauda and Vailasa), and a detailed account of the Vidyas or cults belonging to different ..

    Mahavidya notes the Sammoha's association of Nil Sarasvati to Mongolia.

    Kinsley says it is probably a fifteenth-century compilation of Upatantras for six of the ten Mahavidyas.


    Mahācīna (महाचीन) is the name of a country (possibly identified with Mongolia), classified as Kādi (a type of Tantrik division), according to the 13th century Sammoha-tantra (fol. 7).

    In Kasmir Saivism:

    There are two broad forms of Shakta worship viz the Shri Kul and Kali Kul. Kularnava Tantra is the
    authoritative Agam for Shri Kul and the Mahanirvana Tantra for Kali Kul. The Sammohan Tantra (Chap.
    VI) mentions 64 Tantras, 327 Upatantras, and several yamalas, Damaras, Samhitas and other scriptures of
    the Shaktas and 32 Tantras, 125 Upatantras and Yamalas, Damaras and other scriptures of Shaivas. The
    number of known Tantras is much less than the number mentioned and they have been either withdrawn
    or lost.

    Tantra Vol. I that the definition was derived from, puts it a little more strongly:

    These Lamas are also
    known as Rupika (assuming different forms during intercourse
    with men) and Cumbika (Kissing men at the very first

    The author believes that "Lama" became the Tibetan "Lha mo", and that in general, all these classes indicate non-Indic tantrikas whose cultures became hidden in the Shakti syllables:

    For instance, in Western Tibet,
    a class of sorcerers and witches, called Lha-K'a, led to
    the rise of the désignation Lakini. Sakini is believed to
    hâve been derived from Sakas (Scythian) and Dakini from
    Dags (people of Dagistan).

    Close to the same as p. 23 of Studies on the Tantras.

    Allright. Well, the Hevajra shows this system of Lama in the eighth century, or anything that includes the Four Dakinis does. As for the Lama involved here, Bhattacharya says:

    In the Sambara-maṇḍala of the Niṣpannayogāvalī their names are mentioned as companion deities of Sambara. Again, in the Ṣaṭcakravarti-maṇḍala they are mentioned as companion deities. But their forms are found described only in the Sādhanamālā. According to this authority they are all alike in appearance holding identical symbols.

    In Tibet, Lāmāḍākinī belongs to this group, and a remarkable and perhaps unique statuette of the goddess from the W.B. Whitney collection in the Freer Gallery of Art is illustrated in the Iconography of Tibetan Lamaism.

    Nepalese Lama:

    The first four names of Lamas are:


    with Cunda:


    and Net:


    So they have a "Sakini", which "is or is like" Dakini, along with Yogini, perhaps similar to Khandaroha. If those are not outright synonyms for the Four Dakinis, it is difficult to disentangle.

    When the same root is mixed with Kim, "some", you get Kinkini, "some noise", made by bell ornaments usually for females' waist, ankles, etc., as in Siva Purana:

    Durgā, the mother of the universe, the destroyer of impassable distress, appeared in front of them. She was seated in a wonderful divine gem-set chariot over which a soft cushion had been spread and which was decorated with tinkling ornaments (i.e., kiṅkiṇī-jāla-saṃyukta)

    kiṇa an imitative sound, affix ka, with in or ṅīṣ fem. affix

    Ka is the first consonant with innumerable meanings.

    The "imitative sound" may have a "foreign origin":

    The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

    Kiṇi, (indecl.) a part. , expressing the sound of a small bell: “tink”

    As long as we think about usually-silver bell jewelry, Kini is a word, and so this perhaps becomes like different kinds of bell ringing.

    In the situation where:

    The Lord of Lāmā is here called Lāmeśvara

    it is adding prefixes to "-kini", whereas the dictionary tends to presume you are adding a suffix "-ini" to root words like Saka, Daka, and so forth. The use of "dakini" as a magical being can be traced in:

    Ḍākinī (डाकिनी) refers to a group of deities summoned by the Yamāntaka-mantra and mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa

    Ḍākinī (डाकिनी).— (probably a form of śākinī)

    1) Ḍākinī (डाकिनी):—[from ḍāka] f. (of ka, [Pāṇini 4-2, 51; Patañjali]) a female imp attending Kālī (feeding on human flesh), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa x; Brahma-purāṇa; Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa; Kathāsaritsāgara] (ḍāginī, [cii, cviii f.]) (cf. śāk)

    It suggests dagini or sakini are similar.

    Ḍākinī (डाकिनी) is the name of a Yoginī mentioned in various Jaina manuscripts, often being part of a list of sixty-four such deities. How the cult of the Tantrik Yoginīs originated among the vegetarian Jainas is unknown. The Yoginīs (viz., Ḍākinī) are known as attendants on Śiva or Pārvatī. But in the case of Jainism, we may suppose, as seen before that they are subordinates to Kṣetrapāla, the chief of the Bhairavas.

    If Dakini was some kind of "daka", this was usually short for Udaka or "Water":

    Mahāvastu ii.429.17 (prose); daka-rākṣasa, water-ogre

    daka-candra, moon in water, = udaka-c°, q.v., māyā- marīcī-dakacandrakalpā Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra 250.2

    2) Dāka (दाक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. A donor; a sacrifice.

    Ḍakā (डका) refers to a “drum” and represents one of the items held in the left hand of Heruka: one of the main deities of the Herukamaṇḍala described in the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15.

    The Buddhist analysis says:

    First noted in Indian sources around the 4th century ce, ḍākinīs were probably tribal shamanesses in origin and their name can be linked to cognate terms meaning ‘summoning’ and ‘drumming’ rather than ‘flying’ as suggested by the Tibetan translation which means ‘sky-goer’.

    There is a Lama called Dundubhi, or Drum Sound, which gives weight to this.

    The Tibetans have confined "dakini" to a higher grade, or Yidams, rather than "all magic women" as seems to have been meant. Khecari is a closer term for Sky Goer.

    According to Robert Beer:

    The practice of khechari-mudra is also used to induce states of suspended animation, so that the yogin may be interred under the earth or in water for prolonged periods, and be immune from all forms of poisoning or bodily decay.

    Buddhism does not have the Lakini, etc., godesses, but Ha Ri Ni Sa may not be too far from this. We do have a similar, shakti-sounding sequence Ya Ra La Va, but we have nothing that closely resembles the details of the other mantra systems.

    The rising heat of Manohara is a cusp of Kurukulla, but, she also does the same thing for Guhyajnana Dakini.

    Our Guhyajnana Dakini is not in Sadhanamala, she is from RG and IWS, and is a bit occluded by her being mixed into Mindroling. That is where most of her images are from. The art site gives the associated lineage as:

    Jnana Dakini, Durtropa Chenpo, Dorje Denpa, Lato Marpo...

    We would tend to think the origin is, rather, Guhyajnana Dakini; as to the time frame, it appears that H. H. Dusum Khyenpa 1st Karmapa tried to meet:

    a lama named Durtropa in Nepal who was a siddha

    in the 1100s.

    Although he founded the Tulku system and had many travels, Nepal is not mentioned, so he may not have succeeded (the excerpt says he got sick).

    The second lineage holder Dorje Denpa means Vajrasana, thought to be a student of Naro, and a teacher of Abhayakaragupta and of Kyungpo Naljor of Shangpa; or, Abhayakara is Vajrasana Two.

    Sarah Harding says writers try to avoid sorting them out.

    The third lineage holder is in Blue Annals after Chapter Thirteen--Male and Female Cutting (Chod) and Kharakpa.

    Chapter Fourteen is the Sri system (Palmo) of Great Compassion (Mahakarunika) and Vajravali.

    14.2 is Amoghapasha of Dawa Gyaltsen, 14.3 is Lato Marpo. Then there is Tropuwa, and the Great Seal system of Cutting the Samsara Stream (Mahamudra Chod). Then comes Celestial Practice, Mitra's lineages, a few other things, and Vajravali.

    In Animism:

    Before the introduction of Hinduism and Buddhism, many Asian animists practiced a religion called Bon (pronounced with a long ‘o’). For some of these animists, the ox was a sacred animal, which was revered, and oxen were often presented as offerings to gods or spirits.

    Today, traces of this ancient practice may still be seen, especially in Ladakh, northern India, where horns of cows, yaks, and wild goats are placed as offerings on stone cairns. The horns and stones are often painted red, in which case they are called Lato Marpo (‘Red Gods’).

    la stod dmar po'i skabs

    is the Tibetan, and it is improved in the Summarized Blue Annals:

    This lineage is said to have originated from the Buddha Amitabha and the ḍākinī Guhyajñānā (gsang ba ye shes), and is the basis for the cycle of Mahakaruṇika, mentioned above. This lineage may have something to do with curing leprosy, as Latö Marpo himself was known to suffer from it. He went to India and met with Dorjé Denpa, received teachings, attained siddhis, contested with heretics, etc. He was not a monk.

    [Bhiksuni Lakshmi was cured of leprosy by Mahakarunika.]

    Because he was wearing a red mantle and a royal turban on {R1029} his head, he became known as Dampa Marpo (dam pa dmar po). He settled at Gyama Nyekha (rgya ma nye kha).

    His doctrine consisted of the following: the teachings he received from rdo rje gdan pa, those taught to him by dākiṇis while he was staying at Sītavana, such as the Precepts ransoming death ('chi la bslu ba'i gdams ngag) in order to remove misfortunes to his physical body, the lam sbyor ba lnga, with the help of which one was able to cross the five Paths simultaneously, the dbang bzhi khug pa, which removed defilements from sins and helped to acquire power, and the Precepts of merging the 18 kinds of relativity (stong pa bcho brgyad) into the essence of the Merciful One with the view of practicing all the doctrines simultaneously.

    {In general, this is a tantric set of practices, as evidenced by the comparison of this list with the previous lineage’s monastic Mahayana practices. I couldn’t find the title of the latter text anywhere, but it seems interesting in its mentioning of the simultaneous practice of all doctrines. EP}

    Around p. 35 he is credited with more disciples, and criticized for sticking Kriya deities onto Mother tantra or the subtle body.

    He is also called Dampa Marpo for the hat, or Lwa pa Marpo for the cloak. Kongtrul recounts he is known for some cycles of precepts granted by the Five Dakinis at Sitabani charnel ground. H. H. Karma Pakshi Second Karmapa considered himself to be a rebirth of this person, even though he was a rebirth of the First.

    So Guhyajnana was an 1100s Nepalese and Indian lineage, which, passed down to a practitioner, is reinforced at Sitabani, where she had probably been since before the recorded Siddhas went there.

    Alternately, Guhyajnana is in the Siddharajni lineage passed to Rechung, but I am not sure she has a stand-alone version in this. She may just be part of Jinasagara here.

    If she is just herself or with the Four Dakinis, chances are we are looking at this...yes it says Amitabha and Guhyajnana lineage, evidently compatible with what was done at Sitabani...sadhana tradition that comes after Amoghapasha or Noose in the catalog.

    Manohara and Takkiraja seem to be following her pretty closely in multiple 1700s Mindrolings, the tradition of Gyurme Dorje, Terdag Lingpa (1646-1714), the founder of Mindroling monastery:

    At Mindroling, Guhyajnana is used for a complete Jinasagara initiation.

    Itself is obviously rather young, but, at least somewhere in the background, we can find that some of it stems from multiple revelations of Guhyajnana Dakini in India.

    The energy that Manohara builds can go to Kurukulla, as is shown in the formal texts, or, to Guhyajnana, whom you have to read between the lines.

    Lamas and Seven Yoginis

    There is something like this in Chakrasamvara Tantra. It can be found, but, we may get something quicker, because it is also in the Samputa.

    Samputa's Chapter Four is relatively short and it is a bit different from using the Four Dakinis as the Four Kinds of Women similar to Kama Sutra as given in Samvarodaya and most Chakrasamvara literature.

    Its subject is really a very difficult set of code words and gestures. I am actually not sure why this is so extensive and weird. I cannot really tell what the conversation might even be. But, it corresponds to what was first given in Dakini Jala, which is, perhaps, the Book of Moods and Twilight Language. In its own terms, this part of Samputa is:

    The sovereign fourth chapter on the sign language of vajraḍākinīs in the glorious “Emergence from Sampuṭa,” so called to reflect the secret foundation of all tantras.

    sarvatantra[nidāna]rahasyāt śrīsampuṭodbhavavajraḍākinīsaṃketakaḥ

    When the question about external signs comes up:

    The lord then entered the meditative absorption called “the power of ḍākinīs’ conquest” and explained the pledge signs of ḍākinīs. {4.1.2}

    tatas tu bhagavān ḍākinīvijayabalaṃ nāma samāpadya ḍākinī­samaya­mudrām udājahāra || 4.1.2 ||

    It appears to be a Samapatti (samapadya). We know a Samaya Mudra is something more than a greeting sign. Bala is not "power" (sakti) as much as it is "powerful" (strong); and so this may be something more like Samapatti called Dakinis' Powerful Victory.

    Part of the explanation is:

    “The vajra (male sexual organ) is in Kollagiri
    And the lotus (female sexual organ) is in Muṃmuni.
    The rattle of the wood (hand-drum) is unbroken;
    It sounds for compassion, not for quarrels.

    Our bodies are naked (adorned with bone ornaments).
    Here we enter the corpse (our refuge). {4.1.6}
    “At the sandalwood (our meeting) we perform the olibanum (sex act);
    Here small drums (the untouchables) are not shunned. {4.1.7}
    “Mukhe, ghoghu, gughu, mughu, lughu, duṣṭu—one should enthusiastically utter these code words when the signs of a yoginī are seen.

    Mummuni is in Tiruvanamalai, Tamil Nadu. Due to familiarity, we know this as the region of Arunchala Ishvar or Shiva--Agni.

    The original did not euphemize the organs:

    kollaire ṭṭia bolā muṃmuṇire kakkolā |
    ghaṇa kipiṭṭa ho vajjai karuṇe kiai na rolā || 4.1.3 ||

    That is the graphic way of putting it; Buddhist Door gives the following synonyms:

    vajra-padma, padma-vajra, dvayêndriya, bola-kakkola

    Dvayendriya is the Yoga in the Homa at 7.1.8, and the Sampatti of Nirvikalpa Samadhi of 10.4.10.

    In the Homa right after Dvayendriya:

    vajraṃ bolakaṃ khyātaṃ padmaṃ kakkolakaṃ mataṃ

    Instead of talking about the Four Dakinis as yoginis--women, Chapter Four has two sorts of depictions of magical females. At first,

    The second part of the fourth chapter on the characteristics and signs particular to demon ḍākinīs of charnel grounds

    Dākinīs are known to be of seven types:

    Rūpikā, Cumbikā, Lāmā,
    Parāvṛttā, Samālikā,
    Anivṛttikā, and Aihikī.

    “They each hold a skull cup, an axe, an elephant tusk, a banner made from crocodile skin, a sword, a lance, and a conch, which are known to be their seven respective implements.

    iti kaṭapūtanīcihnamudrā caturthasya dvitīyaṃ prakaraṇam ||

    Cihna Mudra is a familiar phrase used for the Sign or Symbol of the Family, such as Vajra, Wheel, and so on.

    Rupika is Rupini, Cumbika is the kisser, Lama is animalistic, Paravrtta is the repeller, Samalika is laughter, Anivrttika can kill by touch, and Aihika shows multiple emotions and is the mother of yogins. It is actually "yogamatari", so, perhaps, mother of yoga.

    Lama sounds a bit like Elephant Woman here, and Lama Rupika Cumbika is a stock phrase from the Sammoha definitions.

    Part Three is about hand gestures, demonstrated with the, lower-case, lamas, meaning a class similar to vilasinis. So this is probably a peaceful correspondence to the previous.

    Their Families are from:









    That looks like eight, except one could say Padmanarttesvara and Amitabha are the same, so there are seven kinds. You can pick out the Three Families of Kriya and are left with Vajravarahi, Khandaroha, Vinayaka, and Virabhagini.

    Khandaroha women get an honorable mention:

    For she is the great queen of yogins, the exalted one,

    khaṇḍarohākulodbhūtā mahāyogīśvarī varā |

    That is the only thing resembling Mahayoga in the book, and is a pretty powerful title, Maha Yoga Ishvari, also applied to Durgottarini and Janguli in Sadhanamala.

    To find Virabhagini, in Chapter Seven, the syllables are given including Kha = Khandaroha, Bhi = Bhagini = "younger sister", and the list is summarized as:

    ete ekaikākṣarachommakā vīrabhaginyas tu tā jñeyāḥ | akṣara­samaya­mudrā­jñānam || 7.1.14 ||


    These, which are code words with a single syllable each, will be understood by the virile ones and their sisters.

    "virile sister"

    Virabhagini's Samputa description says:

    “If a woman has curly hair
    And a round face;
    If she typically has facial hair,
    Long eyebrows, and body hair; {4.3.18}
    “If she dresses in white, and is pure and gentle;
    And if she speaks the truth unwaveringly
    And always delights in the true Dharma,
    She should be known as Vīrabhāginī, sister of the valiant. {4.3.19}
    “One should make the lotus gesture to her,
    And again, the tortoise gesture.
    One should honor the ritual pitcher
    As this is the prescribed “gesture of response.” {4.3.20}
    “On the tenth lunar day
    One should draw a lotus in one’s house.

    Is that fairly close to the character of Gandhari or Bhisma Bhagini?

    It occurs once in lower-case in a similar chapter of Gray's Chakrasamvara Tantra Study:

    Now I will explain the dakinls' characteristic whereby the heroes
    recognize their heroic sister from afar.'

    The devoted woman who is pleased
    with him should be enjoyed by the hero, [like] the earth. Taking her as
    one's support and ground, worship the binding in union (yogasamvara).

    ' The AU mss. read atab pa ram pravaksami dakininam tu laksanam / jnayate durato yena
    viranam virabhagini //

    The expression viranam virabhagini in the fourth pada is ambiguous; I
    have followed Bhavabhatta's gloss of viranam as virair. Sumatikirti supports this interpretation
    (SL 117a: dpa'boyis), but there is no support for Mardo' s translation dpa'mo (PM 229b).

    Samputa Tantra almost certainly carries the same understanding of Lama as found elsewhere.

    In Samvarodya, vajradakinis are suras or nectars, here, they are also yoginis or Lamas.

    So dakini and yogini probably include all magical females from the beginner level. A Lama is more like a Bhairavi, advanced or successful, and at that point she is also a Karmamudra.

    Okay. There is a Seventh Yogini because she is like a powerful all-at-once blend of the capabilities of the others, or is Ananda or Sahaja in one's actual experience. I think. It doesn't really say. It does basically say that Dakinis are Lamas.

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    Default Re: Nirakara and Shentong Buddhism, Tara, Sadhanas, Sanskrit culture

    Bhairavi and Virya

    First from the prior post, there was some confusion in Lay Religious Movements about whether Lato Marpo had damaged the system; there was another teacher by the same nickname of Lwa pa Marpo that may have. The thing that was supposedly tainted is:

    Zhi Byed

    Pacification of Suffering, the cycle of teaching initiated in Tibet by Padampa Sangye

    I am not sure yet; the writer Chag po seems to have been intent on hunting down "wrong dharmas". He said Om was replaced by Am in Six Syllable mantra. But most Tibetans currently think it is seven syllables ending on Hrih, which is the Bija.

    Lato Marpo went to "India" to find Dorje Denpa, who is really the compiler of the Vajrasana version of the Mahasiddha lists:

    The other major Tibetan tradition is based on the list contained in the Caturasiti-siddhabhyarthana (CSA) by Ratnakaragupta of Vajrasana, identical with Bodhgaya (Tib.: rDo rje gdan) located in Bihar, Northern India. The Tibetan translation is known as Grub thob brgyad cu rtsa bzhi’i gsol ’debs by rDo rje gdan pa. There exist several Tibetan versions of the list of mahasiddhas based on the Vajrasana text. However, these Tibetan texts differ in many cases with regard to the Tibetan transcriptions of the Indian mahasiddhas names.

    He appears to have influenced Khyungpo Naljor:

    Not satisfied with the available teachings in Tibet Khyungpo Naljor traveled to Nepal where he studied with a number of teachers. He served as an attendant of Amoghavajra, also called Ratnakaragupta and Sauripa, and received teachings from him... He also studied with the dakini of Devikoti, Kanashri.

    At one time, Ratnakaragupta lived in Sauri. Taranatha calls him the second Vajrasana.

    In a study of an Indian Prajnaparamita manuscript, Ratnakaragupta is the author of Sadhanamala 255 (Heruka and Varahi).

    In the text, he is also the author of the short Tri-samaya Raja 2. As much as Heruka 255 is thought to be an expansion over a previous version, his Tri-samaya Raja is considerably shorter than the first.

    Allright. Lato Marpo was at Bodh Gaya and Sitabani, so, he certainly nipped at the source of Guhyajnana, who must have resided there for at least four hundred years. She is re-invigorated at Mindroling, at least a thousand years after her discovery. According to Columbia:

    mkha' 'gro gsang ba ye shes kyi chos skor

    A famed Gelug master Lelung Jedrung Shepai Dorje (b. 1697) structured an entire cycle of practice based
    upon the Dakini Guhyajnana from the revelations of Terdag Lingpa Gyurme Dorje (1646-1714 )

    ca. 750:

    kun dga’ mo - Kungamo. The wisdom dakini who conferred empowerment upon Guru Rinpoche. She is also known as the dakini Leykyi Wangmo, Nyida Ng?drub or as Guhyajnana, the chief of wisdom dakinis [RY]

    She is in H. H. 15th Karmapa's Aspiration:

    Chief of the dakinis who produces great bliss primordial awareness
    Vajravārāhī, yogini of the five families,
    Guhyajnana, Blazing Blue Light 14 and so on,
    Mother and sister dākinīs of the three realms
    Bless us with the essential nectar of the activities siddhi!

    14 An emanation of Yeshe Tsogyal who is the consort of Raksha Tötreng

    As a bit from the Shugden controversy:

    It is also clearly stated that a number of Bonpo practices were brought into the Nyingma school, including prayer flag ceremonies, smoke ceremonies, and Dorje Lekpa. Prayers to Dorje Lekpa are standard in the ritual cycles of Tibetan Dzogchen, but the practice of Dorje Lekpa ( and Mahakala Maning, Rahula ) are secondary to the practice of Ekajati, a fierce manifestation of goddess Guhyajnana. Ekajati may be related to the Buddhist goddess Tara, but she is a Buddhist goddess who oversees ( the secondary ) Dorje Lekpa.

    There is not really an Ekajati, but, Tara of Ekajati Amnaya, according to Sadhanamala. It does equate her to an aspect of Vajrayogini. We can trace the name Ekajati to ca. 400, but not Guhyajnana. So I am not sure why those two are equated. Presumably that is a Gelug view, i. e. pro-Shugden the local protector, which they say is a Wisdom Being, but no one else wants to accept this. As outsiders, we are probably best off to leave Shugden, Lekpa, etc., well enough alone.

    Dakini's Warm Breath mentions the story of Padmasambhava turning into Hum and being swallowed. When this happened, it was not in Tibetan, and she sounds like a physical yogini with the normal human two arms:

    When Guru Rinpoche entered the palace of the Queen Dakini, Sangwa Yeshe (Guhyajnana), she was seated on a throne of sun and moon discs, dressed in charnel ground ornaments and holding a skull-cup and wooden drum.

    Mandarava did it in reverse to:

    Queen Bhumahing, who was red in color with orange hair standing straight up. Her fangs were so large that they touched her breasts, and she wore a flayed human skin. Her brow was a mass of wrinkles. From her mouth resounded a shrill whistle, and she devoured the dakini [Mandarava] in a single instant. The dakini shouted "Phat!" and transferred her consciousness so that the queen's body collapsed and fell apart. The cannibal's abdomen split open, and the princess emerged.

    Both of them were Dakinis, so there is no name change between "good and evil" ones. Later:

    Mandarava experienced the attacks of a mighty demon obstructor and his retinue against a wisdom mandala, she took the wrathful form of the mighty Queen Prajnaparamita to confront them. With her hundred heads and thousand arms, she brandished terrible weapons and stomped heavily with a hundred legs. She wore charnel ground ornaments and blazed with primordial wisdom fire. She leaned forward and sang this threatening song: Hum! Hum! Bhyoh! Bhyoh! I am the blazing dakinl of the three realms of existence. With my blazing vajra sword I shall slice you wicked malefactors to pieces. My power in this world is boundless and vast as the heavens. My every gesture propels the ocean's waves. My power holds sway over all that is peaceful in the world and beyond; whatever remains I shall press between the palms of my hands. Now, you eagle-like demons and malefactors, prepare for the moment of your annihilation! Rulu! Rulu! Hum! Bhyoh! Bhyoh! Bhyoh! Bhyoh!" The demons were overwhelmed with fear and humbly offered the dakinl the very essence of their lives, vowing to protect the dharma.

    Sometimes you can go from menial worker to dakini in one move:

    Virupa took an interest in his generous benefactor and invited her to visit. Delighted, she went to him, bringing large offerings of beer and meat. As he conferred on her an initiation, she immediately manifested as a wisdom dakini in mind and body and took the name of Sukhasiddhi, "she who has accomplished bliss." Sukhasiddhi became a wisdom dakini, and though she was already sixty-one years old, she took the form of a sixteen-year-old girl.

    When Machik [Labdron] is overcome with the vision of Tara in the form of a dakini, she wonders whether an ordinary person like herself could benefit beings in any way. Tara responds by revealing to her that her basic nature is the Great Queen Prajnaparamita herself, and encourages Machik to persevere in her practice.

    When you are a girl, Judith observes that there is no hazing or confrontation as dakinis often do to males. To the males, the unfriendliness usually results in a sacrifice or elimination of a big chunk of the person's ego. So it has a purpose other than playing hard to get. This is quite similar to the belief that women are superior natural carriers of shakti, and that men are commonly in need of the influence. Although the female can derive benefit from the male, it is less difficult to do. Dakini Jala and its successors are full of hand signs and code words intended to establish liaisons. Were they hurriedly copying scroll books in mostly-male monasteries so someone could sneak out at night and teach it to all the women to clandestinely use on the students? Probably not. That stuff probably came from the Lamas or Dakinis. I do not know how any yogini who was not a part of the tantric college would just "know" this, if the restricted initiated practices were supposed to be the source of the information.

    Male authors probably contributed the "Method", such as the mantras and various doctrines, to something that was being absorbed from non-Buddhist yoginis. Then it was probably Tara who was the first to say that the same Buddha Nature is just as accessible to females as it is to men. Then you hear about female Siddhas starting with Manibhadra. Prior to this, it is hard to say if there were many Buddhist yoginis.

    In the proper context, there is nothing particularly about Buddhism that in some way promoted or did something on a sexual basis that can even begin to compare with what went on as a whole.

    In terms of its appearance in Yoga, then yes Buddhist sadhanas are saturated, which makes other tantras seem almost non-tantric.

    Mindroling is the host of the Mani Rimdu festival which is popularly known as Lord of the Dance meaning Padmanarttesvara and sexual union, in his case with Guhyajnana Dakini.

    Commentary on this tradition also describes it as the Dance of Karuna--Compassion in the realm of Samsara and rebirth. And so then you are kind of hedged back to basic Avalokiteshvara, it is a correct meaning without telling us much of anything new.

    Padmanarttesvara is the name of Wrathful Avalokiteshvara since at least the time of Dakini Jala, however the form in the union sadhanas is Jinasagara. If we keep his original name, Padmanarttesvara's rite is with Jewel Family Vajravilasini which is a lot more difficult. And so when I look at Jinasagara, and Karuna is about Pathos which is an empathic response to suffering, does that mean he vanishes when someone is no longer hungry and stops crying?

    What he says to me, if that is all you think it is, try harder. You are still Suffering at any moment your Life Winds are not in a state of Buddhahood.

    Comparatively, if we sit around and think, oh, I feel pretty good, no you don't, not the way he means it. The Sukha or Bliss of the subtle body is meant here. It is so, so much better than mere physical health, anyone who does not realize this must be pitied for their ignorance.

    Buddhism did not invent this, either, according to Tantra Vol. I:

    The rôle of sex-elements in connection with religious rites
    is also found in the Vedic literature. In the description of
    goddess Usas, there are éléments which are prône to arouse
    sex-feelings. In the Vâjasaneyi-Samhitâ of the Yajur-Veda,
    there occurs a hymn (23.22-31) which seems to indicate that
    sexual union was employed for the promotion of agricultural
    Products, The description of the horse-sacrifice occurring in
    the Satapatha Brâhmana (1.1,18,20,21 ) bears some sex éléments.
    The description goes thus: The horse to be sacrificed is
    covered with a garment and slain. The queens go round it
    thrice from left to right and thrice from right to left. The
    chief queen goes near the horse. The queen and the horse
    are then covered with a garment and are given to lie together.
    In the meantime, the priest, the maidens and other queens
    indulge in vulgar and sexual talks. This part of the horse-
    sacrifice has thus a clear reference to sex and hence may
    be interpreted as having something to do with the fertility-cult. 21
    Further, in the Satapatha Brahmana we come across numérous
    passage in which sexual union is identified with sacrifice
    (2,4.421; 2.51.11,5.13.19;;6.3.30;6.3,3.38; The
    Attareya-Àranyaka (2.1.1; 2.3.7) also refers to sex-element
    when it describes seed and woman-blood as Aditya and Agni,

    In a number of Upanisadic passages, woman is conceived
    as the sacrificial fire, her lower private portion as the sacrificial
    wood, the generative organ as the flame, and so on (Ch.Up,5.18.1-
    22,Br.Up.6.2.13). The Brhadâranyaka Up.(6.4,3) describes the
    lower private part of woman as the sacrificial altar and the
    smaller parts of the same as representing different parts or
    materials of sacrifice, it is added that one who remembers this
    during copulation gets the result of the vajapeya-sacrifice.
    This means that sex-enjoyment should be regarded as a
    sacrifice and that it should be done without any attachment.
    In the “Vàmadeva-upàsanà” of the Chandogya Üp.{2.13.1 -2), it
    is said that the sign made by a mari to a woman îs him-
    kara (the sound : him’), his lying with her is udgitha (the sound
    ‘aum’) his facing towards her is pratihara (inspiration) and so
    on. The Taittiriya Up. and the Taittiriya Àranyaka say that
    Prajapati in the form of immortal bliss exists in the generative
    organ. The Brhadâranyaka Up. also says that ail the éléments
    of bliss culminate in the bliss of the generative organ.

    Thus, ail the éléments of the Tàntric practices with the
    five ma-kâras can be traced to the sacrificial rites of the Vedas
    and the philosophical discourses of the Upanisads.

    To his research, we will add we are keeping the epithet "Vairocani" from the Tattiriya, and that sex without Attachment is the Purity of Pandara.

    The Net of the subtle body contains Viras or Heroines, and in her song, Tara certainly expresses Vira Tara, it is Rajasic, energy burst. Then there is a Virya Paramita as well as a Virya Jewel of Enlightenment, which is Vajrabhairavi. And for something that is a household name in India, she is almost entirely absent from Buddhism. Although she is the ultimate destination of something it appears you are supposed to dedicate your entire life to. As part of her internal description, Carcika could be considered Bhairavi, if that does not just mean "Appearance Terrible". It does say she is Bhairavi with extreme teeth or fangs, but does not contain a phrase like "distorted face". She only has one face. She might look more normal than Usnisa Vijaya. Maybe she is like Pratyangira, who also has one face. In most cases, a six arm deity has three faces.

    She does not have a lot of aliases, except for one like Virya:

    She is also called Shubhamkari, Bāla or Tripurabhairavi.

    In Kubjika Tantra:

    (You are) Bhairavī whose being is (infinitely) great. (You are) the All and, (universally) pervasive, (are also) Revatī.

    In Lalita Mahatmya:

    72. Lakṣmī, Sarasvatī, Gaurī, Caṇḍikā, Tripurā, Ambikā, Vaiṣṇavī, Bhairavī, Kālī and Māhendrī are the Mothers.

    73. There are other Śakti goddesses. In worshipping them the liquor prepared from honey is approved of. A Brāhmaṇa who has mastered the Vedāṅgas shall perform worship without wine.

    74. Those who are unattached to worldly objects attain the greatest goal through their power (i.e. the power of Mothers). They shall eat only what is dedicated and offered to them first. Without thinking about other deities they must be meditated upon. They must identify themselves with Mothers.

    75. This remembrance of the fact of the supreme power (parā-Śakti) is prescribed as the expiation for all sins committed either knowingly or unknowingly.

    76. The base fellow who drinks liquor without worshipping Parā Śakti shall stay in hell called Raurava for a period calculated at the rate of a year for every drop so-consumed.

    She is also in the last chapter which is an intricate sadhana of Devi:

    15. Afterwards he shall perform the Nyāsa of pure Mātṛkā encased by the third Bīja. After placing the first two Bījas, he should place the last Bīja.

    16-17. Afterwards he should perform the Vinyāsa rite (placing the hand etc. ceremoniously) of Bhūtala (surface of the Earth) but not very elaborately. He shall place the eight Vargas (groups of letters) in the navel, heart and the throat. Among these he shall take Śa, Ṣa, and Sa at the outset and place them at the root in the heart and on the head. He should place them at the armpit, hip, right shoulder, left shoulder, loins and the heart also.

    18. For most of the lower six limbs he shall perform the Vinyāsa rite through the letters beginning with “DA” (“Ha” in N.) The sage shall be the Śabda-Brahman (Brahman in the form of sound) and the metre Bhūtalipi (? the characters of the alphabets of the socalled Bhūtas (spirits etc.)

    19-23. Śrīmūla-Prakṛti (The primordial matter) is mentioned as the deity of this Mantra. The disciple should meditate upon Bhairavī favourably disposed towards her devotees, in the following manner. She is matchless and she holds the rosary and the book in the upper hands and flowery arrows as well as the bow and (represents the Mudrās viz. (Vara) boon and freedom from fear (Abhīti) with the other lotus-like hands. Around her neck she wears the Akṣamālā necklace (that accords) protection. She has heroic accoutrements covered by necklaces, armlets and bangles. She is adorned with gemset ear-rings along with divine unguents. Beneath the Lipikalpadruma (Wisḥ-yielding tree called letters of Alphabet (?) she stays in an embodied lotus. She is identical with the Lipis (characters). She is embellished by many crores of Dūtis (messengers) surrounding her. After meditating thus he shall place the letters on the surface of the Earth as well in the due order.

    Bhairavi is not in the Eight Mothers in the head. She is, however, distinguished here. For the most part, this is a gigantic Nyasa, but it is not like a Guhyasamaja Sadhana which would have been roughly contemporaneous. From external sources, this is called a four arm form.

    This Lalita is attached to the Brahmanda Purana. So we take it to be a ca. 700 continuation from the Aranyakas.

    Buddhism did not invent Bhumi Sparsha Mudra, which sounds like it is being used there.

    There, Bhairavi has a form that is not gruesome or in a charnel ground. She is Prakriti affected by what sounds like syllables such as Sa, Da, Ha, etc., as a Rosary and Text goddess.

    Frawley traces this quote to a commentary on the Thousand Names of Bhavani:

    A woman who gains a transcendental state in sadhana comes back as a celestial Yogini or Bhairavi, a female adept at Yoga


    Chatuhsasthi Yogini

    Chatuhsasthi Yogini refers to 64 yoginis. It was a mystical cult in ancient India created for producing divine powers. These 64-yogini considered themselves as servants of Bhairavi. These yoginis had aboriginal traditions. These yoginis were linked to tantrism as they had used to destructive powers of goddess kali and bhairavi. The yogini aspires to control body and mind to control over Panchabhutas, the five elements of nature. It is believed those women could harvest their power of creation via fertility to defy aging and other body processes.

    Worship of Goddess Bhairavi

    She is worshipped as a chakra with 64 spokes on a wheel.

    originating around the sixth century in small villages centered on:

    Guardian Goddesses (Grama Devatas)

    They are mentioned in the Skanda Purana variously as yoginis, dakinis, shaktis or bhairavis.

    Bhairavi is Homa and the Three Fires of Agni.

    For a few more remarks:

    The sincere tapas can enable one to taste the honey-bliss (ambrosia) of immortal delight. The caged animalistic state gives away to incessant blessedness.

    When Goddess Bhairavi is inebriated with knowledge, she takes the shape of Goddess Saraswati.

    She becomes Svaha in the delirium of the fire. ‘S’ is for Shakti, ‘va’ for amritam and ‘ha’ for Lord Hari or Shiva. Her consort is Kala Bhairava an equally blood curdling avatar of Lord Shiva. They are together forms of Lord Rudra and Goddess Rudrani.

    Grāmadevatā (ग्रामदेवता).—the tutelary deity of a village.

    Grāmadevatā are such gods and goddesses who guard the fields, cities, hamlets and villages in such a way that demons and dangerous giants cannot injure human beings. The South Indians worship them not for any other reason, but only to be protected from evil. Their temples are everywhere and annual festivals are celebrated in their honor. Living animals such as pigs, goats and cocks are offered to them. They are believed to have previously been in great bliss; because of their pride they are supposed to have been cursed by Śiva and are banished to this earth to be with the demons, over whom they rule over as kings and queens.

    Then we are told Devi is the gramadevata.

    Śāstā or Ayyappa is another grāmadeva. Śāstā is most popular in Kerala and in Tamil Nāḍu. Buddha also is called Śāstā. In certain places idols of Śāstā with two wives, called Pūrṇā and Puṣkalā are also found. Śabarimala Śāstā is yogamūrti (in yogic pose).

    His location is Sabari Mala or Sabari Mountain, Kerala

    Sasta is the son of Mohini in Skandha Purana.

    Sasta indicates yoga, while, so far, most of the others represent slaughtering chickens. Part of the historical trend of Mahacinakrama was to turn "blood sacrifice" into a symbolic form, and there is a line of resistance, where it only made it so far into Assam.

    The gramadevata is a bit like "harnessing a raksasi" which subjugates or quells lesser demonic forces. But while these kind of dissipate into superstition around the sixth century, the ability to blend raksasi--control with a Pancha Bhuta of Elements and corresponding mental components such as in Yogacara was already available. Same way it worked later, when Chakrasamvara relies on various other commentaries to be operable, all you would have had to do is compose a few Mayuri retinues with some of the same things that are in Prajnaparamita or the Books of Maitreya which are still used in the later tantras. If you did a good job it would work.

    Compared to other terms, yes, there probably is more reason to understand Bhairavi as a powerful human yogini at least as far back as the sixth century when it was among the first examples. She can be incredibly powerful, in yoga, without being Buddhist at all, and we would like to convert her. And we are going to call her more Virya--Energy than we can currently conceive of.

    We do not know if this is by inscription, location, etc., but it is called a Buddhist Bhairavi:

    Nepalese Tara:

    As "Candi", they have several of the gruesome Camundas, but this is called a 1300s Nepalese Candika:

    And so those are slightly dominant, Tara has hips, she should have appearances both like a slender girl and a mature woman. We saw that as Vasudhara in pursuit of union, she becomes a dwarf or Yakshi form, and Pandara or Padma Tara does this same thing with Padmanarttesvara or Sukhavati, accordingly.

    If we ask Bhairavi about this, we are not going to get the same answer.

    In Tamil Nadu:

    Usually in sculptures, the practice of Bhairavi Cakra is always depicted with a group of male tantric practitioners who are lesser in height than the woman and standing in a nude pose with or holding their erect virile membrane (penis) in their hand. And they are in anjali mudra, in front of or at the legs of the gigantic nude women, (hereafter called as Bhairavi), who is showing her secret parts in a standing pose.

    In this last one there is also someone sitting in a Yoga Baddha or Knees Cloth as if giving instructions.

    This is obviously widespread but by no means defines the extent of Indian erotic sculpture. These are based on human male Siddhas, but here he is the Yaksha. These forms are consistent, and the featured one is the human female Bhairavi.

    She comes amazingly close to Dakarnava:

    Bhairavī (भैरवी) refers to one of the twenty-four Ḍākinīs positioned at the padma (lotus) in the middle of the Herukamaṇḍala, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, between the south and east (of the heruka-maṇḍala) are six Ḍākinīs who are half yellow and half black in color. They [viz., Bhairavī] are headed by the major four Ḍākinīs of the Cakrasaṃvara tradition. They stand in the Pratyālīḍha posture and, except for the body posture, their physical features and objects that they hold are the same as Vajravārāhīs.

    The lotus (padma) at the center [binducakra or tilakacakra according to Jayasena’s Sādhana]

    Oh. She will personally be headed by the Four Dakinis. And, she is in the Agni corner.

    In our Seven Syllable sadhana, she turns out to mean "the most energy", which...is called Tejas Tattva and described quite similarly in her own sources.

    In the Pithas, Virya is very prominent, because it is in all four of the main "layers" of Thirty-seven point Enlightenment. It starts in the very basic Four Rddhipada:

    will (chanda), effort (vīrya), mind (citta), investigation and wisdom (mīmāṃsā), all necessary to attain dhyāna

    Chanda is related to volition--cetana and therefor samsara. It could be neutral, or it could be Kama. As a good quality it is a righteous will or zeal (dhamma-chanda).

    Now. Here's the thing. Physically, this starts in the head, with Pracanda--Cinnamasta and Candaksi, the upper front part of the head and the crown, are Chanda and Virya. Obviously, if I make the least bit of righteous effort, Cinnamasta does not blow my head off. Right now they are Pada. The "dharmic layers" of numerous Pithas are the training system that fills in all those blanks, between getting the conceptual knowledge in words, and actually doing it.

    These are the Pada--Feet, or, i. e. bases, of Rddhi.

    This Virya is produced by Faith--Sraddha.

    The bases are harnessed to samsaric energy.

    And so the rest of the array opens from here, and once it is all opened and running, then these bases bring Rddhi, which is a consort of Varuna, of Kubera, and of Ganapati--his companion wife to Siddhi.

    In Buddhism, it is part of clairvoyance.

    It includes the four kinds of gamana or movement, nirmāṇa or creation and āryaṛddhi or noble magical power.

    Rddhi is the Vasita (Discipline or Mastery) of the Fifth Bhumi.

    Virya is in all the next layers, and here is where it goes:

    Virya Indriya: Kharvari with Amitabha between the eyebrows

    Virya Bala: Vayuvega with Mahavirya at the navel

    Virya Bodhyanga: Khaganana with Virupaksa at the Tip of the Jewel

    Virya is the Fourth Paramita.

    Of these six, exertion is the most important Paramita because without exertion, nothing is going to happen.

    It also rips into laziness-disguised-as-busyness, i. e. the neglect of spiritual and other important matters while plunging ourselves into other things.

    It sounds like, and sometimes is, outer action, but also Virya accumulates vitality.

    That is much of the meaning of Indriya Bala Vishodhani, Raudra Krama or Mahabala Krama, such as by the Pancha Raksa.

    Comparatively, this "moves" virya from the ajna to the navel, or into Generation Stage. The corresponding navel goddess is:

    1) Vāyuvegā (वायुवेगा):—The Sanskrit name for the goddess representing the third secondary gross element “wind”, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasra-saṃhitā.

    Interesting. Doesn't say heat yet, just wind.

    There probably is heat prior to the last goddess.

    The Pithas have a female Mahabhairava and Mahabala who are not coupled with their namesakes, and a few other expressions of strength and power. Male Mahabhairava is with the Samadhi Jewel in the Heart. It also uses Vajrahumkara as the Nose Tip.

    The highest level of Virya is Vajrabhairavi as an external deity form, or, in the body, is Khaganana.

    The root is Cakravega with Mahabala, in Pretapuri (Priti), behind them is Kandaroha with Ratnavajra and their property is Prasrabdhi--Relaxation.

    Ghost Town is Joy in the way that females can be said to be different from males. There is male Mahabala who is changed from a normal Worldly Guardian into something at the Nadir of a mandala, and this is like him being in the root center of the body here.

    In case we need it, there are Pithas with Sanskrit and Tibetan Dakini names. As we can see, Khandaroha is Dum Kye, where dum is "part" and Kye is like in the same Kye Rim meaning Generation Stage. Here they were literal, khanda is a "piece, part, portion", while Roha has meanings of growing, rising, blossoming, or even:

    5) The generating cause

    The spelling Kanda is "the Bulb":

    The kanda (“bulbous root”, especially of a lotus), more specifically known as the kandayoni elsewhere, is a structure named after its shape, above which the kuṇḍalinī rests and from which the nāḍīs emerge.

    And when used this way, it means yoga starting at the base of the spine and using sixteen digits to ascend, which, most assuredly, is not the way our yoga works:

    Kanda (कन्द, “bulb”) refers to one of the seventeen stages of the rise of kuṇḍalinī, according to Abhinavagupta as drawn from the Devyāyāmala.—Cf. The seventeen syllables [i.e., saptadaśākṣara] of Mantramātā.—[...] These seventeen units [are] to be arranged in as many locations along the axis of the subtle body, [as was] clearly known to Abhinava. Thus he presents an ascending series marking the stages of the rise of Kuṇḍalinī, the highest stage of which is that of the ‘Pure Self’ heralded by the Transmental just below it. In this set-up, drawn by Abhinavagupta from the Devyāyāmala, there are seventeen stages. These are [e.g., the Bulb (kanda), ...].

    Accordingly, the Wheel of the Self can be said to be at the end of (i.e. after) the sixteen [i.e., ṣoḍaśānta].

    --- OR ---

    Kāṇḍa (काण्ड).—1 A section, a part in general.

    So there are "Kandas of the Ramayana", etc.

    I can't write it, but, softer sound is bulb, pronounced slightly differently to mean "stem" et al. The Sanskrit spellings look very different, but still:

    Khaṇḍa (खण्ड)

    2. A chapter, a section.

    khaṇḍendu ‘the crescent’

    So, they are kind of the same word, but not completely.

    We are not saying there is not a "Kanda--Bulb", but that is not how our system starts and we do not have that nice line of sixteen, instead it is a very thorough subject encapsulated by Kurukulla. I would not say Abhinava's system does not work, either, but it is not what we are doing.

    Our Khandaroha intercepts the flow from Dakini and Lama about the same as they are meant in non-Buddhist traditions, but, Khandaroha is Varuni. She will be a very powerful yogini, but, according to certain precepts and methods which are in their own league. Devi Mahatmya of around the seventh century cannot compare to Guhyasamaja; Abhinava of around the tenth century does not compare to Samputa. After this time period, we see such systems copying Mahacinakrama Tara, and coming up with certain facsimiles around the fifteenth century as Radha Krishna and Anandabhairavi, and we might say "they take our sadhanas but not our yoga".

    While it is very significant to appreciate that most of the material that is in Buddhism is about the same as what is said in the Puranas, after that, the similarity ends. Khrandaroha will change it. The other three dakinis all have a meaningful Hindu background. Khandaroha does not; it is probably impossible for her to.

    Without being able to date it, there is an example of Brahmanda Purana Shaktism same as Bhairavi tantra, which both instructs sex in its rites, and has an example of an arisen yogini:

    this bR^ihaspati smR^iti is unorthodox in certain ways i.e. it makes attempts to accommodate Aryanizing tribals who build irrigation works, temples of shiva and viShNu and set up agrahAra-s. The smR^iti gives an example of such a meritorious tribal woman who was even given the dIkSha of the shatarudrIya by a smArta brAhmaNa.

    AM hrIM kroM saNketayoginyai namaH ||

    [Sata is the universal form of Rudra]

    The same bR^ihaspati smR^iti also recognizes the fact that in the kula ritual maithuna needs to be observed. In this context it gives two shloka mantra-s. The first of these to viShNu and lakShmI can be used by one even without shAstra-j~nAna so that his acts of maithuna become mantra-karman-s:

    sarvAtmako vAsudevaH puruShastu purAtanaH |
    iyaM hi mUlaprakR^itir lakShmIH sarva-jagat-prasUH |
    pa~ncApa~ncAtma-tR^iptyarthaM mathanaM kriyatetarAm ||

    [in other words you mantrify the yogini]

    OM sarva-DAkinI-AvRitAyai-saNketayoginyai namaH

    Outwardly, it perhaps appears the same as what a Buddhist would do, except it would not be the same rites and mantras, which is functionally different, about like how a computer is different from a calculator.

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    Default Re: Nirakara and Shentong Buddhism, Tara, Sadhanas, Sanskrit culture

    Parnasabari, Ghasmari, Lankesvari and Viraja

    Studying an 1809 Nepalese Tsog Tsin (Refuge or Merit Accumulation Field, comparable to "pantheon") painting, Alice Getty found a Pyramid of deities, including:

    Parnasavari, Sakti de Manjughosa (P. 165) (red).

    She then struggles with the presence of Seven Dakinis around 113, and comes up with a Karma and Visva Dakini, which would be redundant. So her information isn't completely accurate, which is evidenced by a fair number of question marks. She is not supposed to be an authority, only an early western observer of these things. Feminine Divinites is a pretty good quick glance at a fair number of Sadhanamala Taras. It is hard to say why she would add such a weird note about Manjughosha. If you do this, you are equating Parnasabari to Sarasvati. That however is probably true if we think of "Sarasvati of Prana" instead of her basic version. Then she would become like a "tantric Sarasvati", which is a description given to Janguli. One of the main meanings of Parnasabari is that she is an herbalist and energetic lay healer. "Sarasvati teaching this subject" is how she is presented in Samputa. If she is also in the Yamari tantras, then she is at least halfway close to Manjushri,

    Mythology of All Races says:

    Parnasabari, who is also called Pukkasi, Pisaci, and Gandhari.

    This is followed by calling Kurukulla "the wife of Kamadeva". That just seems unsupported. The first part sounds like a sloppy reading of her mantra, she is called "a " pisaci, whereas the other names are almost certainly her entourage.

    Giuseppe Tucci is highly regarded because he photo documented a lot of Tibet, and this remains the only evidence of its kind prior to the invasion. Based from his work, a study of symbolic stupas from Densatil places Parnasabari with Dance Goddesses in one of the highest tiers, only subordinate to Vajravarahi. In this teaching Parnasabari is clearly emphasized as an "important stage".

    A very detailed view of a tashi gomang (Many Doors of Auspiciousness) stupa at Densatil on pp. 12-13 shows us how this works under Akshobya at the top and the Four Kings at the bottom. Above the Kings are Dharma Protectors such as Dhumavati with two swords, Rahu, Ananta, and Prithvi. And above these is the tier of all Sixteen Offering Goddesses--but in the very middle of these is the trio Parnasabari, Marici, Janguli.

    Ngor entrance initiations are Bhutadamara, Usnisa, and Parnasabari.

    In Beijing, Four Face Kwanyin is called Parnasabari. According to Miranda Shaw, and tucked behind the name Vudasi, a Tibetan healing ritual is done with five Parnasabaris in five chakras who beam their rays onto the patient, who consciously invites them. The patient is indeed expected to learn to change their habits.

    In the tantras, the Tibetan Pitha system is totally different, since they largely believe that Dharma was "moved" to Tibet, then for instance there becomes a Devikota "of Tibet", and there may be two or more disputed versions of it. And if we look at the popular version, there is even more puzzling identification being made.

    Pabonkha and Naro's Secret Dakini say Chakrawarmini [is the same as] Parnashavari; which is equating her to a Pitha goddess. This is where he is explaining Body Mandala, and that Thirty-seven Point Enlightenment is an Ekavira or goddess format of Sixty-two deity Chakrasamvara. He casts what he calls yoginis, i. e. the Four Dakinis weirdly, it is reversed, but by starting North and ending East. I am not aware of a situation where it is done like that; the starting point is the same, in the East. He says Syama = Sarasvati, although more appropriately it would be Matangi. But then his commentary on the relation of Pithas to Akanistha is good.

    The Tibetan list we found was literal and says Chakravarmini = Khorlo Gocha, which is simple enough:

    ...a Nepali king named Go Cha (identified by Sylvain Lévi as "Udayavarman", from the literal meaning of the Tibetan name) was said to have a daughter called Bri-btumn or Bhṛkuti...It is not known exactly when Bhrikuti married Songtsen Gampo, but it was presumably about the time that Narendradeva fled to Tibet (c. 621 CE), following Dhruvadeva's take-over of the throne (who, according to an inscription dated in 623, was ruling jointly with Jiṣṇugupta)...The Red Palace (Mar-po-ri Pho-drang) on Marpo Ri (Red Mountain) in Lhasa, which was later rebuilt into the thirteen storey Potala by the Fifth Dalai Lama, was constructed by Nepali craftsmen according to her wishes.

    Gocha: Armor

    In this case she is an Armor goddess as in wearing it, a suit of mail, according to her more likely parallel name, which in turn suggests the Six Armor Goddesses. Varma is in Lalita Mahatmya above the Sixteen Nitya devis:

    It is considered that the abode of Ṣoḍaśī (i-e. Lalitā considered as the sixteenth one in the group of Nityās), is the Binducakra of special creation.

    40-42. Then, O Pot-born Sage, twenty Hastas above the Antara of the Nityā deities is the Antara of the Aṅga Devīs (Deities of various limbs). It is said that it extends up to four Nalvas. The staircase and apartment are as before. O Sage, the Śaktis beginning with Hṛdaya Devī (Deity of the heart) are in it. They are mentioned to be six in number viz. Hṛddevī Śīrodevī (Deity of the head), Śikhādevī (Deity of the tuft), Varmadevī (Deity of the armour), Dṛṣṭidevī (Deity of the vision) and Śastradevī (Deity of the weapons).

    43. They are very close to Lalitā, the consort of Śrīkāmeśvara. All their limbs are full with the freshness of youthful bloom and beauty. They are very attentive. They hold weapons.

    She does not have continuity to Parnasabari in the following manner:

    Parṇaśabarī (पर्णशबरी) or Parṇasaurika is the name of a Ḍākinī who, together with the Vīra (hero) named Parṇaśabara (or Parṇasaurika) forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Hṛdayacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15.

    Cakravarmini is in his Vajracakra because it is the Pithas.

    Cakravarmini ('Khor lo go Jha ma)--an alternate spelling

    Samvara mandala shows her with an additional ending:

    hdzin ma

    Hdzin is along the lines of "fully taken hold of" such as in the Tibetan difficulty in translating Sampatti:

    This Tib. expression is, however, not always parallel with tiṅ ṅe ḥdzin = samādhi, which may depend upon it, as in LV 3.11 where samādhiṃ samāpanno 'bhūt, containing the cognate ppp., is rendered tiṅ ṅe ḥdzin la sñoms par zhugs par gyur to, arrived at equanimity- entrance into samādhi, or at entrance into equanimity (leading) to samādhi.

    By itself it is a common word, over twenty times in The Great Chariot such as:

    rdo rje 'dzin: Level of a vajra holder

    therefore close to Sanskrit Dhara.

    Cakravarmini is the consort of Akashagarbha. If we look at him in Offering Goddess format, Parnasabari is someone else; this is Cunda. Or, if we try to trace Chakravarmini by her consort status, then it would be Cunda.

    One could try to say Parnasabari's leaves resemble mail. However this is armor in relation to a wheel.

    Kelsang Gyatso also says Parnasabari, but he is using the same Pabonkha material. You do however notice that Akashagarbha is Vajraprabha and slips around the system by synonyms. If you do that then you are stuck with Vajraprabha's consort as Lankesvari. These mechanics are possible, but he is just saying "is" without explaining the association. For example he says Virupaksha is Bodhisattva Drawa Chenkyio Web of Light. At that point I don't even know what he is talking about. He also has Khaganana and Pretapuri backwards.

    Parnasabari originally means a human, a Sabari, but she is also called a Pisaci, as if the disturbed spirit of one. In this view, she is pudgy, under Amoghasiddhi, and not in a good position to suggest her leaves are a suit of armor:


    1400s Sakya mural where I am not sure what happened to her leaves:

    In sadhanas, Parnasabari appears in the retinue of Janguli in Krsna Yamari, and she has one retinue of her own. Mitra's Parnasabari has the Four Kings such as Virupaksha:

    So this is like Tara's song, if you just translate Wheel Armor, that is actually what it says, but there is not a whole lot that suggests to me it would have been understood as Parnasabari when Chakrasamvara was composed. Because Cunda holds a Bowl or Patra that we take to be the inverse of an Atapatra or Parasol, we would lean towards seeing her as a lower chakra. Parnasabari's kneeling stance, however, is a form of the Crescent, meaning she has blocked prana from running out her legs.

    Kharvari is suggestive of her, but with Amitabha it is easily shown that Pandara is dwarfish.

    Akashagarbha in this context appears to be a stand-in for Khagarbha or Visvavajrapani, the Bodhisattva of Karma Family. The subtle male hypostasis in the Pithas is probably actually by:

    1) Kaṅkāla (कङ्काल) refers to a “skeleton”

    into Maha Kankala, and to Khandakapalin, which is the beginner stage of Kapalika tantra; the three together being in the three highest Pithas.

    Akashagarbha and Chakravarmini function as Smrti Bodhyanga, or i. e. the Fifth Yoga including Union at that point. So for the time being we may as well think it is a little bit beyond us.

    Miranda Shaw's Janguli article has been copied. She suggests the "poison glance" is like that of Manasa who keeps her third eye closed until she wants to release venom. She follows the principle that the nectar and poison are each other inversely. She even has a Seven Face form in China where her practice is more like nectar than curing snakebite. She has not found more Janguli sadhanas or mandalas than we know of, besides the Chinese, and a figurine from Kashmir which has her on a Garuda throne, which is similar to Peacock, in that both are traditionally enemies of snakes. A partial Sadhanamala translation says she has Seven Yellow Snakes and uses a Moon Pitcher, even though it is not included in her held items, she must change something. Occult World says she may be, or her presence is indicated by, a white snake; so perhaps she just slithers into Parnasabari's hair; but they do not explain where this comes from.

    Indian Esoteric Buddhism tells us that Janguli is not accurately translated:

    Janguli’s capacity to cure poison was sufficiently important for the Tibetan translators simply to render her name as Dug-sel (ma) (the clarifier of poison).

    It is very skeptical about what a Sabara is:

    Parnasabari’s mantra describes her as a pisaci, in this case not necessarily a ghost, since the name was from an early period applied to tribal peoples as well.

    ...real trib­al divinities are much more closely mirrored by such statues as the wooden Jagannatha group, which is thought to be an actual Sabara effigy that has been somewhat Hinduized in the process.

    ...the contemporary Saora are one of the few tribal groups that have no central goddess figures, calling into question either the accuracy of Sabara = Saora or the Buddhist capacity to understand the tribal source of its representations.

    There is no Earth Mother in the Saora pantheon...Tari (and the Gond equivalent) has been represented by a post or stump and serves as the probable ritual source for the Sakta cults of Khambesvari, Subhadra, Dantesvari, and a host of other figures in the Orissa/Madhya Pradesh area.

    Vakpatiraja’s eighth-century Gaudavaho specifies that a Candika figure— probably identifying the site of the current Vindhyavasini in Mirzapur—was worshiped by “Sabara kaula” women, but the statue was doubtless built on a Sakta appropri­ ation of a Gond site. Even though apparently in error, the ascription of sanguinary goddesses to Sabaras is well attested in early medieval literature in both Sanskrit and Prakrit...

    As already seen, the earliest surviving text assigning the use of mantras to the historical Buddha, the Matangi-sutra section of the Sardulakarnavadana, depicts the Buddha’s ritual combat with a woman who is of the Matanga group.

    Mantric Matangi is original. Then she is in the Pisacis. Our main tantric tradition comes from a Jagannath devotee, Indrabhuti, which perhaps is cleverly concealed by the preservation of Charcika.

    If we really translate this, Reality Source is the name of what we are trying to attain in order to do Generation Stage. Did we just say the ordinary human lacks any reality to even possibly perceive, yes, something like that. It is the same type of question that would say, well, Avalokiteshvara, if as far as I know I feel great, what do you mean I am Suffering?

    It is probably not that hard for an interested person to begin yoga and probably feel the Crescent a little bit. However it is considered difficult to extremely difficult to really enter the Triangle. Probably takes a long time. And so during this time we can develop an Inner Homa as a mantra process, and try to feel the Fire the Triangle is talking about. Such a Triangle is an item held by a tiny amount of deities. From studying the Gauris, it is Ghasmari who originally does this for a Dancing Kapalika Heruka:


    He is surrounded in the style of the Vidyapitha by twenty Vajradakinis: first, in the innermost circuit the eight Gauri [s]

    In STTS, the original conversion name of Varahi was Vajramukhi. The name Vajravarahi does not appear until later texts. It should be apparent how this makes sense in the Tramen Gatekeepers:

    Turangama, Vajramukhi, Vajramamaki/Aloka, and Bhasmapralayavetali stand in the four gates of the enclosure to subjugate all hostile deities (krodhakulam), with the heads of a horse, a boar, a crow, and a dog, and holding a hook, noose, chain, and bell.

    and this is who is being called Narayani or female Vishnu:

    Pramoha (W) is black and four-armed, with
    the face of Visnu's boar-incarnation (adivarahamukha). In her first left hand she
    holds a skull-bowl full of wine and in her first right a Vajra. With her other two
    hands she imitates the boar-incarnation by raising up the earth.

    Here, it actually is Varahi. She is using Varuni, and the planet.

    However, one could presume it to be initiatory since Humkaravajra, a Nepalese guru to Padmasabhava, varies the sadhana by giving Pramoha the form of Indrabhuti's Vajravarahi:

    According to Humkaravajra's Herukasadhana she has two heads, that of a boar
    above and a red head below. Moreover, he has her raise with her two lower hands
    a wheel ('khor lo) rather than the earth.

    And as long as we are contemplating this, we are not doing Hevajra because there is the substitution:

    Sabari rather than Pramoha

    Sabari is not Pukkasi.

    Pramoha in the West is "krsna" which is not "black" but, midnight blue, which is capable of glowing. Ghasmari is the same:

    pastime ghasmari krsna*varna (corr. varnnam Cod.) mrtacarvanamukhi bhaksanadrstih \ vamakarena vajrajvalagnikundadharini \ daksine vajramustina khadgam dadya pratyalidhapadavasthita |

    In her left hand she holds a blazing sacrificial fire-vessel (agnikunda-) and with her right grasps a sword.

    Narayani--Varahi and Mahesvari--Ghasmari are Blue deities in the West.

    Ghasmari is a Blue Warrior Stance Sword devi, having otherwise the same item as in this detail of Dharmodaya Tara:

    According to Yoga Nidra:

    Fire in the Kunda is followed by Nyasa for seven tongues or flames and their deities, the jatis, and eightfold Agni forms. He evidently is two armed on a lotus embracing his sakti. Then the Mothers are added on eight petals; there are six flames of Agni at the corners and one at the center. So it is telling you to attach an equivalent of this Pitha Song and you have Agni in a seven-fold scheme which is the same as only about three of all Buddhist mandalas, Seven Syllable deity, Mahakala, or Armor Deities.

    There are ghee oblations involving Soma, and then the use of Ganapati plus Agni mantras makes the "mouth of Agni". Then the performer does "merger of the mouth" (vaktraikikarana) and merger of the arteries (nadisandhana, the merger of the arteries of fire, deity, and self). There is a "birth of Agni" and manifestation via Nirmanachakra.

    That is almost the same as Mystic Kiss Tantra and Inverted Stupa--Nadi Dakini Jala. To purify the skandhas and ayatanas is Father tantra; to purify the Nadis is Mother tantra.

    As an item, dharmodaya can be traced only on a few deities.

    In Kalachakra Mind Mandala:

    N: green – Maṇikārī (nor bu mkhan ma) jewellery – dharmodaya – Dharmadhātuvajrā (chos khams rdo rje ma)

    And in what it calls Iccha goddesses:

    dharmodaya Maithunecchā ('khrig pa 'dod ma) (green)

    Maithuna Iccha is Sex Drive. Drumacchaya is her name, Manikari is her caste or profession. Drumachhaya is Samadhi at Indriya level.

    That is her specific application in that system, but, Dharmadhatu Vajra is a universal name like Sparsha Vajra, etc., and so Ghasmari is also this.

    Homa in Gandahar is also tied to Vairocana Abhisambodhi and Sarvadurgati.

    Samaya Agni

    The short Homa paper says Samayagni and Jnanagni are from Samvarodaya, same as Eighteen Arm Varuni. He is re-enacting the role of Vajrasattva, i. e. is invoked and established as a Samaya Sattva or bondable being first. Samaya is described as:

    "Samayagni (the fire god of promise), who is yellow-colored with one face and four, arms. He has a staff (danda) and a water jar (kamandalu) in his two left hands, and a rosary in one right hand. His other right hand shows a boon-giving gesture (varadamudra). He wears a yellow garment and, a crown decorated with the image of Vajrasattva. Having meditated, the priest invites Samayagni to the fireplace. Then he offers water, and flowers, etc. , to the deity. Later, he draws Samayagni into the fire. Having done this, the priest pours clarified butter (ghrta) with a ladle into the fire one hundred eight times. The action is called agnyahuti. As soon as the butter is offered, eighteen kinds of fuel sticks (Nw. homvi), grains, beans, and milk etc: are offered to Samayagni."

    "Indian Buddhism" calls Samvarodaya the most important of its kind, and that in it, ultimate reality is called Dakini Jala Samvara, and that this, or yoginiyogimelaka, was the central cult. Three Mountains Seven Rivers says Samvarodaya and Mrtyuvacana Upadesa are the main Buddhist equivalents to Hindu "cheating death" tantras. Some of this "central cult" remained in Nepal without entering Tibet, such as Vajravarahi Kalpa which interweaves Samvarodaya and Dakarnava; also, Yogini Jala and Guhyasamaja Sadhanamala (46 Varahi sadhanas) did not travel. Samvarodaya states it was written at Ratnagiri.

    Yogini Melaka is the same as in Picumata or Jayadratha Mala:

    In the overwhelming majority of cases, such encounters do not pertain to normal, everyday practices, but rather come at the end of a recitation of a mantra and homa.

    The sādhaka, usually in a state of inebriation, suddenly hears indistinct sounds, enters into a visionary state and then finds himself surrounded by yoginīs. These may be deformed or appear with the faces of animals.

    They say an individual practice is a visionary state which is not necessarily the same as a ganacakra in the sense of an actual party. Priya Melaka appears to involve union. It is, on the surface, close to the same form we are dealing with. And so that is roughly correct, Varuni is the intoxicant and the Gauris and Tramen of Heruka are experienced like that.

    Miranda Shaw thinks to a large extent the melakas were mostly women's private parties that men were seeking to discover and gain admittance. She has four or five examples of women teaching visualization sadhanas to male tantric masters such as Durjayachandra.

    So a visualized use of Ghasmari based from Varuni would be a slightly incomplete version similar to one of the original western mentions of her. The basic Varuni format from Circle of Bliss, which stops at nectar without going to Citta Cakra is in article 99. The fact of three skulls being peculiarly Newar is somewhat obscure in 102. The generation of Chakrasamvara is Adi Yoga or "Samvara Buddha Yoga", wherein he is the totality of Six Families in 110; the well-known male Six Chakravartins is actually Dakini Jala Samvara. And it says Three Varunis come out of the Skullcup: Varahi, Vairocaniye, and Varnani. And when done, everything dissolves into Vam, which slowly fades to Flame--Nada. 115 attributes Samvarodaya as saying within Varuni's body resides Vairocaniye, and that through the amrita offering, bliss is experienced. Muttering is done in the Skullcup. Varuna and the Naga Kings "are" the Conch Water or its source, and Varuni is evoked through it and brews it and so forth.

    Circle of Bliss comes in nine sections under Papers.

    In section six, Inverted Stupa starts in 99. They did a really good job in referring to it in the appropriate manner but is a bit too much written like "the practitioner does this", whereas for instance one of its main uses is with Ekajati. The description of the thing itself is fairly good.

    Ghasmari is like a slowed-down 115, which is about Varuni and Armor Deities.

    As you don't just "do" a practice of decapitation, Kanakhala of Devikota, who attained Mahamudra with Krsnacharya, re-defines cutting off your own head:

    Sometimes the two sisters are shown with Kanhapa (Krsnacharya), and Laksminkara is in another arrangement.

    When we think of Indrabhuti, it is Laksminkara:

    As an enlightened siddha, Laksminkara subsequently became known as a great teacher and author. Two of her early pupils were the two men who had been particularly important in her life. Her older brother Indrabhuti found himself inspired by her example and eventually gave up the throne to his son, in order to practice meditation. He too went into seclusion, and during some twelve years of practice received from his younger sister initiation, instruction and transmission of her spiritual lineage. In particular, she instructed him in the Guhyasamaja Tantra, which she had learned from the siddha Cittavajra, who had received it from a lineage composed of a farmer, a wine merchant, a weaver, a lady brahmin and a baker. Her former husband, the son of the King Jalendra, was also inspired by Laksminkara’s example to give up his throne, convert to Buddhism and practice the tantric vehicle. He did not study with Laksminkara directly, but rather, through her insistence, with one of her pupils, a street sweeper whose job it was to clean the prince’s very own latrines.

    In the Pithas, Lankesvari of Devikota who, at the very least, was close to Laksminkara, has for her husband, Vajraprabha:

    The story of Sukhāvatī and Kalāvatī was narrated by the Vidyādhara king Vajraprabha to prince Naravāhanadatta in order to relate how “Sūryaprabha, being a man, obtain of old time the sovereignty over the Vidyādharas”.

    According to the chapter 46 , “... then Sūryaprabha went with all the rest into the presence of Amīla. He too was pleased on hearing that he had obtained boons, and gave him Sukhāvatī, his second daughter, and two of his sons to help him”.

    1200s Kagyu with Vajraprabha in relation to H. H. 1st Karmapa:

    He may be human, but, he also has an esoteric purpose which is found in I'm not sure what this is linked to, Chapter Twelve:

    oṃ vajrasāvitre svāhā||

    Vajrapani is going to emanate Wrathful Deities, and it starts by saluting the Sun. The first wave results in:


    Then there is:

    atha vajrakuṇḍalirvajrakrodha imāṃ samayamudrāmabhāṣat oṃ jvālāvajre hūṃ||
    atha vajraprabha uvāca oṃ vajrasaumye hūṃ||
    vajradaṇḍovāca oṃ vajradaṇḍe hūṃ||
    vajrapiṅgalovāca oṃ vajrabhīṣaṇe hūṃ||

    The next section is:


    The next includes Harini:

    nāgavajrovāca oṃ vajrahāriṇi hūṃ||

    bhīmāṃ śriyaṃ sarasvatīṃ durgāṃ koṇeṣu vāmataḥ|
    bāhyakoṇeṣu mudrā vai āsāmeva tu saṃlikhet||5||

    After the first part, then you make the resulting Bonds, such as Kridha Samaya, and:


    Gaṇikā (गणिका).—[feminine] a harlot, courtesan.

    They are presided over by nine male deities (called bhairavas, they are emenations of Ananta, the presiding deity of the Dūtīcakra)

    Followed by Dutis:

    Dūtī (दूती).—The female ritual partner (dūtī/śakti).—A female ritual partner

    Dūtī (दूती) refers to “female messengers”; techniques to please them are described in the Vajraḍākatantra chapter 38.—Accordingly the word Dūtī (female messenger) is a synonym of Yoginī, Ḍākinī and Mudrā in that it means a sacred lady or a partner of a Yogin. The word dūtī is frequently used in the Cakrasaṃvara literature.

    And Ceti (Female Slaves).

    According to Dictionary of Buddhist Iconography:

    d. Vajraprabha (i.e. Ratnasambhava): Vajramrta

    That is similar to the mantra group above, it would be Amritakundalin, followed by Vajramrita, followed by two others perhaps akin to the two other principals of that tantra.

    Lankesvari and Vajraprabha in the Eyes represent the beginner or Indriya Smrti. Stronger or Bala Smrti is Surabhaskari and Vajrahumkara at the Nose Tip. Curiously, Vajrahumkara is also an intensification to Wrathful Ones as just described with Vajraprabha, and would be another principal of Vajramrita.

    Lankesvari has a type of Pitha in the form of a flat rocky islet in the bed of Mahanadi and a whirlpool of Mahanadi is known as Lankeswari Darha.

    Considering the iconographic style
    scholars assigned the date of the deity in 12th
    Century A.D. Deity Lankeswari is four armed.
    She sits in Bajraparyanka posture on a lotus
    throne. She holds Sankha and Chakra in her
    upper left and right hands respectively and her
    lower right hand having Varada Mudra and left
    hand in Abhaya Mudra with spread out tongue.
    The image is carved in black chlorite stone
    measuring 32" by 16". Such iconic feature
    synchronizing Kali with Vishnu is unique and only
    of its kind in the State of Orissa. The deity is
    worshipped with Vanadurga Vija Mantra.

    Her islet is near Subarnapur or Sonepur, and the Mahanadi
    passes through Sambalpur. It has recently made news from the discovery of a submerged Vishnu temple.

    According to Samaleswari:

    Once upon a time Sonepur region was known as Paschime Lanka. Goddess Lankeswari was the presiding deity of Paschima Lanka.

    In the subtle Pithas, she has an esoteric comment. My eyes have a nerve that goes straight into my brain, and--what?

    The abode of Lankesvari and Vajraprabha, its position in the body is the eyes from which flows a pathway to the liver.

    Described in this way, it is talking about a pathway that must pass through the Heart.

    The Eyes, in this sense, are not the regular ones of ordinary waking consciousness.

    So this is very strange that Ekajati and Lankesvari are at the beginning of a Pratisara Dharani found in the Gilgit manuscripts.

    Comparatively, not far away at Jaipur is Viraja or a main reason we might say Oddiyana is in Orissa:

    The Brahmayamala Tantra has a hymn, "Aadya Stotra", dedicated to Shakti. In the hymn, Vimala is the goddess of Puri and Viraja (Girija) is the goddess worshiped in the Utkala Kingdom, which became Odisha.

    According to the Tantra Chudamani, Sati's navel fell in the Utkala Kingdom, also known as "Viraja kshetra". Adi Shankara, in his Ashtadasha Shakti Peetha Stuti describes the goddess as Girija. In Tantra literature, the Oddiyana Peetha (Devnagari:ओड़्याण पीठ) is located in eastern India near the Vaitarani River (an Oddiyana is an ornament worn by a woman around her navel).

    There is a separate shrine for Sree Bagalamukhi Devi, which is right of Maa Biraja. One can find very few temples for this Roopa of Dasamahavidya.

    She is the Nabhi Pitha, and, Viraja as the most ancient name and yogic doctrine of the emenation of durgas, bhairavas, and yoginis explains her as involved with Jagannath, who is like Bhairava. Viraja Nadi is the border to the spiritual world in Gaudiya.

    One of the historical sources for Viraja was said to be a Buddhist text called Dathadhatuvamsa. There is such a thing known for caontaining the story of a Relic:

    this tooth
    is the one which. according to the Mahavamsa (T.,
    241: W., 154), was transferred in A.D. 370 (as
    adjusted from his date, A.D. 310) from (Dantapura
    in) Kalinga to Ceylon, in circumstances detailed
    in the Dathadhatuvamsa

    or as having recorded a large number of ports in Kalinga--Orissa.

    There is a Viraja Mahatmya in the Brahmanda Purana.

    History and Culture

    Kali Purana relates Jagannath and Katyayani with the Odiyan Pitha.

    Vimala Sa Mahadevi Jagannathastu Bhairavah

    Katyayani Choddiyane Kamakhya Kamarupini.

    The Kubjika Tantra describes Viraja as the Maheswari of

    Medieval Orissa:

    Maninaga was probably very popular. This is because his
    worship has survived at Ranapur up to this day, because his
    name figures in a copper-plate record of Orissa of the sixth
    century A. D ., and because at Jajpur the image of the goddess
    Viraja, wearing on the head cobra with the lower part coiled
    and the raised hood expanded, is called Maninaga even now.

    From Orissalinks:

    The Buddhist remains at Lalitigiri, Ratnagiri, Udaygiri and Langudi in the Jajpur and Cuttack
    districts provide evidence to show that the monastic establishments in these areas flourished during
    these periods. Scholars believe that Viraja (modern Jajpur) was a sacred land of Buddha Padmaprabha
    and the cradle of Mahayana Budhism. This is supported by the fact that Jajpur and its neighbourhood
    are seen to be rich in Mahayanic antiquities.

    The widespread influence of Buddhism between the 1st and 7th century A.D on the religious and
    spiritual life of Odisha is evident from the literature, art, architecture, sculpture and philosophy of the
    period. To this efflorescence of Mahayana Buddhism the contribution of Odisha can be judged from the
    flourishing Buddhist centres at Parimalagiri, Surabhagiri, Bhorasila, Tamralipti and Chelitalo. The great
    Madhyamika philosopher, Nagarjuna is supposed to have lived on the Harisankar-Nrusinghanath hill in
    Balangir district. Surabhagiri is identified as the Dhauli hill at Bhubaneswar where the philosopher Acharya
    Sarvagami had his Vihara for the teaching of Yogachara.

    Tantric Buddhism seems to have evolved from the Yogachara School. Acharya Pitopada (8th Century A.D.) achieved a great reputation as a scholar and a saint at Ratnagiri and promulgated Kalachakryana, a new vehicle of Buddhism. By the 7th century A.D., Tantric Buddhism made its appearance and in the 8th century, King Indrabhuti of Sambalpur purified
    Tantric Buddhism and introduced it as Vajrayana, which is supposed to have travelled to other parts of
    the country and Tibet. Vajrayana was changed to Sahajayana by Lashminkara, the princess of Sonepur
    and sister of Indrabhuti.

    Although the first tantric Buddhist texts appeared in India in the 3rd century AD and continued to
    appear until the 12th century A.D.,...Historians have identified an early stage of Mantrayana, which began in
    the 4th century. According to Pag sam jan Zang, Tantric Buddhism first developed in Uddiyana, a
    country which was divided into two kingdoms, Sambala and Lankapuri. Sambala has been identified
    with Sambalpur and Lankapuri with Subarnapura (Sonepur). Indrabhuti, the king of Sambalpur, founded
    Vajrayana, while his sister, who was married to Prince Jalendra of Lankapuri (Sonepur), founded
    Sahajayana. In the opinion of Rahul Sankrityayan, Sarahapâda was the earliest Siddha or Siddhâcârya.
    According to him, Sarahapâda was a student of Haribhadra, who was, in turn, a disciple of Santarakhita,
    the noted Buddhist scholar and Principal of Nalanda University who traveled to Tibet with his sister
    Mandârabâ and brother-in-law, Padmasambhava at the invitation of King Khrison Ide-Stan of Tibet.

    Vajrayana may have taken shape gradually in an environment with
    previously existing texts such as the Mahasannipata and the Ratnaketudharani. The earliest texts
    appeared around the early part of the 4th century.

    ...a Savara leader named Biswâbasu worshipped the image of Nîlamâdhava at a secret
    place called Nîlakandara on the eastern seashore. Jagannâth is a wooden deity. He is the Dakhinakâlî
    for the Saktas and Bhairava for the Saivites. He is Mahâganapati for the Gânapatyas and at the same
    time, he is the Sûryanârâyan for the Sauras. His festivals are of a Purânic origin and the rituals are an
    admixture of tribal rituals and Sâkta’s nyasa and mudras and many more. The majority of his rituals are
    based on Uddiyan tantras which are the refined versions of Mahayan tantras as well as Shabari tantras,
    which have evolved from Tantrik Buddhism and tribal beliefs respectively.

    The ‘brahma’ that is placed at the navel of Jagannath is nothing but the Buddhist tooth relic that was brought from
    Kusinagar to Kalinga.

    The annual bathing ceremony (Snana Jatra) and the car festival (Ratha Jatra) are Buddhist practices. The Ratha Jatra (or the
    Chariot Festival) of Jagannath resembles the procession of the Buddhist image, which has been referred
    to by Fa- Hian. During the Ratha Jatra and other festivities, caste distinctions are ignored. The Jagannath
    cult emphasized the brotherhood of all men. Purusottam Kshetra is a sacred place, where the mahaprasad
    or offering to Jagannath is eaten off the same plate by brahmans and sudras. This unique phenomenon
    is ascribed to the influence of Buddhism, a universal religion, which Jagannath stands for.
    The term Jagannath was applied to Adi Buddha by Raja Indrabhuti of Sambal ( now Sambalpur) in
    his work “Jñân Siddhi”. Adi Buddha is even now called Jagannath in Nepalese Buddhism.

    It is also said that forest-dwellers of Odisha like the Savaras adopted Buddhism during Asoka’s
    reign. By 1st century B.C., when image worship became common among the Buddhists, the Savaras
    came to regard the image of Jagannath as the image of the Buddha. In course of time, the Hindus also
    regarded Buddha as an incarnation or avatar of Vishnu and identified Buddha as Jagannath.
    Last edited by shaberon; 4th October 2021 at 08:07.

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    Default Re: Nirakara and Shentong Buddhism, Tara, Sadhanas, Sanskrit culture

    Sosaling or Sitabani, Seven Syllable deity, Parnasabari and Nadis

    Shangpa is not an institution, it is a bundle of transmissions in Kagyu, which came through Khyungpo Naljor. The Shangpa system has its own Ngondro and progression of deities, similar to others, but in its own league based from Prajnaparamita in One Letter.

    The "head of the system" did not necessarily contribute much, but collected. Khyungpo Naljor is difficult; some say he lived a hundred and fifty years, meaning he was born in the 900s. Knowing the end part, his more normal lifespan is placed around:

    (c. 1050-1140)

    As an adolescent, he studied Bon and Dzogchen. He was not satisfied, and:

    travelled seven times to India from Tibet, bringing back many teachings from masters such as Niguma, Sukhasiddhi, Rahulaguptavajra, Maitripa and Vajrasana or Abhaya.

    from what he acquired:

    Khyungpo Neljor accused “the monks” of focusing too much on books, and conjured apparitions of various peaceful and wrathful deities to propelled them to practice.

    Niguma is the most famous; Warm Dakinis' Breath says:

    His other dakini gurus included KanasrI of Devikota, Sumati, Sukhasiddhi, Gangadhara, and Samantabhadri.

    Treasury of Lives says:

    He adopted six of these teachers as his glorious Root Lamas, of these; the wisdom Dakinis Niguma and Sukhasiddhi had received direct transmissions from Vajradhara, the enlightened enjoyment body [Sambhogakaya] of the sixth Buddha. His other Indian main teachers were Maitripa, Rahula, Vajrasanapa and a mysterious master whom we only know as Bäpä Naljor (sbas pa'i rnal 'byor) or Hidden Yogin. This master is truly a hidden yogin because we know virtually nothing about him other than that he gave a number of transmissions to Khyungpo Naljor. In several lineage supplications he is also referred to as "Bäpä Naljor Drachen Dzinpa" (sbas pa'i rnal 'byor sgra gcan 'dzin pa), or "Hidden Yogin Rahula". He is thus not to be confused with the aforementioned Mahasiddha Rahula. According to Ven. Kyabje Tenga Rinpoche, the hidden yogin is named Rahula because he was the son of the Buddha himself in a previous lifetime, whose name was also Rahula.

    When he started, Niguma was highly threatening; he found her in a charnel ground spelled Sosa Ling or Kosa Ling. But they do not know what this name means:

    Of those eight, Siwai Tsel (Sitavan), Cool Garden, in the vicinity of Bodhgaya, and Sosa Ling (location uncertain), are the most renowned in Tibet.

    Marpa (1012-1097) visited Niguma twice at Sosa ling (or Sosadvipa) charnel ground in east India, ca. 1040.

    Niguma was sometimes there to host a Ganacakra.

    It is not necessarily a "place".

    Sosa is drying, emaciating, or sucking:

    Śoṣa (शोष, “drying”) or Śoṣaṇa refers to one of the “seven means” (saptopāya) to be performed when a mantra does not manifest its effect, as explained in the 10th-century Kakṣapuṭatantra verse 1.104-105. Śoṣa, which aims to dry up the mantra, should be performed. The practitioner attaches the bījas of Vāyu, the god of Wind, to it, and keeps the written mantra around his neck. The last resort is the dahanīya, which aims to burn the mantra at the stake.

    Nāropa sent Marpa to receive teachings from Niguma, Wisdom (Jnāna) Dākinī Adorned with Bone ornaments. She was Nāropa’s wife before he renounced worldly life to enter the dharma, and later she became his student and consort... Marpa’s dakini and Khyungpo Naljor’s Niguma can sometimes both be found in the same great cemetery of Sosadvıpa (Tib. Sosaling), said to be just to the west of Bodhgaya.

    Okar implies Sosaling is "near" Sitabani:

    Manjushrimitra: Jampel Shenyen......received a prophecy from Manjushri that if he sought enlightenment he should go to the Sitavana cremation ground near Bodhgaya. There he met Garab Dorje...He then went to the Sosaling cremation ground to the west of Bodhgaya, where he taught his disciple Shri Singha (according to Keith Dowman).

    Manjushrimitra, Sri Simha, and the Heart Essence teachings, or Heart Essence of the Dakinis, concerns that branch.

    But the two charnel grounds might be the same. In the slew of inaccuracies, Guhyajnana Dakini is written as "the Jnanadakini" in the history of Vajrakilaya, and her story happened in Sitabani:

    Padmasambhava himself requested the Vajrakilaya empoverment from the Zahor Khenpo Prahasti. He replied: "Since I am not worthy to bestow empowerment on you, request the empowerment from the Jñanadakini at the Sosa Ling cremation ground in accordance with the prophesy."

    Having done that, the Jñanadakini transformed Padmasambhava into the letter HUNG which she swallowed. Thus she bestowed the four empowerments at her four places perfectly. At the secret place, she explained the entire Vajrakilaya tantra text and the oral instructions.

    Later, in order to tame obstacles, he brought two man's loads of volumes of the Dharma cycle of Vajrakilaya from India to Parping in Nepal.

    That was probably his first major initiation, which in most accounts was with Guhyajnana Dakini in Sitabani; and to say it was with Jnanadakini in Sosaling either means they are identical, or, the minor difference has not been well recorded.

    Because they say they have translated from Sanskrit Sosa Dvipa, the latter frequently means an island, a continent, or:

    Dvipa (द्विप).—m.

    (-paḥ) 1. An elephant. 2. A plant, (Mesua ferrea.) E. dvi two, and pa who drinks, the elephant imbibing fluids by his trunk, and thence conveying them into his mouth.

    That seems unlikely, since elephants do not "dry" so much as they give Necctar showers. Gaja Lakshmi, similar to the gate of Ratnagiri:

    Sosadvipa either is Sitabani, or is fairly close to it.

    Jnanadakini is not Guhyajnana Dakini, by a considerable margin. If it were a lower-case adjective, then Ekajati is "a" jnana dakini, and you could spread it around to any Wisdom Dakini, it would be the name of a class.

    Jnanadakini as in Marpa Dakini is more specific than Guhyajnana Dakini. As a principal deity, her form appears to be an extension of "Vajrasattva consort", while her consort resembles her other personal form. They have unusual companions here in the 1600s.

    At the top center is Vajrasattva, peaceful, white, holding a vajra and bell embracing the consort Vajra Garvi. Surrounded by four figures, Nagarjuna, Krishnapada, a monk and a layman, they sit atop lotus seats and billowing blue clouds.

    At the upper left side is the solitary form of Jnana Dakini with three faces and six hands. At the proper left side of the composition is the heavenly realm of Akshobhya Buddha known as the Abhirati pureland. Slightly below a monk flies upward on a trail of cloud ascending to the heavenly realm.

    At the middle left a group of tantric yogis enjoy a ritual feast. At the right a white goddess with one face and four hands holds a vase to the heart with the first pair and performs mudras (gestures) with the second. [The artist seems to have defectively reversed her mudra hands]

    At the bottom left a red goddess with four hands dances atop a corpse and lotus seat. In the center a yellow goddess with four hands holds symbols of wealth while disgorging precious jewels onto a heap below.

    At the right is Shri Devi, blue-black in colour, with one face and four hands, riding atop a brown mule in a sea of blood surrounded by billowing smoke.

    However in the annotations they say:

    10. Marichi, Meditational Deity removing Obstacles
    11. Kurukulla, Meditational Deity for Power

    Kurukulla has the "wrong items" because she has the Four Activities including Chain. Marici's Branch has the Eight Auspicious Symbols. What she appears to be standing on is probably the Mongoose, but, she is holding a differently-shaped hoofed animal, probably a Cow, and has on an unusual garland of Blue Lotuses. Marici therefor appears fused to Vasudhara to a considerable extent, which has reduced her clothing to jewelry:

    There is no information explaining how or why this assembly was made, but, it is definitely sticking "Kriya deities" (Marici) onto Mother Tantra deities (Jnanadakini). Marici has two main modes; Asoka Grove being one of them is suggested here. Her Needle mode is simple enough, removal of obstacles, usually with her on a Boar. So the website seems to have just copied "removing obstacles" as part of a later identification, but the Marici form here is receiving an offering from a Naga. And in her progression, eventually all the worldly deities, Indra and the rest, turn to her and worship her. Asoka Marici is a little different and has more to do with Maya. What I get from the thangka is that I should probably practice Vajrasattva and Marici for quite some time before any expectation of the appearance of this central deity.


    What I have been calling "Seven Syllable deity" is Heruka from STTS, to whom has been added another syllable usually associated with Lotus Family, Hrih. The difference or the reason this one is the real male seed or Smrti or the Fifth Yoga is because it is Heruka Yoga as a whole, and this deity has no outer form, but only arises in Union. Once it is established, this mantra and its principles constitute all of Chakrasamvara. The Chakrasamvara Tantra, off the page, is useless, but it works if you have this.

    Just like Dakini Jala, it is mainly based on white and blue males. When this is something that spontaneously happens or arises, it becomes Heruka Yoga, which is the following.

    White Vajrayogini reverses White Heruka. In RG 38, this is a combination of Vairocani and Seven Syllable deity:

    Here, Vajrayogini is Tara-like, holding a Lotus, which is surmounted by a Vajra and Bell. Heruka has a chopper and skullcup.

    IWS 88 just calls it Sahaja Reversed and only adds a mansion and circle. Both say she is in Vajraparyanka on an Antelope skin, and he (Sambara in IWS) is in Padma or Lotus posture. The Tibetan phrase applied to this Vajrayogini is:

    Go-bzlog lhan-skyes-ma

    And so that is a pure energy rushing forth from Vairocani. She has Hooked the male component, such as through a process of Manohara. In this state, you are effectively perceiving the seventh principle. The male or Fifth Yoga is described as Luminous Mind, but, not as an itenerant wanderer, but more in the position of one who is able to use the spells, protections, and blessings by practicing the Method, Sadhana. As a generic word, it is the "same" smrti as when a five-year-old remembers to brush their teeth, simply defined as doing something specifically different here.

    Most of the tantras show White Vajrasattva re-arising as Blue Heruka. So there is an attached practice, which means we are not doing a randomly unguided yoga from the simple fact of her raw energy, but applying it into the Two Stages, or the Transcendent or Lokottara Siddhis, Generation and Completion Stage.

    There is a stand-alone Avalokiteshvara sadhana, which is the same as one of the important explanatory tantras, Vajradaka, which has the related sadhana in Sadhanamala 255 that is translated in Himalayan Passages. The main reason to focus on this or these is because it displays the Seven Jewels of Enlightenment.

    The Gauris, potentially terrifying visionary states, are Generation Stage and are in the Cemeteries, which have their most highly-rated depiction on the perimeter of the next thangka. The Jewels are part of Completion Stage, inside it.

    RG 23, the version in the thangka, is Mitra's Hum-arisen Avalokiteshvara inseparable from Heruka, whose consort is Lasya (Gegmo). His retinue is that of Vajradaka in the larger, more explanatory mandala, which has no known representation. RG 23 stands on Mahadeva and Karmo--Gauri. IWS 70 adds Inverted Stupa and a mandala and says that all are crowned with Vajrasattva. The yoginis have drum, bell, and human skin and are seated. On their own, the principals are:

    1100s Nepalese version with retinue, Lasya is a different color and the yoginis are standing:

    The fuller sadhana is mildly different, in that they stand on Bhairava and Kalaratri, and that they have become Vajradaka with Vajravarahi. However, they have absorbed the Seven Jewels retinue as explained by the Vajradaka sadhana, which for instances also shows one would need to figure out Vajrajvalanalarka. So it has pretty much combined the Avalokiteshvara aspect with the rest of the components of mandala work. Most valuably it identifies the Jewels in a clear Sanskrit formula:

    Smrti is Sri Heruka (with Vajravarahi)

    Dharma Pravicaya is Heruki

    Virya is Vajrabhairavi

    Priti is Ghoracandi

    Prasrabdhi is Vajrabhaskari

    Samadhi is Vajraraudri

    Upeksa is Vajradakini

    None of these are exactly "new" tenets that suddenly appeared, they are all flowing outcomes of synonymous meanings frequently used in Yogacara and in Paramitayana.

    We could say this has changed the Six Yoginis into Seven Yoginis in an elusive manner hinted at in Samputa and Chakrasamvara meaning activity of an actual Lama class.

    It has that blended with Heruka Yoga.

    Dakini Jala was a massive, widespread event, whereas Hevajra Tantra was a single revelation by Nairatma. Originally, Pramoha was a name given to Varahi in her Matrika aspect. She has a full Boar Head, and her performance is similar to that of Manohara:

    Pramoha (प्रमोह).—m.

    (-haḥ) 1. Fascination. 2. Fainting, insensibility.

    You are supposed to be stunned, riveted by her existence, and she is either the basis for Vajravarahi, or, in one branch of practice, she turns into Vajravarahi or i. e. Vajrayogini with a Ghona. Vajravarahi is in Chakrasamvara. In the Hevajra system, Pramoha is replaced by Sabari. Comparatively, there was already a sabari class, with the name Parnasabari being the queen of them for indeterminate time. Hevajra may be the first time that the simple name Sabari is a unique entity.

    Davidson said that Hoysala showed an example of a Sabari, although there was not a Hoysala until ca. 950. However the kingdom is famous for major developments in architecture including:

    Thirty-eight voluptuous maidens, known as madanikas, in various Bharatanatyam dance and ritual poses hold up the ceiling outside in effortless grace, some signed by the sculptors themselves. Four madanikas support the ceiling inside, above the circular dais where 900 years ago Queen Shantala Devi once danced for the gods.

    ...the Narasimha Pillar till recently used to rotate on its own axis and another column has Mohini, the female version of Vishnu and portrayal of ideal feminine beauty, carved onto it.

    Here, we have found they evolved Gandabherunda probably from the 1500s on. That may be a specifically Karnataka view, although it may have nothing to do with Buddhism in its development, we will at least say we have Garuda Yoga.

    Hoysala dominated the interior of South India, is not in Orissa or Vindhya territory.

    According to Wiki:

    The only places of Buddhist worship during the Hoysala time were at Dambal and Balligavi.

    There became a dynasty of about four hundred years, remarkable for their monuments:

    (Apsara) Darpanasundari on right and:

    Davidson's example has a leaf skirt, but that is not always the case:

    So he perhaps has found something more like Parnasabari, and not "a sabari". Their meaning and fashion would have been understood as Mayuri for ages prior to Hoysala. A peacock has always been a special animal, and their plumes are a regular part of a sabari's attire.

    In the sadhanas, Mayuri is usually green in Karma Family, but she also is yellow in Jewel Family, which resonates more with her own Sutra and Golden Light Sutra.

    Mayuri's name also appears in Skanda Purana in saying the sixty-four yoginis never left Kasi, although they travel the worlds. She is in a group including:

    (1) Gajānanā, (2) Siṃhamukhī,

    (6) Hayagrīvā, (7) Vārāhī, (8) Śarabhānanā, (9) Ulūkikā, (10) Śivārāvā, (11) Mayūrī,

    (15) Kubjā,

    (31) Daṇḍahastā, (32) Pracaṇḍā Caṇḍavikramā,

    (47) Mṛgaśīrṣā,

    (55) Koṭarī, (56) Sthūlanāsikā, (57) Vidyutprabhā,

    (61) Aṭṭāṭṭahāsā, (62) Kāmākṣī, (63) Mṛgākṣī, (64) Mṛgalocanā.

    43. Neither Ḍākinīs nor Śākinīs, neither Kūṣṃāṇḍas nor Rākṣasas afflict him who recites these names.

    44. They give peace to infants and the unborn. They accord victory in battle, royal household and debates.

    45. He who serves Yoginī Pīṭhas (pedestals) shall obtain desired powers. One who repeats other Mantras in front of their pedestals shall also achieve powers.

    46. The Yoginīs become quickly pleased with oblations, adorations and offerings and dedications of incense and lamps and they shall fulfil all desires.

    The names in this list show that these so-called Yoginīs must be ogresses worshipped by the masses before their Brāhmaṇīsation. They came to be called “Yoginīs” after their absorption in the Śaiva cult.

    Skanda Purana is not original, nothing bears this title prior to the eighth century, from which point it received massive additions to become the largest Purana of all. But since "yogini" is based on things that have a dual meaning, in one sense, they are inner and outer deities that have been harnessed and converted, but, in the human sense, they were women with shamanic powers if not the sadhanas themselves. This circle begins with ephemeral Vinayaki--Gajanana, passes through Mayuri, and ends on Deer having Eyes in two senses. Aksi seems to mean "your eyes have the appearance of", such as Meenakshi, whereas Locana has another sense, like the vision by, or seeing through the lens of.

    The oldest versions of the Skandapurana texts have been discovered in the Himalayan region of South Asia such as Nepal, and the northeastern states of India such as Assam.

    The Skanda Purana manuscripts have been found in Nepal, Tamil Nadu (Tamil: கந்த புராணம்) and other parts of India. The Skanda Purana is among of the oldest dated manuscripts discovered in Nepal.

    Mahamayuri is further in, after an interesting Aparajita Vidya mantra that kills Siddhayoginis, Dakinis, Skanda and other evil spirits.

    Yes, he just got attacked in the book named for him.

    It is written in a style that is not any more advanced than Mahamayuri Vidyarajni, i. e. you do not have to worry about hail, scorpions, tremendous mutilation, and other flesh-eating termites such as moaning whipwhiskers, savoring carrion gourmands, and prolapsed intestines with four rows of shark teeth will not make your nose run while you determine the square root of four hundred and seventy-nine.

    It is a bit like you do not want disturbing visions of Dakinis and Sakinis to de-stabilize you, but you do want them to turn into syllables that are like dynamos. It is the same with the planets, directional guardians, and the others who are the lower portion of Kama Loka. They are all potentially diseases and all sorts of misfortune, to which the yogin responds a lot like a sheriff, clean up your act or there will be consequences. If, by contrast, Vajrasattva never was a worldly being, there is no need to get tough with him.

    Hoysala Vishnu and Lakshmi:

    Along with what is at Gilgit, there is a type of "minimum age" of yogini dharani language:

    Mahamayuri Vidyarajni, which was translated into Chinese by Srimitra as early as 4th CE.

    and as we think it is just an oldest surviving manuscript of something older, the page for Laghman, Afghanistan says:

    Inscriptions in Aramaic dating from the Mauryan Dynasty were found in Laghman which discussed the conversion of Ashoka to Buddhism...The Mahamayuri Tantra dated to between 1-3rd century mentions a number of popular Yaksha shrines. It mentions Yaksh Kalahapriya being worshipped in Lampaka.

    They call it a tantra, which is probably older, which is related to Yaksha taming. Originally, this type of esotericism was probably mostly told in the Jataka or rebirth tales of Buddha, which is what the Mayuri is. Moreover, there were prior attempts at giving out mantric naga practices which failed, i. e. the victims died, and Mayuri is the first one that succeeded.

    The Astika critic also at least sees how Mahamayuri is proto- or fundamental to the idea of yaksha retinues and so forth, and hints what a "Kasyapi" probably is:

    viShNumAya, the kaumAra and the mAta~NgI mantra-s of the aShTA~Nga saMgraha and kAshyapa saMhitA, mantra-s of the arthashAstra, and the links to the mantra-s of the uDDIsha tantra tradition...

    ...the tathagata is said to expound the famous vidyA of mAta~NgI. This goddess emerges early in a mantra in the kAshyapa saMhitA of the medical tradition. Subsequently, she has a long history in the Astika world as uchChiShTha chaNDAlini...

    Matangi is considered the oldest known mantric yogini, related to Elephant and to Sabari, becoming the consort of Ucchista Ganapati. Matangi is a sabari. She does not have it as a name, instead, her personal name is among the oldest that could be called a yogini.

    The origin of Parnasabari's psychic healing is likely in Mahamayuri:

    harini / vagudi / pamsu pisacini /

    Pranaharini Raksasi

    In Maitreya's Mahamayuri is the only mention of Sabari:

    harini harini / danti sabari sive sulapanini /

    Sula Pani, i. e. spear holder or Sulini. But the first Buddha, Vispasin, says:

    savare parna savare /

    Which is less of an adjective or name, and more of an invocation. In other words, it sounds like the mantra is "to" her, and what she does is:

    mada vardhane /

    Increases Mada, Intoxication, similar to Janguli's epithet Matta Matangi. Varuni is still all in this. The Buddhas come up in the third and final chapter. I would tend to guess they might be unrolling something by degrees, beginning with Parnasabari. If so, the ensuing traits would be:


    phalinidanti and nadini

    dante siddhi

    vire vijaye, viraje viraja-masi, and bhadra vati siddhi

    jambu jumbunadi jambuvati and pasupati siddhi

    Buddha adds:

    ketuvale, kamali kambudari, taru varani prakrti damstre, acale, varsatu deva siddhyantu mantrapada, bhagavato irijaya, nata vajre, udaya-nabhipriye alatale, kulataya narayani pasyani sparsani, siddhyantu dramida mantrapada.

    Then there is Maitreya who says Danti Sabari, and finally Brahma who is a bit self-reflexive, brahmaye ratnakarandake.

    The presence of Narayani relates to the fact that in Buddhism, Lakshmi had attained Full Enlightenment in a previous world-system in Jewel Family, which then becomes visible in Golden Peacock tales as well.

    Dramida mantra has been used twice previously in conjunction with Narayani. It is a location and/or culture, Dravidian. The apparent "tooth siddhi" happening here is not mentioned anywhere else in the world. Tooth, or tusk, Danti, is an epithet of Ganapati. Even more poignantly, there is the appearance of Viraja Masi (see below).

    Something about teeth, tooth, or tusk, becoming Fangs of Prakrti, meets another subject:


    There are inter-disciplinary differences about the subtle body that are almost medical:

    All nāḍīs start from the root at the end of the vertebral column, called kāṇḍa, and they proceed upwards to the highest cerebral nerve-plexus, called sahasrāra, and are seventy-two thousand in number. The place of the root of these nāḍīs (kāṇḍa) is an inch above the anus and an inch below the root of the penis. If suṣumṇā is the central nerve of the spinal cord, then on its extreme right side is the iḍā, and then parallel to it towards the suṣumṇā are the gāndhārī, stretching from the corner of the left eye to the left leg, hasti-jihvā, stretching from the left eye to the left foot, śaṅkhinī, branching on the left, kuhū (the pubic nerve on the left) and also the viśvodarā, the lumbar nerves.

    On the extreme left of it is the piṅgalā, and between it and the suṣumṇā are the pūṣā, stretching from below the corner of the right eye to the abdomen, paśyantī, the auricular branch or the cervical plexus, sarasvatī and vāraṇā (the sacral nerve). The śaṅkhinī (the auricular branch or the cervical plexus on the left) goes parallel to the suṣumṇā, but takes a turn in the region of the neck and passes on to the root of the left ear-holes; in another branch it passes through the inner side of the region of the forehead, where it gets joined with the citriṇī nāḍī and enters into the cerebral region.

    The suṣumṇā nāḍī is a sort of duct inside the spine, which encases within it the vajrā nāḍī, and that again encases within it the citriṇī nāḍī, which has within it a fine aperture running all through it, which is the fine aperture running through the spinal cord. This inner passage within the citriṇī nāḍī is also called brahma-nāḍī ; for there is no further duct or nāḍī within the citriṇī. The suṣumṇā thus in all probability stands for our spinal cord. The suṣumṇā, however, is said to take a turn and get connected with the śaṅkhinī in the inside region of the forehead, whence it becomes connected with the aperture of the śaṅkhinī (śaṅkkinī-nālam ālambya) and passes to the cerebral region. All the nāḍīs are connected with the suṣumṇā.

    But, while the Tantra school, as represented in the works Sat-cakra-nirūpaṇa, Jñāna-saṃkalinī, Yogi-yājñavalkya, etc., regards the nāḍīs as originating from the nerve-plexus lying between the root of the penis and the anus, and while Caraka regards them as originating from the heart, Śrīkaṇāda regards them as originating from the region of the navel (nābhi-kanda) and going upwards, downwards and sideways from there.

    The process of Yoga consists in rousing the potential energy located in the ādhāra-cakra, carrying it upwards through the aperture of the citriṇī or the brahma-nāḍī , and bringing it to the brahma-randhra or the sahasrāra. This kuṇḍalinī is described as a fine fibre like a lightning flash (taḍid iva vilasat tantu-rūpa-svarūpa), which raises the question whether this is actually a physical nerve or merely a potential energy that is to be carried upwards to the upper cerebrum in the sahasrāra-cakra ; and it cannot, I think, be yet satisfactorily explained.

    Well, I try to explain it because I know what most of this feels like and does. In the Buddhist system, we keep Citrini as Citrasena--consort of Buddhakapala, and Citrini woman--Rupini or Perfect Image, the Fourth Dakini. No, it is not necessary to "rouse the adhara", because it is easy to show that Nabhi Kanda is also an origin point. This works a lot better with the Noumenal Path, is a lot more psychologically sensitive. In fact we are really starting with the Solar Plexus, to which the Kanda or Bulb is a physical root below the navel. The solar plexus is the "second brain", the shortcut center for reflexes and other things concerning the limbs and most of the body away from the head.

    Since Parnasabari is in an ancient mantra which involves Varuni and Nadis in a way close to Narayani and Viraja, one can also trace an odd closeness of Parnasabari, Sarasvati, and Marici. For example, the contents of Dharani Samgraha include:

    parṇṇaśabarī nāmadhāraṇī -- māricināmadhāraṇī

    In Golden Light Sutra, Sarasvati of Chapter Eight bestows Eloquence which is not unusual, and then grants dharani which is very specific. She gives it so you will increase wisdom through the Sutra. In her dharani by Kaundinya (the first Arhat), she is Marici and Marici Prana. She is an ascetic standing on one foot with a garment made of grass. She has been teaching bathing with herbs and mantras.

    Marici Dharani is after Janguli Vidya in Siksasamuccaya in the section:

    bhaiṣajyavasanādibhiḥ |

    This is by Santideva and is partially translated there, with an additional mantra to protect the body with medicine and clothing. GRETIL Marici dharani.

    The dharani for Arya Ugra Tara Ekajati is given like a Sutra with an audience, among whom is:

    mārīcī parṇu sāmakī pāṇurā tatā||

    Parnu = leaf, samaki = covered in, panu = adored/worshipped, as if now Marici has a touch of Parnasabari like Sarasvati appears to have in Golden Light Sutra.

    There is a similar convergence in Samputa Tantra while it is giving instructions for Homa in section 7.4:

    If anyone does not run away, then Vajrapāṇi, the
    blazing Hūṁkāra with an angry face, will split his head into a hundred
    pieces with the brightly shining vajra scepter of great wisdom!’ {7.4.8}

    Then, having summoned the earth goddess, he should perform by means
    of the mantra the consecration and the tutelage rites. He should pay
    homage to his master —his mantra instructor —and afterward summon,
    cause to enter, and bind the gold-colored earth goddess who is holding a
    pitcher in her hand. He should worship her with the five types of service
    involving fragrant perfume, and so forth. After he has made her occupy the
    maṇḍala ground, he should remain near her.” {7.4.10}

    Now the Blessed One gave the mantra of summoning:

    “Oṁ, come, come! O great goddess, mother of the earthly realm, adorned
    with all the richly bejeweled ornaments, resounding with the tinkling of
    necklaces and anklets, you who are so bountifully worshiped by
    Vajrasattva! Take this welcome offering and bring success to the homa
    rites! Hrī hī hī hī haṁ! Svāhā!” {7.4.11}

    [And he continued further:]

    “Having performed with this mantra the rite of the goddess’s tutelage
    over the maṇḍala, he should perform the anointing of the ground.

    You bring in the Seal, Mudra, Consort, or Vidya.

    As this pertains to the maṇḍala, she should also be
    instructed in the rites of homa, including the secret maṇḍala of phenomena.
    Following this rule, he should measure out a twofold maṇḍala —the external
    one of colored powders, and the secret maṇḍala of phenomena that concerns
    his own samaya.

    It may be in the context of an outer public ritual, but, oneself and consort are joining in a subtle yoga with a secret Dharmodaya, somethng like the Udaya Nabhi just mentioned by Buddha.

    I will now teach the rite of homa
    That makes different rites effective.
    Those gods among whom Agni is the foremost
    Are dependent upon the principle of homa.

    As one of the main aspects:

    The mantra should begin with oṁ and end with svāhā.
    For the rites of pacifying, enriching, and enthralling,
    He should chant it as a song
    Without any breaks between individual sounds. {7.4.40}

    “For the rite of pacifying, the practitioner should have a peaceful mind.
    For enriching, increase will come through adopting a satiated frame of mind.
    During the rite of enthralling, his mind should be enthralled,
    Intoxicated with love, and full of amorous wantonness. {7.4.41}

    “If he follows the procedure for the rites of assaulting,
    He should engender thoughts of devouring the three realms.
    He should employ the syllables hūṁ and phaṭ
    While visualizing his body ablaze with flames. {7.4.42}

    He should perform the rites of pacifying, enriching,
    Enthralling, and assaulting with authority,
    Applying thereto the powers of wisdom
    Of the maṇḍala’s main deity. {7.4.49}

    So one employs Agni and "other main deities", experienced mainly through the Four Activities. The first deity is Tara who is even bigger than Prasanna, as if she were crowned by Donkey Face Vajrapani:

    She is imbued with the sentiment of erotic love; she has sixteen arms and
    seven faces, each one with three eyes, and is smiling. She is emerald in
    color and replete with the freshness of youth.

    Further above, he should visualize another face with the form of a
    donkey’s, or some other desired form. With her four feet, a trident, and
    snakes wrapped around, she is referred to as “Herukī,” and should be
    visualized as the ultimate cause of accomplishments.

    Comm2 (1001) reads, “Her seventh face is the face of a donkey, which
    belongs to the family of Śrī Heruka.”

    The practitioner becomes Manjushri and casts Vajrabhairava. Then a couple more goddesses are recommended:

    Next, he should visualize arising from the syllable māṁ
    The goddess Mārīcī, as bright as the sun,
    Riding on a chariot drawn by seven horses
    And radiant with a halo of flames around her.

    While this is being visualized, living beings
    Are brought to the state of enthrallment.


    In the center of the expanse of the sky
    He should visualize a sun disk.
    On it, transformed from the syllable paṁ,
    Is the goddess Parṇaśāvarī, yellow in color and with great splendor.

    Ablaze with anger, she is unshakable,
    With Akṣobhya mounted on her head.
    She is nevertheless white when raining down
    The five-colored nectar of the five buddhas. {7.4.73}
    “Her right and left faces are as previously described. So should the
    practitioner meditate for the sake of pacifying all illusion that stems from
    misapprehension. Parṇaśāvarī truly is the remover of all illnesses.

    The translation about her being white is uncertain; the passage could just be
    about the five buddhas on Parṇaśāvarī’s head raining five-colored nectar.

    That is rather unusual, it has elevated her to the position of releasing the First Joy. Her potency is not just physical, she cures all ilnesses, i.e. Pisaci-related mental disorders removed by Bliss.

    The inscription on the reverse of the large Marici mandala begins:

    om sarva vidya svaha

    which as we have recently seen, is the Adi Buddha mantra of Nepal.

    Marici uses twelve Masi goddesses, which are probably Months.

    Masi is Pali for Magha, the month in which on Viraj's birthday she is worshipped as Savitri and Paramavaisnavi, or Savitri and Brahmani.

    The Gyantse explanation refers to the first group of Masis as:

    the four stages preceding sunrise: the sun is invisible (arka), it is concealed (marka), it becomes dimly visible (antardhana 'invisibility')

    then Tejo would be visible light, but I cannot find the rest of it.

    Savitri is probably the nearest Hindu approximation to Marici. And so if our prior-to-400 Mayuri text has just referred us to possibly the "oldest sadhana shakti", Viraja, at what appears to be her birthday when she combines with Savitri, then, yes, this was probably easily understood in the time when it was composed.

    Nadis continued

    Nadis are mainly differentiated as Manasa Vahan or Prana Vahan, some being mental and others for vitality. So we might say the heart is the center of Manasa which is unclear, troubled, and blocked, and therefor effectively unreal to us most of the time. The Varuni we have in mind does not work through the Root, but through the Navel, nevertheless she is effectively gathering the Prana Vahans according to her typical function:

    Ida runs by the sympathetic nerve. Pingala runs along the parasympathetic nerve.

    Varuni Nadi One source states that Varuni is in between Yashasvini and Kahu, pervading all areas above and below Kundalini. Another text says that it flows down the navel to promote excretion. In either case it seems to be related to the lower abdomen functions. Yoga-shikka Upanishads claims that Varuni Nadi infuses energy to the large intestine, colon, rectum, and anus. According to Motoyama, Varuni may be just a gross physical Nadi; they must be referring to the intestines, as they are a viaduct. Some ayurveda scriptures, call nadis the ducts of the urethra, and some uterine tubes as the fallopian tromps. According to these and other descriptions in different books, we can assess that, gross nadis are any kind of cylindrical conduits, like veins, arteries, nerves, intestines and any other orifices and tubes like channels in the physical and astral body.

    So she is normally a type of downward-voiding wind. In some views, she is a series of lateral looping bands in the midsection.

    In a system where Gandhari is second only to the trinity, Varuni is not far away:

    According to Shiva Samhitha, our body consists of 350,000 Nadis. Out of these 14 Nadis are important. They are: Sushumna, Ida, Pingala, Gandhari, Hastijihva, Kuhu, Saraswati, Pusha, Shakhini, Payaswini, Varuni, Alambusha, Vishwodari, and Yashaswini.

    Gandhari is "cervical" in that "neck" = "cervical spine", and so weakness here is seen in drooping shoulders, bad posture, etc., with dementia-type disorders seen clairvoyantly issuing from it.

    If the kanda does not have to be the root, from a page with a chart:

    Some say, that this Kanda is 12 inches above the anus.

    as is said here with a few quick definitions.

    Goraksha Samhita and Hatha Yoga Pradipika explain the total number of Nadis as 72,000 and they arise from Nadi Kanda. Nadi Kanda is the ‘bird egg’ shaped root situated below to umbilicus and above the pubis.

    In the slightly-truncated format, they are the Buddha Families as Upper and Lower Winds:

    Among 72,000 nadis, 10 Nadis are the most important: Ida, Pingala, Sushumna, Gandhari, Hastijihva, Pusha, Yashaswini, Alambusha, Kuhu, Shakhini. These 10 Nadis facilitate the flow of 5 Prana and 5 Upa-prana in our body.

    It passes through all the 6 Chakras through its path where we find 6 various Shakti like Daakini, Haakini, Kaakini, Laakini, Raakini, and Shaakini. Moreover, Tongue in khechari mudra used to tap the top of Sushumna Nadi to facilitate these Shakti.

    That "is" a Pancha Jina of Five Elements, the Sixth being Manas which arguably is not directly in this sphere, since it is in the Heart which is being opened and accessed by this.

    Varuni in the Lalita is explained as bliss, mantra, Varuni daughter of Varuni, and:

    One more interpretation of the Namam can be that the Divine Mother has conquered the Varuninadi and has become unperturbed. Yogasastra says that Varuninadi (nerve) is above, below and everywhere in our human body. Vayu is the deity for this nadi or nerve. The yogin who conquers Varuni nadi is called Varunimat. The Divine Mother makes sure that yogin is not fatigued.

    It is clear that bliss from Brahman and or the Varuni drink do not make the Divine Mother fatigued in holding and governing the universe.

    So if we get a Varuni--Soma practice going, and there is a result, we call it Vairocani and maintain it is possible for her to arise as Yellow Vajrayogini, or, as the same in Kurmapadi or Tortoise Pose, and you are supposed to mimic her while you stand naked on a hilltop and ask her to be your wife.

    And Kurma Nadi becomes involved in a commentary on Churning the Ocean:

    There are 15 main nadis: sushumna, ida, pingala, gandhari, hastijihva, kuhu, sarasvati, pusha, shankhini, payasvini, varuni, alambusa, vishvodara, yashasvini, and kurma.

    Theoretically, there is a much greater possibility of opening sushumna while sitting in either padmasana (lotus posture) or siddhasana (accomplished pose), because the whole body is centered in these poses. In siddhasana, one heel is on your perineum area.

    Control over the kurma nadi is more important than anything else in the practice of pranayama or meditation. To gain conscious control over both the kurma nadi and the kurma vayu (one of the subcategories of prana, which refers to stability in the body as well as the mind), it is important to practice ashvini mudra. Anatomically and physiologically, the area of the ashvini mudra is close to the colon, ovaries, uterus, and bladder. So each time you do ashvini mudra, pulling up and releasing, you are attaining conscious control over all these organs. This also speeds up the process of blood circulation throughout your system. In the process, you are also letting your kurma vayu move, creating heat. That heat is dispersed throughout your body from the kurma nadi, or kurma vayu, through ida, pingala, and sushumna to all the nadis.

    They refer to "stability" as the sought-for quality through this nadi. We call this Acala and other synonyms similar to Upeksa. At the same time, the Tortoise is Kasyapa, the Bed of Life, all the lower kingdoms of nature, and the Body of the human being.

    There are examples that Kurma is also a root or downward-voiding nerve, but, there are others where it is not:

    According to Kṛṣṇavallabhācārya’s Kiraṇa on Patañjali’s Yogasūtras 3.7-8, “The tortoise-nerve (kūrmanāḍī) is said to be the same as the Nāḍīcakra in the heart.”

    Kūrmanāḍī (कूर्मनाडी).—Whem saṃyama (the simultaneous workings of dhāraṇa, dhyāna and samādhi) is directed on the Kūrmanāḍī (canal of the tortoise), it ensures the immobilisation (sthairya) of thought.

    The Practice of Yoga part II: Raja Yoga

    Kurma Nadi is located in the upper chest below the throat. “By Samyama on the Kurma Nadi comes the steadiness of the body”. By Samyama on it you achieve Asana-Jaya (victory over Asana).

    Kūrmanāḍī (कूर्मनाडी) refers to the “channel of the tortoise”, according to the Bhairavīstotra in the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “Victory! Victory (to you) O goddess (bhagavatī)! [...] You who are in the centre of the great wheel of the Six Yoginīs and the great group of six! Present in the Sixteen Supports! On the plane of (suṣumnā) the Channel of the Tortoise (kūrmanāḍī)!


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    Default Re: Nirakara and Shentong Buddhism, Tara, Sadhanas, Sanskrit culture

    Viraja, Usnisas, Yakshas, and Mayuri

    I have been curious about this for a while, since Viraja is a relatively rare, understated close companion of her more famous neighbor, Vimala, who has had an icon in Puri since at least the sixth century. The central icon of Vimala holds a rosary in the upper right hand. Her lower right hand is held in a boon-giving gesture and her lower left holds a pitcher, considered to be filled with amrita (celestial elixir of life). The attribute in the upper left hand is heavily disputed. Descriptions include a human figurine, a nagini, a mermaid, a naga-pasha (serpent-noose) or some other object. She holds no weapons normally attributed to Durga. The icon is installed on a simhasana (lion-throne), adorned with the figures of the goddess' female attendants Chhaya and Maya on the sides. The lintel has the Gaja Lakshmi figurine in the centre surrounded with apsaras (celestial maidens). Vimala is older and more important than her consort, Jagannath.

    Vimala is "Parvati or Lakshmi", most frequently identified with Katyayani. The Hevajara Tantra, which has a similar list, also mentions Katyayini as the Bhairavi and Jagannath as the Bhairava in the Pitha of Udra (Odra, identified with Orissa). There is also:

    Katyayani of Chausasthi Yogini temple of Hirapur (Near Bhubaneswar)

    Vimala and viraja have about the same meaning, Stainless. Vimala is a more common name, and is used relatively frequently in Buddhism adjectivally, but Viraja is confined to rare and selective uses. They sound related and are usually close together. Despite the medieval Jagganath, Viraja has a much greater antiquity and is related to the original creation from dual-sexed unity. In this sense, it usually sounds more male, as in Purusha, is used in the Laws of Manu, Puranas, Upanishads, and is significant in Atharvaveda. It has everything to do with Prana, mind, and the psychology of pantheons. By Hymn X of Atharva Veda, she is a she. In this aspect, related to Cow and Prana, goddess Viraja is believed to be as old as thirteenth century B. C. E.

    In Sadhanamala, they are combined by Mantranusarini, who has the following epithets:

    vimale vipule jayavare amṛte viraje

    which looks like a fusion of several mantric systems. So if I see Vipula, well, that appears to be Pratisara. Amrita is possibly Parnasabari or others, and passes into Varuni. There is a Vimala Usnisa or Vimalosnisa Dharani, and also male Vimalosnisa who was databased in 1976 in a way that seems distinguished from other Usnisa deities. It has [URL="https://books.google.com/books?id=4rjwDwAAQBAJ&lpg=PT50&ots=212wCDrLmD&dq=vimalosnisa&pg=PT50#v=onepage&q=vimalosnisa&f=false "]funerary[/U RL] associations and has been found from Bangladesh to Ratnagiri. In Tibet, one of the two dri me. The male mandala is part of kyil khor.

    And so I cannot say this Vimala Dharani or Vimalosnisa has a goddess equivalent. One would have to manually sift the various retinues to see if there was anything close. It is still strongly part of its own subject:

    dhâranïs such as the Vimalosnisa were deposited in stüpas in Bengal, Bihar and Gilgit between the 6th and 10th centuries.

    In an expanded catalog, Vimalosnisa is fivefold and Rasmivimala is sixfold. Surajamrita has both these mandalas which are males. I haven't found the "elsewhere", but these are related to Consecration and to Usnisavijaya:

    1.4 This is the heart mantra {snying-po, hrdaya) of Gtsug-tor-rnam-rgyal "(Usnisavi-

    jaya). See, for example, Padma-phrin-las, p. 60. The relation of the lha associated with

    stupas, such as Gtsug-tor-rnam-rgyal, Gtsug-tor-dri-med (Vimalosnisa), 'Od-zer-dri-med

    (Rasmivimala), etc., to the consecration ritual will be discussed elsewhere.

    One could say it is the vehicle for proliferation of Stupas:

    The Tantric section of the Tangyur Testament contains twin works on Vimalosnisa, one
    attributed to Sahajavilasa and the other to the anonymous.
    According to Sahajavilasa “one should erect the Stupa over the corporeal relics of Lord
    Buddha on a hill or a plain or a valley and avoid a cemetery”. The text in particular points the
    various structural components of the Stupa and their proportions to be kept in mind during
    construction and at the end of the text it talks about the colours to be put to the structural
    components of the Stupa.

    Stupa has originally the same meaning as Usnisa, hair top-knot or tuft.

    Bhattacharya says of the author:

    37. Sahajavilasa (Nos. 183, 231).

    Only three works are attributed to this author in
    the Tibetan Tangyur : —

    1. Samasta mukha pravesa rasmi vimalosnisa-

    prabhasa sarvatathagata hrdaya samaya
    vilokini nama dharani-vivrti.

    2. Sri Heruka sadhana.

    3. Hevajrodbhava Kurukulla sadhana.

    He is sometimes styled as Mahacaryya. Sahaja-
    vilasa appears in the Sadhanamala as the author of two
    sadhanas, one for the worship of Kurukulla and the
    other for that of Nairatma. In the first sadhana he
    gives two slokas in vernacular describing Mahasukha.
    It appears probable that he followed the Hevajra

    So I don't know that there is a female Vimala Usnisa. What we find with Sarvadurgati Parishodhana is that the male Usnisas are an uncommon, optional rapid practice of Body Mandala as Navosnisa Mandala. Jvalosnisa has three texts in the section for Buddha Crowns, but I am not sure of that as a dharani goddess either. That one may be similar to Cinta Mani Chakra Dharani, Kha Kha Khahi and so forth.

    What is apparent is that male Vajrosnisa is the whole Kriya--Charya system into Divinity, and this does have a correspondence among the two most prominent female Usnisas because:

    According to their titles, it is Buddhosnisa Vijaya and Sitatapatra Vajrosnisa.

    Or in her Shurungama dharani, she is Maha-vajrosnisa twice. Same on a page that also hosts the same recording. It is like she was never not this, and almost all of the preliminary tantras are instructions about it.

    Sitatapatra--Parasol is parallel to:

    Male Vajrosnisa is the specific re-naming of Padmantaka by Vajrahumkara. In Sarvadurgati Parishodana, Vajrosnisa is simply Vajra Family, but, he is the name of this specific change, which would amount to about the same thing as Vajrosnisa Lokeshvara (35 of 108). The name has moved from East to West, in different mandalas indicated by Sarvadurgati Parishodana, the Navosnisa Body Mandala and Vajrahumkara. It also comes up as a name for Ragaraja Vajrasattva.

    Vajrosnisa is its own tantra which is about contemplation of the Six Gods of Kriya. It is also called the lost Vajraosnisa Tantra. Buddhaguhya's Dhyanottara Tika is the "surviving chapter". Dhyanottara is used by Jamgon Kongtrul in his Indestructible Way of Secret Mantra. It is the Kriya--Charya outline of Yoga and Divinity. So that is virtually the "subject" of Vajrosnisa. Divinity.

    But she also is Vajradakini as in the class, which is Suras or spiritous liquors, the Gauris, and the emanations of Vajravarnani. And so we would have to examine the retinues of Parasol or Usnisavijaya to see if they have any particularly active emanations similar to other Usnisas.

    Viraj was one of the most important points that HPB gave out in original Theosophy. She felt it was important to understand its Androgyne nature. But was still bound to have to interpret it into Gnostic terms as well:

    Viraj (Sanskrit) Virāj Sovereign, splendid; in Hindu mythology, the son of Brahma who on analogical lines becomes Manu. In the Laws of Manu Brahma divides his body into male and female parts and in the female part (Vach) creates Viraj, who is also Brahma, the type of all male beings, as Vach is the type of female beings. “Manu declares himself created by Viraj, or Vaiswanara, (the Spirit of Humanity), which means that his Monad emanates from the never resting Principle in the beginning of every new Cosmic activity: that Logos or Universal Monad (collective Elohim) that radiates from within himself all those Cosmic Monads that become the centres of activity — progenitors of the numberless Solar systems as well as of the yet undifferentiated human monads of planetary chains as well as of every being thereon” (SD 2:311). A verse in the Rig-Veda (10:205) has Viraj spring from Purusha, and Purusha spring from Viraj.

    Viraj is comparable in some aspects to the Egyptian Horus and equivalent to the Third Logos.

    Brahma separating his body into
    two halves, male and female, creates in them Vach and Viraj. In plainer
    terms and esoterically, Brahma, the Universe, differentiating, produced
    thereby material nature, Viraj, and spiritual intelligent Nature, Vach
    — which is the Logos of Deity or the manifested expression of the eternal
    divine Ideation.

    Vach is also sometimes called the female logos ; for Vach means Speech, literally.

    In one sense Vach is
    ** speech " by which knowledge was taught to man ; in another she is
    the *' mystic, secret speech " which descends upon and enters into the
    primeval Rishis...she is called **the female creator", the" mother of
    the Vedas '*, etc., etc. Esoterically, she is the subjective Creative Force
    which, emanating from the Creative Deity (the subjective Universe, its
    ** privation ", or ideation) becomes the manifested ** world of speech ", i,e,,
    the concrete expression of ideation, hence the ** Word " or Logos.

    She is also
    *' the celestial Saraswati produced from the heavens ", a ** voice derived
    from speechless Brahma" ; the goddess of wisdom and
    eloquence. She is called Sata-rupa, the goddess of a hundred forms.

    The Rig-Veda makes Viraj spring from Puru-
    sha, and Purusha spring from Viraj. The latter is the type of all male
    beings, and Vach, Sata-rupa (she of the hundred forms), the type of all
    female forms.

    And so in the Puranas, there is an evident male Viraja who descends from Purnamasa--Full Moon--Monad, however the corresponding descent of female Viraja is very meager.

    Viraja has been the name of the sacred site since the Mahabharata; Jaipur is a later name, such as according to Mandirs:

    Jajpur is the ancient kingdom of Orissa It was named after King Jajati Keshari [13th century Kalinga]. The place is also known as ‘Gadakhetra’ because as per Indian mythology, in the era of Mahabharata, Bhima’s Gada (mace) was laying anywhere in this holy place.

    Goddess Biraja is described as ‘Pitṛīkanya’ or the mental child of the ancestral mānas, keeping the line of this tradition Vāyu purāṇa and viṣṇu purāṇa state that Biraja is the mental child of Ājyapā pitṛgaṇas.

    The temple is from the thirteenth century, but its idol according to

    Maa Biraja Devi is worshiped as Trishakti Mahakali, Mahalakshmi and Mahasaraswati.

    At Biraja Temple, Lord Vishnu is in Varaha incarnation.

    Maa Biraja which stands 70 ft from the floor is said to be worshipped from 5th Century.

    In the fifth century she would have been known as Pitri Kanya, but, this is something like a second birth of hers.

    According to the Linga Purana, Viraja originated from the sacrificial altar where Brahma made a yajna at Jaipur.

    So there is a story about Brahma's Yajna, which does not sound familiar to me from Brahmanda Purana, but they say it is in multiple puranas, such as Brahma Purana Chapter Forty-two which contains the Viraja Ksetra Mahatmya.

    According to Wiki about Brahma Purana:

    It is listed as the first Maha-Purana in all the anthologies, and therefore also called Adi Purana. Another title for this text is Saura Purana, because it includes many chapters related to Surya or the Sun god. The Brahma Purana is actually just a compilation of geographical Mahatmya (travel guides) and sections on diverse topics.

    The coverage of Jagannatha (Krishna, Vishnu-related) temples, however, is larger than the other three, leading scholars to the hypothesis that the authors of extant manuscripts may have been authors belonging to Vaishnavism. Its presentation of the Konark Sun Temple (built in 1241) is notable.

    ...chapters 38-40 of the text, a part of embedded Saura Purana, present arguments that are highly critical of the theistic theories and devotional worship proposals of 13th-century Madhvacharya and Dvaita Vedanta sub-school of Hindu philosophies.

    In Odisha Review:

    Viraja Kshetra Mahatmya is an important literary source of its
    history, but it is a much later work (it is assigned
    by scholars to fourteenth - fifteenth centuries
    A.D.) and based on legends.

    So, we do not easily see it, because it is in only "some" recent editions of a few things. The Puranas typically do mention the goddess as existing. Utkala is Chapter Forty in the available Brahma Purana, which is the right place:

    Brahmā said:

    1. Mother Virajā, my mistress, is firmly established in Virajā.

    This is one of the rarest of holy centres.

    It is the place where lord Puruṣottama stays as the bestower of salvation.

    That is maybe a little Vaisnavite because it is not saying the Purusha is in Puri as Jagannath.

    But there is no Viraja Ksetra Mahatmya with Varahas, Bhairavas, Narasimhas, Matrikas, Ganas, and Rudras. Or:

    Parvati agreed and created Nine Durgas, Sixty Four Yoginis, Eight Chandikas and asked them to remain in the Kshetra permanently.

    The missing Viraja information has been found in an eighteenth-century Brahmanda Purana. At worst, it may have copied an eighth-century concept of Bhairavas and stamped it onto Viraja. In the available Brahma Purana, it mentions Brahma making a Yajna to Varuna, with no further details. Like a blank scene waiting for that particular module to be installed.

    If it is like a plug-in that gives structure, i. e. a mandala retinue arrangement, then texts such as MMK and Mahamayuri are sitting around waiting for the same thing. If, compared to the written form of older Puranas it is "legends", then it could have been understood at Viraja on an oral basis for indeterminate time. Similarly, the Mayuri with a handful of instructions like this would be tantra as we know it. The Mahatmya takes about twenty-nine verses, so there is not much to it.

    Nandighosha says:

    Jajpur is the only place in India and Biraja Temple the only temple where the Lord Vishnu is worshipped in his Varaha incarnation.

    Seven form of Durga Devi (Suvadra Maharani or Yogamaya …………..) known as seven sister, resides on this ghat.

    Viraja Devi( the goddess of viraja river, the consciousness) is yogamaya herself.

    and that the Buddhist site Puspagiri is probably older than Nalanda.

    Within the Brahmanda Purana, Viraja is firstly involved with the evolution of Monkeys:

    2a) Virajā (विरजा).—A daughter of progenitor, Viraja; wife of Ṛkṣa; loved by Mahendra, became mother of Vāli; loved by Sūrya, became mother of Sugrīva.*

    * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 212-15.

    which is similar to:

    2) Virajā (विरजा).—Name of a river originating from Ṛkṣa, a holy mountain (kulaparvata) in Bhārata, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 85.

    In this area of our text, she is implied, only called "daughter of Viraja". There are broader references to her later born in the class of Ghee Drinker (Ajyapa) Pitris:

    2b) The mind-born daughter of Ājyapa pitṛs; queen of Nahuṣa and mother of Yayāti; belonging to the Vaiśya gaṇa.*

    * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 10. 95; Vāyu-purāṇa 73. 45; 93. 12.

    Brahmanda Purana III.10 is the Birth of Skanda which starts with the Vairajas. This chapter is textually similar to Vāyu-purāṇa 72.

    2c) A svara śakti.*

    * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 55 and 96.

    4a) Vīrajā (वीरजा).—A mind-born daughter of Ājyapa pitṛs; married Nahuṣa and became the mother of Yayāti.*

    * Matsya-purāṇa 15. 23.

    2) Virajā (विरजा) also refers to the daughter of Pitṛ and wife of Nahuṣa: the eldest of the five sons of Āyu (Āyus), according to the Vaṃśānucarita section of the Saurapurāṇa...Nahuṣa married Virajā the daughter of Pitṛ and was blessed with five sons of whom Yayāti was the most famous.

    Virajā (विरजा).—the spiritual world is a manifestation of spiritual energy and is known as Vaikuṇṭhaloka, “the place where there is no anxiety”. The material world, known as Brahmāṇḍa is the creation of the external energy. Between the two creations-the material creation and the spiritual creation-is a river known as Virajā as well as a place known as Brahmaloka. Virajā-nadī and Brahmaloka are shelters for living entities disgusted with material life and inclined to impersonal existence by way of denying material variegatedness.

    In a commentary, the calf returned to its mother is Vayu joined to Ida (Cow). Their meeting is the Viraj, When the calf is being milked, the milk belongs to the Aswins, when done, to the Viswadevas.

    How does a Pitri marry a human?

    ... there is a story in the Padma Purana where instead of Viraja, Nahusha's wife is said to be Shiva and Parvati's daughter Ashokasundari.

    Ashoksundari is Viraja. They're different names of the same goddess. She is also known as Rakkayi Amman, Jyoti, Kumari. She us the daughter of Shiva. She is said to be a "mental" daughter because she was born out of Parvati mata's forehead in the form of Jyoti while she sat under the Ashokvriksh and meditated for a daughter. Her name is also thus Ashoksundari. Viraja comes from the Prithas as a 'muh boli' daughter. Just as Kartikeya has nine mothers, and isn't taken as literal nine biological mothers, the same suit follows with Viraja.

    They didn't answer the question satisfactorily, but, ok, the Viraja that displays her Vyuha is probably like Ashokasundari. It is "literal", since part of what the Puranas are saying "the same classes of beings are reborn in every creation". Indra is a "class" that can be inhabited by different individual Jivas; Viraja is an individual Jiva who may have reason to appear to be born more than once. At this time, it is a mental creation.

    The Padma Purana version ends with the husband Nahusa becoming Indra, and he doesn't do well because he wants Saci (Indrani).

    Nahuṣa (नहुष).—The first of the five sons of Āyu (Svarbhānu) and Prabhā; married Virajā, a mind-born daughter of the Ājyapapitrs; had by her six (seven Matsya-purāṇa) sons, comparable to Indra in efflulgence namely, Yati, Yayāti, Samyāti, Āyāti and two others.

    He was a very wise and powerful king, and when Indra lay concealed under waters to expiate the sin of having killed the demon Vṛtra, a Brāhmaṇa, he was asked to occupy his seat. While there he thought of winning the love of Indrāṇī and caused the seven sages to convey him in a palanquin to her house. On his way he asked each of them to be quick using the words 'sarpa', 'sarpa', (move on, move on), when one of the sages (Agastya ?) cursed him to be a 'sarpa' (serpent). He fell down from the sky, and remained in that wretched state till he was relieved from it by Yudisthira.

    Even the mammoth tome MMK can only manage to say "Viraj" three times, once related to Asoka:

    anena vartmanā gacchan mantrarūpeṇa dehinām /
    nirvāṇapuram āpnoti śāntanirjarasampadam /
    aśokaṃ virajaṃ kṣemaṃ bodhiniṣṭhaṃ sadāśivam // 15.217 //

    It comes up again with what looks like a Vicitra or Variegated Karma Family entity such as Dombi leading to Nisprapanca:

    atha ca punar vicitrakarmajanito 'yaṃ lokasanniveśadeśaveṣoparataḥ śivaṃ nirjarasampadam aśokaviraja karma lokasiddhim apekṣate vimalam mārgavinirmuktam aṣṭāṅgopetasuśītalam / karma eva kurute karma nānyaṃ karmāpekṣate // 17.5 //

    karmākarmavinirmukto niḥprapañcaḥ sa tiṣṭhati /
    tridhā yānapravṛttas tu nānyaṃ śāntim ajāyate // 17.6 //

    Then again with what looks like the Skandha of that Family, Samsara:

    saṃsāracārake ruddho na ca mukto 'smi karmabhiḥ /
    buddhatvaṃ virajaṃ śāntaṃ nirvāṇam acyutaṃ padam // 24.29 //

    Daksa is similar with multiple births, usually said to be produced out of Brahma's thumb, but in Brahma Purana there is an additional intriguing origin for him.

    On knowing that the trees were being destroyed and that only a few of them remained, Soma approached the Prajāpatis and said:

    97. O kings, O son of Prācīnabarhiṣ, restrain your wrath. The Earth has been denuded of trees. May your fury and fire be subdued.

    98-99. This girl of excellent complexion is the jewel of the forest. She had been held by me in my womb as I was aware of the future. This daughter of the forest is Māriṣā by name. O highly blessed ones, may she be your wife. May she raise the lunar race. For this purpose alone she has been created.

    100. With half the splendour pertaining to you and with half of my splendour, the learned Prajāpati named Dakṣa will be born of her.

    101. He is on par with Agni. He will make this Earth and the subjects flourish once again. He will develop this Earth, practically burned out by the fiery splendour pertaining to you.

    102. Then, at the instance of Soma, the ascetics restrained their fury towards the trees and accepted Māriṣā as their lawfully wedded wife.

    103. O brahmins, with a part of Soma, Dakṣa Prajāpati of great splendour was born of Māriṣā and the ten Pracetas.

    Daksa's mother is a sabari secret agent who herself has a strange mother.

    Marisa in Brahmanda Purana is very similar.

    In Vishnu Purana, Marisa is the daughter of Kandu in the following manner:

    Sage: Dear, you came to this holy river-shore only this morning. It was only this morning that I saw you coming to my Āśrama for the first time. Now the day is over and dusk is coming. Why this ridicule? Please do tell me the truth.

    Pramlocā: That I came to you one fine morning is quite true. But since that several centuries have elapsed.

    Sage: How many years have gone by since I started enjoying with you?

    Pramlocā.: Nine hundred years, six months and three days have passed since I came to you.

    The great sage became very angry and scolded Pramlocā much. That beautiful maiden heard it all standing bathed in perspiration. The sage in rage commanded the trembling nymph to go away from his presence. Pramlocā, thus reprimanded and sent away, rose up in the air and travelled by it. As she flew, the perspiration of her body was absorbed by the tender leaves of trees on the way. She was pregnant at that time and the embryo which went forth along with her perspiration was absorbed in bits by the tender leaves and sprouts. Wind gathered them from the different trees and made everything into one. Moonlight gave it development and gave it the form of a woman. She was named Māriṣā. That was how Māriṣā was born of trees (Chapter 15, Aṃśa 1. Viṣṇu Purāṇa).

    None of this is "literal" as in "objective" because no one has incarnated into the physical plane yet. In the divine mind, multiple worlds of increasing complexity have been created and destroyed, and this Daksa has much to do with eventual manifestation.

    Just after the Vasus:

    Dhruva’s son was Kāla who reckons time in the world.

    The Marisa epoch is prior to "this" or Vaivasvata creation, which is near the end of Brahma Purana Chapter One, a hundred verses later, where it sounds like Viraja Ksetra should happen with Varuna:

    219-223. O brahmins, this creation existed in the Svārociṣa Manvantara; what follows occurred in the Vaivasvata Manvantara. Brahmā commenced a big and extensive sacrifice pertaining to Varuṇa. Listen to the creation of subjects in the course of sacrifice whom Brahmā himself had created as his sons from his mind in the previous Kalpa.

    O brahmins, then ensued the mutual animosity between Devas and Dānavas in which Diti lost all her sons. She propitiated Kaśyapa with great devotion; duly honoured and served by her, Kaśyapa was highly pleased. He permitted her to ask for a boon. She requested him for a son of unmeasured prowess who would be capable of killing Indra.

    224-225. On being requested thus, Kaśyapa of great austerity granted her boon. After granting the boon Kaśyapa spoke to her—“Your son will kill Indra if you retain the foetus for a hundred autumns maintaining cleanliness and performing rites.”

    226. O excellent sages, “So shall it be” said that gentle lady with devotion (to her lord) of great austerity. Maintaining cleanliness she conceived.

    227-228. After impregnating Diti Kaśyapa returned. He desired for an excellent group of Devas of unmeasured prowess. After withdrawing his invincible splendour that could not be destroyed even by the immortal beings he went to a mountain resolving to perform penance and holy rites.

    229-231. The chestiser of Pāka stood waiting for a loophole to gain entry within her. The unswerving Indra saw a loophole when the century of years nearly came to a close. Without washing her feet Diti went to bed and slept. Indra entered her belly. Armed with his thunderbolt he cut the foetus into seven parts. On being split by the thunderbolt the foetus groaned.

    232-233. “Mā rodīḥ” (Do not cry) said Indra to the child. It split into seven parts. The infuriated Indra, the suppressor of enemies further cut each of these pieces into seven more pieces by means of his thunderbolt. O excellent brahmins, those children later on came to be known as Maruts.

    234. They became Maruts according to what Indra had said. These forty-nine Devas became the associates of Indra, the wielder of thunderbolt.

    Indra violently creates the seven by seven Marut Gana by failing to kill it. This becomes Air--Prana which "digs holes in space", forming the seven planes or worlds as we have them.

    In their tumultuous, untamed state, they are "storm gods related to Indra", and what we call Raudra Krama pacifies and harnesses this to induce Generation Stage.

    There is a Viraja daughter of Viraja and mother of monkeys, and Viraja daughter of Pitris wife of Nahusa, who is equated to Ashokasundari.

    A few other points from Brahma in Brahmanda Purana:

    5. Asu is considered by scholars as the vital breath. Therefore, those who were born of it were Asuras. He discarded that physical body whereby the Asuras had been created.

    6-7a. That physical body discarded by him immediately became Night.

    25. Since the lord created the Asuras at night from his loins through the vital breaths, and as they were born during the night, they are invincible during the night.

    16. Hence, the daytime is considered as belonging to the Devas and the night is remembered as belonging to the Asuras. The body that belongs to the Pitṛs and that is in between those two is the most important.

    17. Hence the Devas, the Asuras, the sages and the human beings, while practising Yoga, worship that body which, is in between dawn and morning (day-break).

    That refers to Pitris in general, but Viraja hails from a certain class:

    Ājyapā (आज्यपा) refers to a classification of manes (Pitṛ/Pitṛgaṇa) that came into existence from Pulastya’s sweat, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.3. Accordingly:—“[...] Excepting Kratu, Vasiṣṭha, Pulastya and Aṅgiras, the six viz. Marīci and others successfully curbed their senses and their activities. O excellent sage, the semen virile of the four—Kratu and others—fell on the ground from which other types of manes were born. They were Somapās, Ājyapās, Kālins and Haviṣmantas. They are all termed Kavyavāhas also. They are their sons. The Somapās are the sons of Kratu, Kālins of Vasiṣṭha, Ājyapās of Pulastya and Haviṣmantas of Aṅgiras”.

    Ājyapa (आज्यप).—A community of Pitṛs belonging to the dynasty of Pulaha. They are called so because they drink during yāgas the ghee made out of goats milk (Ājyam) (Matsya Purāṇa). They live in the land of Kardama Prajāpati. Their daughter Virajā is the wife of Nahuṣa. (Sṛṣṭi Khaṇḍa, Padma Purāṇa).

    Ājyapa (आज्यप).—A class of Manes who reside in regions belonging to Kardama Prajāpati, descendants of Pulaha; Virajā, wife of Nahuṣa was their mindborn daughter; largely worshipped by Vaiśyas.*

    * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 28. 19; III. 10. 93-5; Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 63; Matsya-purāṇa 102. 21; Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 100; 56. 17; 73. 43; 101. 43.

    The founder of the Ajyapa class is:

    1a) Pulastya (पुलस्त्य).—A mind-born son of Brahmā born of his ears in Vāruṇī yajna

    Pulastya (पुलस्त्य) married Prīti: one of the daughters of Dakṣa and Prasūti. Pulastya and Prīti had a son named Datta who was well known as Agastya.

    Pulastya (पुलस्त्य) married Ilavilā, the daughter of Rājarṣi Tṛṇavindu. Viśravas was born to her.

    Viśravas had four wives—Puṣpotkaṭā, Vākā, Kaikasī and Devavarṇinī. From Devavarṇinī was born Kubera [Vaisravana], from Kaikasī were born Rāvaṇa, Kumbhakarṇa, Vibhīṣaṇa and Śūrpaṇakhā.

    The Rakshashas and Yakshas come from this line.

    Vaiśravaṇa...propitiated the three-eyed God Śiva, with a very severe penance and enjoyed the city of Alakā built by Viśvakṛt.

    (Kubera: Kuśarīram beram); the first son of Viśravas and Devavarṇinī; in form a Rākṣasa and in strength an Asura; description of; three feet, big head, eight teeth, yellow moustache, ears like śanku, short hands; full of the knowledge of Vaivarta; and in the guise of Viśvarūpa or various forms;1 the king of Yakṣas.

    1) Kubera (कुबेर) is a name that Guṇanidhi obtained from Umā, as a result of his severe penance, as mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.19. Accordingly, as Umā said to Guṇanidhi:—“[...] dear son, may your pure devotion to Śiva remain for ever. With your left eye burst you will be Ekapiṅga, (having a yellow mark in place of an eye). May all the boons granted to you by the lord fructify. You shall be called Kubera (lit. possessed of ill-shaped body), O son, since you jealously looked at me.

    Kuvera (कुवेर) refers to “treasurer of the demigods, god of wealth”.

    His wife is Bhadrā and their two sons and daughter are Nalakubera, Maṇigrīva and Mīnākṣī.

    In the Viṣṇudharmottara-purāṇa, Kubera is described as the embodiment of both Artha (“wealth, prosperity, glory”) and Arthashastras, the treatises related to it—and his iconography mirrors it. Kubera’s complexion is described as that of lotus leaves. He rides a man—the state personified, adorned in golden clothes and ornaments, symbolizing his wealth. His left eye is yellow. He wears an armour and a necklace down to his large belly.

    Kubera was practically wholesale imported to Buddhism in the Pali texts, and is called a follower of Buddha. Synonyms for Kubera are Dhanada (Saṃvarodayatantra 17.39), Yakṣādhipa (Guhyasamayasādhanamālā 34) or Vaiśravaṇa...in the Śmaśānavidhi, Kubera has a human mount (naravāhana), is yellow...

    Valmiki Ramayana informs us that Ravana and Vaishravana were the sons of Vishravas and Kaikesi. Seemingly, Vaishravana became the king of Sri Lanka and Ravana inherited the kingdom of his father in South India. The golden city of Lankapuri was designed and built by Vishvakarma. Lankapuri was the most beautiful city of the world during Ramayana era. Ravana forcibly took over the city of Lankapuri and Pushpaka Vimana from his brother Vaishravana also known as Kubera. Thus, Ravana became the emperor of a vast kingdom extended from Sri Lanka to Dandakaranya of South India. Vaishravana had no other option to emigrate northwards along with Yakshas and settled at Alakapuri situated on the ancient silk route close to Uttara Kuru region.

    Comparatively, Gopali is around Jamdhi at the base of Mt. Meru.

    Apparently, the parallel male descent to Pitri Kanya Viraja is Kubera and the Yaksha kingdom.

    Eight Shivas of the Brahmanda--This chapter is textually very close to Vā.p. Chapter 27.

    Minus Durga Puja and some minor offerings, a year in the life of Viraja begins around her birthday:

    The day comes in the month of Māgha(January-February) on the new – moon day. On account of her birthday she is decorated as Goddess Sāvitri, the consort of Brahama(the creator) with golden ornaments. She is exclusively attired in yellow and worshipped with Gayātri mantra prescribed in the Brahma-Tantra.

    Vāruṇi, an auspicious day comes in the month of Caitra(March-April) that attracts pilgrims from all over India for sacred ablution in the Vaitaraṇī Satabhiśā, the 24th asterism of the constellation is otherwise known as ‘Varuna’. If the thirteenth day of the dark fortnight of caitra is conjoined with Varuṇa, The day becomes sacred for a bath in the holy river. So the day is called “Vāruṇi”. On this occasion Goddess Biraja is bathed with the holy water of the Vaitaraṇī and a special worship is performed.

    Varuni, Mahavaruni, and Mahamahavaruni are astrological conjunctions followed in Haridwar, having to do with the Ganges entering the physical plane.

    On the Candan Purṇimā day in the month of may-June, the face of the deity of Goddess Biraja is smeared with sandal paste.

    Sāvitri Amāvāsyā is exclusively celebrated on the new-moon day of the month of Jyestha (May-June). On this occasion there is a great rush in the temple premises specially married women come over here to worship Goddess Biraja for their unbroken conjugal happiness.

    Citālāgi Amāvāsyā is a special occasion celebrated in the month of Srāvaṇa (July-August). On this day the citā (a gold ornament for the fore head) is put on the fore head of Goddess Biraja after the due rituals citā (a special and aromatic cake) is offered to the Goddess.

    Gamha Purṇimā is otherwise known as Rākṣi Purṇimā that comes on the full moon day of Srāvaṇa (July-August). On this occasion special pūjā is held of the Goddess and she puts on Gold and silk band named Rākṣi on her left hand.

    Rathayātrā or the car festival of Goddess Biraja is the most important festival of Jajpur. It is very interesting to know that a car festival for the Goddess is nowhere found in Odisha. We have such instances near Vindhyavāsinī and Sthambhesvarai in Madhya Pradesh and near Goddess Cāmuṇḍesvarī in Mysore.

    Kumāra Purṇimā festival is observed on the full moon day of Āsvina (September-October). On this festival occasion the deity decorated with golden ornaments like a virgin. Cowry-play (Aksa) is held between the virgin Goddess and the chief priest.

    On the eve of Kāli pūjā in the month of November, Dipāvali is celebrated with the lighting of several lamps. Special Tantric rituals are held near the Pārsva Devatā Ekapāda Bhairava and Cāmuṇḍa on the western side of the temple.

    Bagalāmukhī is worshipped on special occasions is a modern temple inside the premises. Moreover Samkrānti, Amāvāsyā, Purṇami etc. are observed as the festive days of Goddess Biraja. On Saturdays and Tuesday’s homa or sacrifice is held with the recital saptasati candī or the devi mahātmya.

    Viraja is mainly known by a unique Two Arm Sulini or Spear form standing on a Buffalo. She also has a Dhyana Rupa:

    Her crown is complex with a crescent moon, a Shiva linga, Ganapati, and a snake, on her main form.

    India Tales says:

    The most important iconography of Biraja Devi is in her crown. The crown has miniature Murtis of Ganesha, Vasuki – the king of Nagas, Shivalinga in a Yoni & moon. This crown brings together all the different paths that Hinduism has. Scholars interpret as all the paths eventually lead you to the Adya or Para Shakti that Biraja Devi is.

    You first meet the Vahana of the Devi, a Simha or a Lion on a stone pillar.

    Simha Stambh:

    Viraja Homa from Mahanarayana Upanishad is the least bit similar to Buddhist Vajradaka Fire Offering.

    It is used when a Hindu monk becomes a Sannyasin or renunciant. However, at the hotel:

    Every fire ritual/oblation into the fire (Yagya/Havan/Homam) that we perform in the external world is simultaneously being performed within our spiritual body.

    Generally, Homams are performed to bring materialistic benefits to oneself by pleasing the different Hindu deities. But there is a fire ritual that can take us away from seeking materialistic pleasures. This fire ritual or Homam is known as the ‘Viraja Homam’.

    Viraja Homam is also known as the ‘ultimate’ or the ‘final’ fire oblation.

    It is also known as the ‘death rite’ because upon performing it, the spiritual aspirant is considered dead with regards to his previous life/lives and with regards to all his accumulated karmas. Once he is purified by means of this Homam, he is fit to offer himself as a sacrifice to his Supreme Self.

    This Homam is not only meant for spiritual aspirants or monks who wish to renounce everything and take up Sanyasa. It can be performed by everyone. However, we need to be aware that it strengthens our Viveka (ability to discriminate between right and wrong) and Vairagya (ability to remove our senses from pleasures) and it produces Virakti (disinterest in temporary pleasures of this world). It is a sincere request to our Supreme Self to help us purify our body, mind and soul.

    A brief Viraja paper finds her in the same source as Durga Suktam:

    Viraja in the Mahanarayaniupanisad (20.15) (Taittiriya Aranyaka, Andhra Edn, 10.65)

    She is largely about removing blemishes or defilements caused by Rajas Guna:

    Brahma has established the goddess by whose
    sight a person purifies the ancestors extending up to seven steps.

    The Vayupurana (73.41-46) mentions that being fickle like the birds, the
    Ajyapas, ancestral deities, move around the worlds. Pulaha is born form
    kardama Prajapati. Ajyapas are born from Pulaha. They move around the
    worlds at their free will. Viraja is their daughter born from their minds. The
    Vaisyas intending to cherish their desires in the sraddhas, remain devoted to
    them (Ajyapas). Instead, they worship their daughter, goddess Viraja, as she is
    widely known.

    Uma does Viraja Homa mantra:

    Translations are in the links; the paper translates the refrain:

    May I become the radiant, free of dust and evil! svaha!


    May I of the nature of self-luminous knowledge be divested of Rajoguna (ego) and tamoguna (ignorance) and become sinless—Swaaha!

    I noticed she is not really doing the seven verse mantra, not because of mistakes, but there are additions. Fortunately someone put this in a post:

    [pancashashtitamo'nuvakah |]--not used

    pranapanavyanodanasamana me shudhyantam

    jyotiraham viraja vipapma bhuyasagam svaha || 1||


    me shudhyantam

    jyotiraham viraja vipapma bhuyasagam svaha || 2||

    tvakcarmamamsarudhiramedomajjasnayavo'sthini me shudhyantam

    jyotiraham viraja vipapma bhuyasagam svaha || 3||


    o me shudhyantam

    jyotiraham viraja vipapma bhuyasagam svaha || 4||

    uttishtha purusha harita pingala lohitakshi dehi dehi

    dadapayita me shudhyantam

    jyotiraham viraja vipapma bhuyasagam svaha || 5||

    [shatshashtitamo'nuvakah |]--not used

    prithivyaptejovayurakasha me shudhyantam

    jyotiraham viraja vipapma bhuyasagam svaha || 1||

    shabdasparsharuparasagandha me shudhyantam

    jyotiraham viraja vipapma bhuyasagam svaha || 2||

    manovakkayakarmani me shudhyantam

    jyotiraham viraja vipapma bhuyasagam svaha || 3||


    jyotiraham viraja vipapma bhuyasagam svaha || 4||

    atma me shudhyantam

    jyotiraham viraja vipapma bhuyasagam svaha || 5||

    antaratma me shudhyantam

    jyotiraham viraja vipapma bhuyasagam svaha || 6||

    paramatma me shudhyantam

    jyotiraham viraja vipapma bhuyasagam svaha || 7||

    kshudhe svaha | kshutpipasaya svaha | vivityai svaha |

    rigvidhanaya svaha | kashotkaya svaha | [om svaha || 8||

    kshutpipasamalam jyeshthamalalakshmirnashayamyaham |

    abhutimasamriddhim ca sarvannirnuda me papmanam svaha]--not used

    || 9||

    annamayapranamayamanomayavijnanamayamanandamayamatma me


    jyotiraham viraja vipapma bhuyasagam svaha || 10||

    That is a little bit of Viraja as Vach mixed with esoteric principles such as five energetic sheaths. Sounds like cremation of the ego in favor of a better light. In Buddhism, we would say, ok, Jyotiraham is Vajrasattva, and then we would do more things with these same principles. If Viraja means the removal of Rajas--Ego, this is close to the meaning of Nairatma. And so then, yes, Viraja as a goddess name is maintained in a few select places.

    This Viraja comes to us in the same way as Vairocani, it is not clear that either of those old songs are "to" them. They are part of its inner meaning which becomes known as deities. She has a very similar flowing meaning, Bliss generated from Vairocani is used to quell Afflicted Mind and reveal Luminous Mind like Viraja does here.

    If this has rare correspondences in Buddhism, Vairocani in Dharani Samgraha is going to steal Adi Shankara's name for Viraja, and also announce the general name:


    pūrṇṇa virajā sahajā svabhāvāḥ |

    In the beginning of the medium Sitatapatra Dharani, she is invoked as:

    namo bhagavate uṣṇīṣāya śuddhe viraje vimale svāhā|

    which is extremely close to the song just posted, both are Shuddha, pure or purifying, Viraja.

    And it has male aspects. Khasama Viraja is part of Caryamelakapradipa, i. e. Generation Stage instructions for the Five Stages of Guhyasamaja.

    A sub-name of Vasudhara is Vasumati, which is in Lankavatara Sutra after the explanation of Buddhahood being attained in Akanistha (neither Kama Loka nor Formless Realm), wherein Buddha says:

    798. My mother is Vasumati, my father is the wise Prajāpati; I belong to the Kātyāyana family, and my name is Viraja the Victor.

    Seeing that a great deal of the importance of the goddess is with Atharva Veda, reaching back into antiquity with the critic:

    Of these the birds that are well-known to kill and feed on snakes and poisonous arthropods are the peacock and the crested serpent eagle. Not surprisingly both of them provide archetypes for the deities that are invoked to counter venom – mahAmayUrI and garuDa. The former has a long history in this regard that goes back to the sUkta-s of the RV and AV:

    triH sapta mayUryaH sapta svasAro agruvaH |
    tAste viShaM vi jabhrira udakaM kumbhinIriva || (RV 1.191.14)

    Here not just the 21 peahens but also the 7 sister goddess are invoked to neutralize the venom. We believe that there is more to this mantra than meets the eye in the obvious sense.

    adanti tvA pipIlikA vi vR^ishchanti mayUryaH |
    sarve bhala bravAtha shArkoTam arasaM viSham || (AV-vulgate 7.56.7)

    mayUro .atra vR^ishchikaM mayUraM vayaM vidmasi |
    taM pari parijambhanaM vR^ishchika jambhanam asi || (AV-P 19.47.2)

    yas tanuH pR^ithur vINA vadha iva prasarpati |
    mayUraH kila te viShaM kR^ikavAkush cha jakShatu || (AV-P 20.38.3)

    Here peahens (and ants in the first verse) are invoked to render the venom ineffectual or eat up either of two different kinds of scorpions, the sharkoTa and the vR^ishchika. In the last verse the peacock is invoked along with the Grey junglefowl to consume the poison.

    Thus, the MVR preserves a post-Vedic layer of the long tradition of venom-countering vidyA-s that originated in the vedic period. This poison-countering mayUrI tradition (including other fowl, like the Grey junglefowl mention in the AV mantra) appears to have existed parallel to the more famous garuDa tradition. It is in this regard it may be noted that a mantra of ekAnaMshA from the barbarIkopAkhyAna (skanda mahApurANa) contains the epithet mahAmayUrI. Hence, we posit that behind the nAstika façade the MVR is at its core a text of the mayUrI tradition that was prevalent until around the 300s of the CE in Greater India. Early on the mayUrI tradition underwent syncreticism with the kaumAra tradition. Perhaps the roots for this connection go back its Vedic antecedents via the link to the seven sisters, who in their new number six reappear in the kaumAra system.

    It should be noted that the deity atharva-shabarI is specifically derived from the archetype of the tribal girl (a kairAtikA kumAri) from a mountainous region, who is described as discovering medicinal substances in the atharvaveda:

    kairAtikA kumArikA sakA khanati bheShajam |
    hiraNyayIbhir abhribhir girInAm upa sAnuShu || AV-vulgate 10.4.14= AV-P 16.16.4

    Kairātika (कैरातिक).—a. Belonging to the Kirātas

    That is part of the ancient identification of the Assamese as Cinas; Kirats also inhabited Nepal and the trans-Himalaya.

    The temple of 'Mayuri' is located on Laxmikund.

    She has this assignment:

    Lord Shiva sent a total of 64 yoginis (women representatives) to look after preservation of the water bodies including ponds. While the Chausatthi Mata (who generated 64 yoginis) temple came into existence on Chausatthi Ghat on the banks of the Ganga, Mayuri yogini was given the responsibility of looking after the Laxmi Kund along with Ram Kund and Sita Kund that existed in the area.

    She is Chapter Forty-five of Kashi Khand which says the temple is to Mahalakshmi Gauri. Or the page is. That is part of Skanda Purana where it only gives her name.

    Sorahaiya Ka Mela is actually a pottery festival.

    Varahi is nearby, and Kamakhya is not that far away. These yoginis are worshipped with Bali Offering and the like.

    Esoteric slokas from Skanda Purana with Shiva lings being brought from everywhere:

    165. The Liṅga (named) Analeśvara has come out of the mouth of Vaḍavā (submarine fire). Worshipped here in front of Naleśvara it bestows all Siddhis.

    166. Having come from Virajas Tīrtha the Three-eyed Lord of Devas stationed himself in Triviṣṭapa Liṅga of beginningless existence.

    167. From Amarakaṇṭaka Lord Oṃkāra manifested himself in the meritorious Pilipilā Tīrtha that bestows redemption on all.

    168. That is the first Liṅga with Tāraka (Praṇava) as its source while Gaṅgā had not yet arrived at Kāśī. However, it had manifested for the sake of uplifting the three worlds.

    169. A great Liṅga with its (Praṇava’s) shape manifested itself therefrom. None other than our Lord knows its greatness.

    170. O Lord, I brought these great Āyatanas (holy spots) after leaving only a part in the different original holy spots.

    Employ the Caṇḍīs now. There are nine crores of Cāmuṇḍās accompanied by their deities, Bhūtas, Vetālas and Bhairavas. Their forms are impossible to be assailed. In order to guard the city, post them all-round in every fort along with their vehicles, armies and weapons.

    ...called the Durgās...

    Lakshmi Kund is the neighborhood as actually desribed in Chapter Seventy, location of Mahalakshmi Pitha. It however does not have Mayuri yogini. Durga manages to emanate Vajratara and Vartali, in a process called Vajrapanjara, but Mayuri is not there either.

    For the quiescence of the distress, the only remedy is that city or my native land.

    35. O Lord, after attaining Kāśī, the bestower of peace all round, the cause of the destruction of all sorts of distress, the distress due to the separation from my native land has not been thought of by me.

    36. The Lakṣmīs of salvation have not been directly perceived by any embodied being anywhere. I am aware, O Lord, O bestower of happiness, indeed Kāśikā is the salvation akin in form to the bestower of all happiness and welfare.

    37. Neither by performing meditation on the Absolute (Brahma), avoiding unsteadiness of sense-organs, nor by (performance of) Kratu (sacrifice) and other rites, nor by Vedic knowledge and lore, is salvation attainable as easily as by casting off the body at Kāśī.

    44. Neither the world of Devas, nor Satyaloka, nor the world of serpents can be on a par with Maṇikarṇikā, because the ear of a person who dies at that place becomes fit to receive Brahmarasāyana (Praṇava or Rāmamantrarāja).

    46. Is (It is as if) the region of Maṇikarṇikā, the throne of ultimate salvation or the soft bed of the Lakṣmī of salvation, or the source of origin of the great bulbous root (i.e. the prime cause) of the highest bliss?

    The yoginis are dispatched from Mandara mountain to remove an otherwise faultless king.

    They never do it.

    Mayuri is perhaps implied in Chapter Ninety-seven:

    109-111. In the vicinity of that Kuṇḍa is Mahālakṣmīśvara Liṅga. A devotee should take his holy bath in the waters of that Kuṇḍa and worship Mahālakṣmī. He will be fanned by celestial damsels with their hands holding chowries. When the heaven-dwellers go to Matsyodarī from the heavenly world, it is this path alone that they take. They march through that path happily surrounded by their women. Hence, O excellent sage, that region is well-known by the name Svargadvāra (‘doorway to heaven’). The Liṅga to the south of that Kuṇḍa bestows the position of Brahmā.

    From a small photo tour, this appears to be the outer shrine of Mahalakshmi Gauri, and she does have a Peacock Head attendant:

    Here is a completely unidentified Marici under Long Life Trinity, and over Janguli and a Naga--but is the same as the Jnanadakini we recently found with "unidentified white goddess" and "Kurukulla" with the wrong items. The animal she is holding is perhaps a Buffalo:

    A mantric expansion of the related Yogambara with Janadakini which includes Pukkasi is available from Japan.
    Last edited by shaberon; 7th October 2021 at 08:40.

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    Default Re: Nirakara and Shentong Buddhism, Tara, Sadhanas, Sanskrit culture

    Ghasmari and Samputa Tantra with Gauris' mantras

    What is rather strange is that when we as outsiders pore over Buddhist Yoga, it tells us that a spiritual practice is called a Sadhana. On the one hand, this seems like a ritual or liturgy that we can perform, but, that is not exactly what it means. It is equal to the Fifth of the Six Yogas, in other words, it is a kind of yoga. It is evidently not a beginner yoga. Instead, it means that we have done so much yoga that we are accustomed to ecstasies and visionary experiences. This appears to be equal to the state of Vajrosnisa, as described in prior posts. Allright, this is sort of a training process that is like a "how to" of Divinity. And so we are not quite a spiritual person, and actually unable to even do a spiritual practice, because we lack this.

    In order to do so, we get any regular person, and move them onto the Bodhisattva Path. On a Sutra basis, this is famous as Eight Auspicious Symbols. What the tantras are saying is that the Path is the experience of having integrated one's being to the Seven Jewels of Enlightenment. This manifests the auspicious symbols, is equivalent to entering the Bhumis and expressing the Paramitas and so forth as the Bodhisattva does. And so what we want to do is show how Buddhist Yoga, or, more specifically, Indian Buddhist Yoga, is similar to, but works differently from, other Indian yogas.

    It only means Yidam or Devata or Deity Yoga. And so for one thing the Vajrosnisa is putting you in gnostic unity with it. And then another thing is that it means the subtle body becomes the operative field. And so it would be reasonable to say we have sub-terms like Candali Yoga, Suksma Yoga, and Heruka Yoga. But those are just phases of Deity Yoga. It is entirely possible to get the same physiological effects by other systems. We want to really slow this part down and make it beneficial. When called Heruka Yoga, this means the Generation Stage has made a complete working unit called a self-arisen Heruka. That is why some Rinpoches have suggested the term "Complete Stage", because it just means the time when the complete Heruka is there.

    Candali is one of the Gauris which means it is difficult for the ordinary person to get and you will know when you do. Because I have physiologically done this in other yogas, and, so to speak, "imported" it into Buddhism--perhaps a bit like Matsyendranath moving from Kamarupa to Kathmandu--I am completely positive that Suksma Yoga does what it says it does. I would say its guidance is vastly superior to the energy of the centers alone.

    In seeing that male Vajrosnisa is something like the culmination of the eighteen or so original mandalas of Prajnaparamita philosophy, we found there is a dharani goddess parallel to Vajrosnisa; and, similarly, Tara and Vajrayogini have a type of self-instructional capability of handling states through Vajrosnisa into Candali and Suksma.

    In other words, there is no reason a person cannot in fact achieve a great deal of the benefit of Yoga without easy access to such things as for example lineage masters who can engage in personal Dharma Talks with them and so forth. Tara is extremely sensitive and responds rather easily to anyone who puts faith into it.

    With familiarity, it becomes plain that there are a few core mantras of Completion Stage Heruka which simply indicate her eventual subjects. By seeing what goes into this, it is like a blueprint for Families and yoginis:

    His Heart mantra uses Heruka Dakinijala Samvara, his Near Heart mantra is that of Seven Syllable deity, Thirteen Syllable Vajravairocani is his Devihrdayamantra, whereas Sumbha and Nisumbha are in an All-Purpose, Savakarmika, Four Mouths, or:

    Four Hūṃs and the 35-syllable wrathful mantra

    which is given by Kelsang Gyatso, showing Kandharoha going to the space below, but even called Sumbhani mantra by Arthur Avalon who seems to be describing it fairly well, and thinks Kandharoha goes up and down.

    Kandharoha emerges from Varuni, and can take over the role of this mantra. However, Sumbha and Nisumbha are Puranic characters and certainly related to the lower direction--Nadir--Underworld. Similarly, this has a mantric start and motion through goddesses mainly in the power or Activity of Noose.

    The architecture of Samputa Tantra has the Gauris of Dakini Jala in relation to Seven Syllable deity. We will look at how this goes and again at over-translation. The system here is almost identical to that shown in a Japanese Guhyagarbha. But we can explain it a bit better by familiarizing ourselves with what it actually says in the context where it was created. There are things that are not coming through even though these translators are otherwise excellent.

    In Samputa, the previous section used Six Arm White Jnanadakini and ended:

    “The immature consciousness of dumb beings
    Who are obscured by dullness
    May be elevated in its essence
    Thanks to the excellence of yoga treatises. {8.3.49}
    “It is once in a thousand million lifetimes
    That, because of me, one becomes inspired by gnosis. [F.148.b]
    Therefore the wise one should generate faith with ardor
    And diligently study yoga treatises. {8.3.50}
    “The words, and so forth, of the outer treatises
    Are like the makeup of a dancer.
    He should therefore strive to attain fulfilment and liberation
    Through pursuing the teachings of yoga tantra. {8.3.51}
    “Yoga tantra, more essential than the essence itself,
    Has been taught to you, O fair-faced one.” {8.3.52}

    This concludes the third part of the eighth chapter, called “The Rejection of the
    Knowledge of Non-Buddhists.”

    · Part 4 ·
    “Listen, Vajragarbha, O mighty king,
    To this presentation of the mantras.
    “The heart mantra of Vajrāmṛta is:
    “Oṁ, Vajrāmṛta of great bliss! Haṁ svāhā! {8.4.1}

    You have Vajramrita's one mantra, and then Vajrasattva with retinue; there are sixteen common or shared goddesses, and there are eight unique to him which we have called Vajraraudris. The whole retinue is a syllable flux, Vajraraudri starts it with Ah Am, and then some elusive shakti syllables are hidden with the Musicians:

    Of Mukundā, Oṁ āḥ eṁ haṁ svāhā!
    Of Murajā, Oṁ āḥ aiṁ haṁ svāhā!

    Again this retinue is particularly noticeable since Raudri (Drag mo) and the rest are Saumya or Pleasant. One could say it is not unusual for the other members' names to perhaps be pleasant. Raudri, Ugra, Bhima, and perhaps a few other things interpreted as Fierce are not necessarily terrifying or ugly but are energetic or Virya. This Vajrasattva appears to remain situated in the Anuraga theme from Paramadya where the goddesses please his mind so he will not swerve from the thought of enlightenment or Bodhicitta.

    Raudri or Rudrani is never not Mahesvari--Ghasmari. Although this is really the other way around. HPB made a few points about the primacy of Rudra and the later adaptation of Shiva more as the Ishvar of yoga:

    In the Rig Veda the name Siva is unknown, but the god is called Rudra, which is a word used for Agni, the fire god . . .

    Śiva-Rudra The name Siva occupies a very inconspicuous position in the Vedas, where that deity is referred to as Rudra, the greatest of the kumaras, considered by occultists as their special patron.

    When refracted into "the Rudras":

    The rudras are therefore equivalent to the solar lhas or pitris as contrasted with the lower four classes of monads, the lunar pitris.

    The rudras are highly intellectual and spiritual entities, having through previous evolutionary periods attained self-consciousness by individually passing through the equivalent of the human kingdom. The rudras represent an aggregate of entities in the primary formation of worlds, as well as the intellectually informing principles of man. They are mythologically said to be at war with the shadowy entities and powers of the lower spheres, and hence are sometimes spoken of as the destroyers of outward forms.

    As the beneficent one or spiritual healer, Rudra is the higher human ego aspiring to its own spiritual pure state; and as the destroyer he is the same imprisoned higher human ego whose war against imperfection, evil, and sin make him the “roarer” or the “terrible.”

    Thus the rudras are the sevenfold manifestations of Rudra-Siva, the seven subclasses of which Rudra-Siva is the hierarch; or again the seven intelligent subhierarchies of intellectual character in nature which reform or destroy in order to regenerate. They are also one of the classes of the “fallen” or intellectually incarnating gods, the progenitors of the true intellectual-spiritual self in man.

    These extremely occult and important beings are connected with the kabeiroi because they are the intellectual offspring of these planetary deities; identical also with the ’elohim. Sometimes they are called in the ancient writings tu****as, jayas, adityas, asuras, vasus, rishis, kumaras, manus, and the spiritual rebels. They are even referred to as the ten vital breaths or pranas because these ten vital breaths are the ten varieties of intellectual energies or forces flowing from them, and which on the intellectual plane may be spoken of as the mental pranas.

    Most Hindu yoga would presume Raudri was pleasant, but in Buddhism the equivalent or Dragmo is usually portrayed as terrifying. This is not necessary for either Raudri or the Gauris.

    Next in Samputa is Heruka with Gauris, eight Musicians, and Tramen Gatekeepers. While it is not unusual as in the previous exercise for a deity to be assigned to a syllable, what is very strange here is that except for Vetali, none of them are themselves in their mantras. The make-up and dancer remark above applies here. We will expand this after seeing what else is in the sequence.

    Nairatma and Hevajra are added in rather innocuously, then there are two more Two Arm Herukas and then Seven Syllable mantra.

    So this is very Heruka-dominant, seeing Hevajra as something like a sub-set. And so we have found two forms of Seven Syllable deity which attach themselves to the Seven Jewels of Enlightenment, and they look like another kind of reversal:

    One is a Hum-arisen Avalokiteshvara, another is a Hrih-arisen Heruka. Upahrdaya Mantra of all Chakrasamvara.

    After this is called the king of spells, it anticipates you have worked through Ten and Thirteen syllable Vairocani because this one is at the level of Mahamaya Tantra:

    Sixteen Syllable Buddha Dakini Vajravairocani, Marici and Boar Face Marici, and:

    “Oṁ, demoness Parṇaśavarī! The appeaser of all pestilence! Hūṁ hūṁ!
    You with a big belly! Phaṭ! {8.4.31}

    oṁ piśāci parṇaśavari sarvamāripraśamani hūṁ hūṁ mahodari phaṭ

    Mahodari · Meaning :One who has huge belly which stores the universe

    Mahodari is also a yogini of Sivaduti, who emanated from the Devi on the occasion of the battle with Sumbha and Nisumbha.

    The remaining mantras in this section are for Amoghasiddhi, Vajradakini, All Purpose, Consecration, Purification of the Ground, then Jnanadakini with retinue as in the Japanese text. Then just a few miscellaneous mantras. However the Japanese says it is Yogambara in Union with Jnanadakini. That is not the case here. None of the retinues mention a consort other than Nairatma separately. Why Parnasabari has recurred with these deities specifically for being fat does not seem to be commented; she faints with goddesses led by Nairatma, then she is after Marici in the sky raining nectar, and is in these mantras.

    It was curiously drawn to our attention that Heuka's Gauris retinue includes the Hindu Tri-shakti in an unusual manner, and then maybe the others are similar since Sumbhani is also a proper name. These are their translations with the original mantras. Here, Pramoha does not seem to have Narayani as was described before. What we were shown from Vajrajvalodaya was:



    HUM VAJRACANDESVARI KHATVANGI MAHAVAJRI kapalamalamukute rulu rulu hum iti caurim.

    Ghasmari's mantra was taken from here. But at least that is pretty close for Cauri. The Tri-shakti continues from a somewhat difficult version from the main previous tantra on which Dakini Jala is based. With them is Akashagarbha acting in a Karma Family Bodhisattva role:

    Vajranarayana, [Vajra]candisvara, and Vajrapadmodbhava, that is to say, Vajrayanist transformations of Visnu, Rudra,
    and Brahma, together with their consorts Vajrasri, Vajragauri, and Vajratara, join
    Akasagarbha and Khavajrini to form the retinue of Vajrasattva in the central sec-
    tion of the abridged Mandala (bsdus pa'i dkyil 'khor) of the Yogatantra Paramadya.

    So that was a trinity with a fourth component; here, the same trinity is arranged unusually into the eightfold pattern. We will copy the mantras from Samputa so they are not in footnotes and then give them new footnotes:

    “The mantra of Gaurī is:

    “Oṁ, you are the vajra secrecy, the supreme mistress of the siddhas,
    holding a skull cup and a rosary, fond of blood and dwelling in a charnel
    ground! Hūṁ phaṭ! Svāhā! {8.4.9}

    oṁ vajraguhye siddhaparamayogeśvari kapālamālādhāriṇi rudhirapriye śmaśānavāsini hūṁ phaṭ svāhā

    “The mantra of Caurī is:

    “Oṁ, you are a vajra-fierce goddess, the holder of a khaṭvāṅga, the great
    holder of a vajra scepter, one with a skull cup, a rosary, and a diadem!
    Summon them, summon! Pull at the hearts of all mischief-makers! Rulu
    rulu! Bhyo, hūṁ phaṭ! {8.4.10} [F.149.a]

    oṁ vajracaṇḍeśvari khaṭvāṅgi mahāvajriṇi kapālamālāmakuṭe ākaḍḍa ākaḍḍa sarvaduṣṭahṛdayam ākaḍḍa rulu rulu bhyo hūṁ phaṭ

    “The mantra of Pramohā is:

    “Oṁ, the unconquerable vajra goddess, ultimately secret, adorned with a
    skull cup and a rosary! You bewilder all the evil ones! Dear one, please
    come, come! The venerable, secret vajra goddess! One of many different
    garbs! You who ward off all the evil ones! Hūṁ phaṭ! {8.4.11}

    oṁ vajrāparājite paramaguhye kapālamālāvibhūṣite sarvaduṣṭamohani priye ehi ehi bhagavati vajraguhyeśvari bahuvividhaveśadhāriṇi sarvaduṣṭanivāriṇi hūṁ phaṭ

    “The mantra of Vetālī is:

    “Oṁ, Vajravetālī, kha kha, devour, devour all the evil ones! You who wear
    strange clothes and are adorned with unusual ornaments! Kill, kill! Burn,
    burn! Cook, cook! Do not tarry, do not tarry! Remember your pledge! Enter
    into the center of the maṇḍala! Rouse everybody! Hūṁ hūṁ phaṭ! {8.4.12}

    oṁ vajravetāli kha kha khahi khahi sarvaduṣṭān vikṛtaveśadhāriṇi vikṛtālaṅkārabhūṣite hana hana daha daha paca paca mā vilamba mā vilamba samayam anusmara praveśaya maṇḍalamadhye utthāpaya sarvaṃ hūṁ hūṁ phaṭ.

    “The mantra of Pukkasī is:

    “Oṁ, come, come! O venerable, secret vajra goddess! One of many
    different garbs! Nourished by all the tathāgatas! Remember your pledge!
    Kill, kill! Be passionate, be! Impassion, impassion! Fulfill the wishes, fulfill!
    Possess all beings, possess! Dance, dance! Cause others to dance, cause!
    Haḥ, ha ha ha ha, hūṁ hūṁ, phaṭ! {8.4.13}

    oṁ ehi ehi bhagavati vajraguhyeśvari bahuvividhaveśadhāriṇi
    sarvatathāgatapuṣṭe samayam anusmara hana hana raṅga raṅga raṅgāpaya raṅgāpaya
    pūraya pūraya āviśa āviśa sarvabhūtān narta narta nartāpaya nartāpaya haḥ ha ha ha
    ha hūṁ hūṁ phaṭ

    “The mantra of Caṇḍālī is:

    “Oṁ, the best among vajra spears! Split, split! Tug at the hearts of all the
    evil ones, tug! Kill, kill! Burn, burn! Grind, grind! Murder, murder! Do not
    tarry, do not tarry! Remember your pledge! Hūṁ hūṁ, phaṭ! {8.4.14}

    oṁ vajraśūlāgri bhinda bhinda sarvaduṣṭahṛdayam ākarṣaya ākarṣaya hana hana daha daha nirmatha nirmatha māraya māraya mā vilamba mā vilamba samayam anusmara hūṁ hūṁ phaṭ

    “The mantra of Ghasmarī is:

    “Oṁ, great vajra goddess! Haṁ haṁ haṁ haṁ, haḥ! Rulu rulu! Bhyo, hūṁ phaṭ!
    Devour all the evil ones! Grind their hearts! Hūṁ phaṭ svāhā! {8.4.15}

    oṁ vajramāheśvari haṁ haṁ haṁ haṁ haḥ rulu rulu bhyo hūṁ phaṭ bhakṣaya sarvaduṣṭān nirmatha hṛdayaṃ hūṁ phaṭ svāhā.

    “The mantra of Herukasaṃnibhā is:

    “Oṁ, smotherer! The blazing vajra of the pledge! Hūṁ phaṭ!

    oṁ sumbhani dīptasamayavajre hūṁ phaṭ

    Obviously Mahesvari is someone other than "great vajra goddess". You can't translate Mahesvari any more than you can Bhyoh Hum Phat. It is the same Gauri as in Paramadya. Parvati--Uma. I am not sure after the dismemberment of Sati exactly when it would be correct to say Parvati has incarnations or avatars. She has murtis or forms which are not normal births. Mahavidyas, Durgas, and Tri-shakti seem to be widely-known, like Eight Mothers; there is also a:


    They are Nandajā, Brāhmari, Raktadantā/Raktadantikā , Śākumbari and Bhimā. These are mentioned in eleventh chapter of Dēvi Māhatmyam.

    The example for Bhima is...approximately identical to a tapestry I was given relatively recently. Not sure what to make of that. Parnasabari is a form of her according to some Hindus. In a form that was something she washed off:

    ...while Shiva Purana holds Gauri as the younger version of virgin Parvati, other myths attribute the golden skin Goddess Gauri’s to the story of Parvati casting off her unwanted dark complexion [Kaushiki] after Shiva teased her.

    Rather than ordinary dirt, it may be similar to:

    Kauṣika (कौषिक) refers to a “(the Liṅga with) six sheaths”, according to Tantric texts such as the Kubjikāmata-tantra, the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, as Bhairava says to the Goddes: “[...] In the beginning, when all that existed was one fearful ocean and the Triple Universe was darkness (tamas), following the behest of the supreme will, I (Bhairava) bore the form of a Liṅga. I had six faces and, my nature Time, I was in the form of a Liṅga. Always encompassed by six forces, I sport in the centre of the universe. I possess (the Liṅga with) six sheaths (kauṣika). I am the body of the radiance of passion (anaṅgavarcas). O beloved, then emanation, my will, was started again. [...]”.

    Om umamahesvarabhyam Namah Om gaurye Namah

    ऊँ उमामहेश्वराभ्यां नमः ऊँ गौरये नमः

    Ghasmari, with her Sword and Agni Kunda, is her form for the purposes of Dakini Jala and Samputa Tantras. This is more of a modern Parvati:

    Our description of the Gauris' forms is from Anandagarbha's Vajrajvalodaya, which seems to us they most likely represent the Moods and we find that "eating a corpse" is probably not even valid. This mantric preservation in Samputa Tantra is perhaps unmasking everyone's identity except Vetali who remains the same. Gauri is not exactly Gauri because Ghasmari is Gauri. Ghasmari has been described as equal to the Samputa Tantra.

    The mantric title of Gauri, Vajraguhya, is out of stock as a postcard, but is still the goddess Vajradhatu mandala of STTS Chapter Two. The first Gauri seems to be dropping it in the cemeteries. There should be continuity, since the mantric change from STTS to Dakini Jala is given as:

    Sarvatathagatatattvasamgraha, section 794: OM HERUKA VAJRASAMAYA SARVA-
    dustasamayamudraprabhanjaka hum phat sarvamatrnam iti; Vajra-
    jvalodaya: OM herukavajrasamaya h<r>Ih sarvadustasamayamudra-
    PRABHANJAKA HUM PHAT iti svamantrena sriherukam nivesayet.

    Gauri perhaps takes the goddesses' Six Family Wheel through the cemeteries and into tantra as a physiological state. That seems to be her name here, Vajraguhya or similar to Vajrosnisa, and where she is, Smasana Vasini.

    Samputa has retained this one section from Dakini Jala, and that is what it tells us. Gauri is not "exactly" the STTS formal elaboration of Vajradhatu mandala, but like a magical extraction of it ported to here. Comparatively, if you are able to get anywhere close to the Candali energy without this, then you have to add it in.

    With Sula, the suffix "-gri" is not "best", but just means spinescent, pointed like a pike. Whether this makes Candali more like Sulini or Viraja, I don't know, but again the Sula is only rarely found, so it is like a marker. Although a spear is not a terribly rare weapon, it is usually called a sakti, or a couple of other kinds. On the other hand, a One-pointed Sula seems to be taken as a Tri-sula or Trident several times where that is not what the text said.

    Guhyesvari does a strange twist around Vetali, i. e. before and after her is not just the name, but a whole phrase. "Ehi" is not common in Buddhism at all, but has been used forever with the Apri Hymns of the Vedas. For instance, it is in Sadhanamala twice, for Vajragandhari and for Arya Tara Bhattarika 115.

    Pramoha was called Aparajita, which in the Hindu sense is Candi or Bhavani. Aparajita and Narayani are two close songs in Devi Mahatmya. According to some, Narayani means refuge of the jivas.

    The mantra here does not quite match her form, which says she has a vajra, not a rosary, and she is still the form of Matrika Varahi. Dakini Jala has some different mantra that addresses her as Narayani. Guhyeshvari has an aspect as Vajravarahi, which Varahi appears poised to become. She does Moha in the mantra here, which matches her name. It is possible this mantra pertains to the second commentary which uses Vajravarahi in the appearance of Indra Dakini. In Saktism she is a Carioteer who is the General for Lalita Tripura Sundari, whose closest equal is Minister Matangi, who was not said to be one of the Matrikas. We would have to say that yes, for some reason, they also do something with Varahi that takes her out of context and makes her work with the solar plexus. She will do that in Buddhism in most versions of the Armor Deities. Let's say that if we don't really know who Matrika Varahi is to begin with, it may be hard to detect her running around in the background in an esoteric way after entering the Dharma as Vajravarahi. Pramoha in Dakini Jala is Blue. Something like Hindu Varahi starting to listen prior to converting.

    Varahi is with an early form of Vishnu of whom we recently found the remarks:

    At Biraja Temple, Lord Vishnu is in Varaha incarnation.

    Jajpur is the only place in India and Biraja Temple the only temple where the Lord Vishnu is worshipped in his Varaha incarnation.

    I am not sure but, the second one may be a bit over-stated since for example, a town government site has this as the first sentence on the page:

    You can find the Varaha Temple at the north end of the courtesans’ street, close to the riverside.

    As to the wherefor of Pramoha holding the earth:

    In his third incarnation Lord Vishnu takes the form of Varaha (the mythical boar). The purpose of this incarnation was to save the earth from a demon called Hiranyaksha who took it to the bottom of the mythic ocean. The battle that started between the two continued for a thousand years. In iconography Varaha can be seen with the (saved) earth holding between the tusks.

    Narayani is also Mayuri herself in her own Sutra and in Buddha's personal Mayuri, he has Narayani Kula and Dramida Siddhi.

    Well Narayani is a total space traveller and here it is trying to show her roots from a prior universe, whereas Pramoha appears at the beginning of our planet as we know it.

    The first three Vishnu incarnations were considered incarnations of Brahma in the Vedas, becoming Vishnu in the Puranas. Varaha is thousands of miles big. There are many ideas about him, but, the basis of this fight is the same thing that is leading to Sumbha and Nisumbha:

    A detailed second account in the Bhagavata Purana narrates that Jaya and Vijaya, the doorkeepers of Vishnu's abode Vaikuntha, were cursed by the four Kumaras to be born as demons. In their first birth, they are born as the daityas Hiranyakashipu (who is slain by another Vishnu avatar Narasimha) and Hiranyaksha as the twin sons of Diti and the sage Kashyapa.

    The Garuda Purana, that refers to the Bhagavata Purana, alludes to the curse in the Hiranyaksha tale. The cursed Vijaya is born as the demon Hiranyaksha, begins a boon from Brahma. He takes the earth to Patala.

    Jaya and Vijaya choose three births on the earth as foes of Vishnu, rather than seven existences as his devotees to lessen the period of the curse.

    Two iconographical forms of Varaha are popular. Yajna Varaha – denoting Yajna (Sacrifice) – is seated on a lion-throne and flanked by Bhudevi and Lakshmi. As Pralaya Varaha – indicative of lifting the earth from the stage of the Pralaya (The Dissolution Of The Universe) – he is depicted only with Bhudevi.

    None of his stories really refer to Lakshmi--Varahi, moreover, he has a son with Bhu--the earthborn form of Mars. Usually he is a whole lot bigger than her:

    But not always:

    And so here, we find the beginning of "two Vasudharas", Ila and Bhu:

    Bhumi (Sanskrit: भूमि, romanized: Bhūmi), also known as Bhudevi and Vasundhara, is the Hindu Goddess representing the Earth. She is Incarnation of Goddess Lakshmi and the Consort of Lord Varaha, an Incarnation of the god Vishnu, and thus she is sometimes referred as Varahi. She is mentioned as the mother of Narakasura and Mangala. Goddess Sita is referred to as Bhumi's daughter.

    Buddhism separates Vajravarahi further, while keeping the original, often as Matsya Varahi as in DDV:

    “Vārāhī is blue in colour. She rides on an Owl and is four-armed. In one pair of hands she shows the Rohita fish in the right and the kapāla in the left. Two others are clasped in añjali”.

    Similar to Pramoha with different items.

    Original Varahi is a fusion of the lower centers. This is also part of why I would say it is not necessary to separate the root center physically and start yoga in that stepladder method. In Generation Stage if we start in the navel, it is effectively all of this. According to Wiki,

    Varahi is described as residing in a person's navel and governs the manipura, svadhisthana and muladhara chakras.

    In the Sarvatathagatatattvasamgaraha, Varahi is described initially as a Shaiva sarvamatr ("all-mother") located in hell, who is converted to the Buddhist mandala by Vajrapani, assuming the name Vajramukhi ("vajra-face").

    And so this is an auspicious icon of her mounted on a Garuda flying into the sunlight:

    There is not even a Vajravarahi you can get from STTS, it is Vajramukhi. In Buddhism, there is Bhu Devi on a Boar who is a member of the Nine Planets. But a serious boar overpopulation takes place with Marici. She has a basic form one could almost take as Bhu doing something weird, and then she gets considerably involved with the creatures.

    The oppressor of Bhu, Hiranya Aksha or "Golden Eyed", is the father of Antaka or Andhaka (Saura Purana). Rather, Andhaka is given to him. Then Varaha is invoked by sages, or:

    Brahmā then meditated upon Mahā viṣṇu, who came out through Brahmā’s nose in the form of a tiny boar. It grew up into a very big boar within no time, and jumped from the sky into the ocean, and within a few minutes it picked up from under the ocean the earth on its tusks and appeared on the surface of the water.

    The hiding place, Rasatala or Patala or the Underworld is the same location, but not same condition as, Hell:

    Patala; the seven infernal regions under the earth, and the residence of the Nagas, Asuras, Daityas, and other races of monstrous and demoniacal beings, under the various governments of Sesha, Bali, and other chiefs; this is not to be confounded with Naraka or Tartarus, the proper hell or abode of guilty mortals after death.

    Once Hiranyaksha and Hiranyakashipu are both killed, Diti is miserable for a while until she has the fetus that is sliced into the Forty-nine Maruts, also known as the Marutagana and sometimes identified with Rudras, are storm deities and sons of Rudra and Prisni. And so our expression Raudra Krama is the yoga of this. In their multiple meanings:

    Examining all the mantras in the Vedas relating to the Maruts, they call into three categories: the monsoons (Rig Veda I 169:3; 171:6 & II 54:3), the celestial armies (RV I 39:4 & 86:1) but also an inner aspect of the Maruts within man. They are specifically identified with “vital airs,” or prana (Rig Veda I 107:1) and are called by the Risihs “pracetasas” or possessed of superior intelligence (RV I 39:3; 167:2; V 54:13 & VIII 7:2).

    So if this means the Maruts as Prana are absolute life dispersing in space, then, there is also the method of ingathering them and transmuting them, not so much by honoring their father, but as a hypostatical interface of
    Vishnu, the Aswins, and Soma:

    1) there is a specific mention of Rudra being appeased in the ritual of Viṣṇu. This exactly parallels the offering to the Marut-s in the ritual of Viṣṇu. 2) There is also a reference to Aśvin-s being called for the ritual. They are said to come on their food-bearing orbit (vartis), which reminds one of their epithet Rudravartanī, i.e. they who follow on the track of Rudra.

    Hiranyaksha tried to fight Varuna, who told him to go fight Vishnu. It is, perhaps, ironic, to attack one's beloved deity with all one's might, but so he lost to Varaha.

    The cursed Jaya and Vijaya take rebirth as beings that gain another goddess parallel.

    Sumbha is both an important Asura and a Buddhist yogini:

    1a) Śumbha (शुम्भ) killed by Durgā;3 killed by Yoganidrā.4

    3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 29. 76.
    4) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 1. 82.

    Sumbha (सुम्भ).—An asura; the eldest of the three sons, more powerful than Indra, born to Kāśyapaprajāpati by his wife Danu, the other two sons being Niśumbha and Namuci.

    Danu is sometimes said to have had a hundred sons including Sarabha in what seems to be Mahabharata. This race is called Danavas which becomes demons of the material world, after Varaha.


    Sumbhā (सुम्भा) presides over the Nether region and represents one of the six Goddesses of the directions, commonly depicted in Buddhist Iconography, and mentioned in the 11th-century Niṣpannayogāvalī of Mahāpaṇḍita Abhayākara.—Her Colour is blue; her Symbol is the noose of snake; she has one face and two arms.—The sixth and the last goddess in the series is Sumbhā who is the presiding deity of the Nether region.

    Sumbhā is described in Niṣpannayogāvalī (vajratārāmaṇḍala) and Sādhanamālā (vajratārāsādhana) as follows:—

    “Below is Sumbhā blue in colour, holding in her left hand the Noose made of a snake”.

    [Her left hand as usual displays the raised index finger.]

    With her, we are saying she is 3D rather than mandala on a flat plane, and, that there is a combination of Noose and Snake powers that make her effective, which appears to pass through the hands of Janguli.

    Male Sumbha has a brother:

    Niśumbha (निशुम्भ) fought with Bhadrakāli and was killed;3 killed by Yoganidrā.4

    3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 29. 76.
    4) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 1. 82.

    So when we have Sumbha Nisumbha there are these beings in distress because they have been separated from Vishnu and they have to die and be reborn to fix it. That is what goes into the mantra generally used to clear the environment of interferers.

    Pukkasi's mantra matches her form which is Dancer, so, it is a bit like she started that whole thing, although Avalokiteshvara is called Padmanarttesvara in Dakini Jala. This name does not seem to have an older or alternative source. Pukkasi is an undatable Nepalese local yogini converted by Heruka. Although she has come to be taken as Hariti, she may be attached to the older Gauris' mantra in Lotus Sutra and related literature:

    Agane gane gauni gandhari kandhali matangi (Pukkasi) samkule vrusali sisi (svaha).

    On p. 14, this mysterious feminine group is observed and traced to the Pali Atanatiya Sutra. However, this is misleading, while it does deal with Yakshas in a manner similar to Mayuri, it does not name the Gauris. It does say "the sun, offspring of Aditi". This study leans towards "insufficiency of evidence" and "meaningless names", perhaps because it draws from a few anthropologists who like to show the primitivity of other peoples. One could say the Mayuri is "less detailed" than the Hevajra, but the tantras are just a deific integration to what is in Yogacara, such as Samdhinirmocana Sutra which according to Wiki:

    The earliest forms of the text may date from as early as the 1st or 2nd Century CE. The final form of the text was probably assembled no earlier than the 3rd Century CE, and by the 4th Century significant commentaries on the text began to be composed by Buddhist scholars, most notably Asaṅga.


    In 2012, Harry Falk and Seishi Karashima published a damaged and partial Kharoṣṭhī manuscript of the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā. It is radiocarbon dated to ca. 75 CE, making it one of the oldest Buddhist texts in existence. It is very similar to the first Chinese translation of the Aṣṭasāhasrikā by Lokakṣema (ca. 179 CE) whose source text is assumed to be in the Gāndhārī language

    There was a tradition of converted yakshis centuries prior to STTS.

    The Vinayasutratika, Buddhist rules on who can be ordained, forbids candalas--low castes and pukkasas--outcastes. A pukkasa may be described as the offspring of a Nisada with a Sudra (laborer) woman. The Nisada may also mean son of mixed castes, but may also be a member of a tribe settled in the Vindhyas. Correspondingly, a sabari is a complete outcaste like this; barbarians, aborigines, bastards. To deal with them if you are a monk would be extraordinarily difficult. It is understandable that more-detailed teachings preserved in monastic institutions might lag behind what was actually going on. Laksminkara's Guhyasamaja lineage came from Nameless Farmer. It would be hard for Dancer Pukkasi to be more of a nobody except she actually is somebody, as the tantras clarify that the Gauris are parts of one's continuum since beginingless time.

    Anandagarbha's Dakini Jala material is from Genesis and Development pdf which is perhaps an easier read than the text, but is not searchable due to diacritics, etc.


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    Default Re: Nirakara and Shentong Buddhism, Tara, Sadhanas, Sanskrit culture

    Dattatreya, Ekajati--Vajrangi, Jnana Yoga, Parnasabari and Gauris, Dhyanas and core of Dakarnava

    I was about to put something together, but almost confused a couple of things, Agha and Anga. The first comes up in the curious subject of the shakti of Dattatreya, Lakshmi Anagha, which is posted with the meaning:

    Etymologically, the word Agha means that which comes to the experience of the doer (kartaaram anghaati iti agham. Aghi gatow). He who thinks that he is the doer, will experience pain and pleasure. According to vedantic view, even the worldly pleasure, is in fact pain. Thus, one who thinks oneself to be the doer is always suffering. That energy which removes the feeling of doership is Anagha.

    To the extent that Agha also means "sin" rather than the resulting agony, the more precise explanation of Sin is that:

    In a Hindu context an agha is an act which is unbeneficial in terms of one’s spiritual evolution and results in further bondage and entrenchment in samsara.

    That is almost exactly what we mean by saying "the sin of Jewel Family is Greed" and so on, except that thinking or saying it is as guilty as doing it.

    His Six Arm form is about 900 years old:

    Dattatreya is regarded as one of the most ancient deities. The earliest references to him can be found as far back as in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. The Dattatreya Upanishad, which is part of the Atharva Veda, describes him as variously taking the form of a child, a madman and even a demon, in order to help his followers attain moksha (liberation) from the material world.

    That may not be the most accurate name of it--Shandilya Upanishad of the Atharva Veda:

    That form of him as Dattātreya, who sports with his Śakti, who is kind to his devotees, who is brilliant as fire, resembling the petals or a red lotus and is of four hands, who is mild and shines sinlessly—this is His sakalā form.

    Why is He called Maheśvara (the great Lord)? Since by the sound of the words Mahat-Īśa (the great Lord) and by His own power, the great Lord governs everything. Why is He called Dattātreya? Because the Lord being extremely pleased with Atri (Ṛṣi) who was performing a most difficult penance and who had expressed his desire to see Him who is light itself, offered Himself (datta) as their son, and because the woman Anasūyā was his mother and Atri was his father. Therefore he who knows the (secret) meaning knows everything. He who always contemplates on the supreme that It is himself becomes a knower of Brahman. Here these ślokas (stanzas) occur (to memory). 'He who contemplates always the Lord of Lords and the ancient thus—as Dattātreya, the beneficent, the calm, of the colour of sapphire, one who delights in his own māyā and the Lord who has shaken off everything, as naked and as one whose whole body is besmeared with the holy ashes, who has matted hair, who is the Lord of all, who has four arms, who is bliss in appearance, whose eyes are like full-blown lotus, who is the store of jñāna and yoga, who is the spiritual instructor of all the worlds and who is dear to all the yogins, and one who is merciful towards His devotees, who is the witness of all and who is worshipped by all the siddhas is freed from all sins and will attain (the Spirit).

    Dattatreya is in most, if not all, major Puranas, but the Lakshmi Anagha explanation is from Datta Purana. This is a minor Purana used near Maharashtra which may not be available in English. It is a fifteenth-century work, with an identifiable author as given in a few more remarks on Datta:

    Its not only the belief of Datta Sampradaya that he is combined form of trinity but he is also Aaradhya Deva of the Juna Akhada Sanyasis (the oldest section of ascetics in India).

    Datta Mahatmya (दत्त महात्म्य) written by Sri Vasudevananda Saraswati Swami (Tembe Swami) it is translation (marathi) of Datta Puraan again written by Tembe Swami. Tembe Swami collected all the stories related to Lord Datta from different purans and other scriptures and complied it in Datta Puran.

    So although it looks "new", there may be very little that is original or different in it. This Purana--or maybe Mahatmya is a better term for it--is unlike some of its contemporaries, if it looks like the Sahaja cults of Ananda Bhairavi and Radha did not really exist until their promulgators sort of re-branded things they got from Buddhism.

    Currently, everyone can try this out:

    Who can do this Vrata?
    Anyone can do this Vratam irrespective of religion, age, marital status etc.

    What is Anagha Vrata?

    Lord Dattatreya as Anagha Swami and and his consort Anagha Devi along with the Ashta Siddhis (the 8 Cosmic Powers) who are their sons are worshipped in the powerful Anaghashtami Vrata.

    The details about this vrata are given in the Datta Purana compiled by Sage Vēda Vyāsa [?]. Lord Dattatrēya Himself initiated the emperor Kartaveryarjuna into this worship. King Dasaratha and Lord Sri Rāma had also performed this puja. Sri Krishna had Dharmarāja perform it.

    The part that almost confused me was that Anagha or Agha looks a bit like, but is not, the following.

    Tantric Tradition makes a quick overlook at various mantras, and digs out one that had not come to our attention:


    Sadhanamala I/123, a mantra of Ekajata, a goddess whose importance for Tibet has been stated by Indian Buddhist authors; she is referred to as bhotesu raksitâ, 'preserved in Tibet', or also 'rescued from Tibet' (see Chapter 3). The mantra must be pronounced or thought of 'slowly'. Its purpose is identification, which is also evidenced by the fact that it has to be preceded by this text described as 'the mantra of the body-speech-mind-basis'—kâya-vâk-citta-adhisthâna mantra. The japa of this mantra is 100,000 times.

    Here, it is not an adjective such as bhima we have to guess whether is meant as a name; it is obviously a name and right at the beginning of the sadhana.

    It may not be a name of Ekajati, it may be initial protection like an All-Purpose Mantra for this rite, which ends with a separate identity, i. e. Ekajati produces Red Vajrayogini with chopper and skullcup. Elizabeth English notes it is accompanied by face washing.

    In a loose collection:

    The mantra of Ekajata. She is secretively referred to as Bhotesu Raksita, 'preserved in Tibet', or 'rescued from Tibet'. She is said to have fallen from the sky, and was embalmed and hidden in a cave.

    Well, it is almost entirely unlikely to be "of" her. I make this same type of mistake sometimes; the things in sadhanas and dharanis may refer to other individuals, and if this "is" Ekajati, she is beautiful.

    From a probably more accurate Namgyal site that we cannot access,

    Another mantra that combines categories is OM HUM VAJRANGE MAMA RAKSHA PHAT SVAHA! This is a meditation to unite with the feminine aspect of ...

    We might guess "beauty and protection", perhaps combined with the fact she is a type of Vajra Deha or indestructible vajra body. When we take this in a Buddhist context, it means a subtle body softened by the mantras and so forth of the Pithas and other internal processes.

    Presumably male Vajranga is thirty-nine of Forty Hands of Amoghavajra, which are mudras accompanied by mantras, representing mandala components, this one being:

    emanated usnisa-Buddha: om vajrini vajrange svaha

    so we would tend to guess he is pretty similar to Vajrosnisa.

    "Anga" is a common word for body, limbs, main elements, substances, etc., but this does not turn out to be a Buddhist-converted Anga. Instead, there is Hindu male and female Vajranga, coming from Diti after her other escapades:

    Impelled by passion and desire for children she approached her husband one evening for sexual intercourse. Kaśyapa said that it was the hour when Śivagaṇas moved about and for him, to offer the śandhya-prayer. But she persisted and gained her object. She however requested to be redeemed of the sin. Kaśyapa remarked that since she approached him at the wrong time, her sons would have paiśāca-character and would be killed by Hari. For her penitence she was blessed with a righteous child among her grandsons. Held the tejas in embryo for a hundred years when darkness enveloped all directions. The two door-keepers of Vaikuṇṭha cursed by seers for preventing them from having darsan of Hari were born as her two sons [Sumbha and Nisumbha], when there were evil omens. Prayed for another son. This was Vajrānga who on his birth according to her orders bound Indra. The latter was released on the mediation of Brahmā and Kaśyapa.

    Vajrāṅga (वज्राङ्ग).—A son of Diti after her penance and father of Asura Tāraka who gave trouble to the devas; while a boy, under the orders of his mother, had Indra bound and placed before Diti; Brahmā and Kaśyapa mediated and set him free; Brahmā gave him for wife a mindborn daughter, Varāṅgī, with whom he went to penance; when Varāṅgī was engaged in tapas Indra threatened her with several guises of the monkey, serpent, jackal, etc., which made her weep in sorrow and fear; meanwhile Vajrāṅga's penance had ended and Brahmā had blessed him. He came in search of his wife whom he found crying in fear. She spoke of the insult offered by Indra and asked for a son, Tāraka, able to vanquish Indra. Then again he entered into a terrible vow when Brahmā blessed him with the son desired by his spouse. Tāraka was born and great festivities were held in his honour. Soon he was crowned king of the Asura world.

    Kind of funny...mom says capture Indra, dad says let him go...then the wife wants a kid to vanquish Indra totally, which is understandable. It is a soap opera and lampoon, while it actually is not, being about forces, not mundane characters.

    He says:

    Vajrāṅga said "Oh Lord, I did penance all these thousand years to get rid of the demoniac disposition of mine. But when I was engaged in meditation Indra tormented my virtuous wife very much without any reason. If you will bless me I must get a son named Tāraka to kill all the devas including Indra."

    Vajranga has a body that is indestructible like vajra, so, invulnerable to Indra's weapon. This being in response to what happened to the Maruts. He highly eulogizes a wife.

    Anga also has a minor definition:

    8) The mind; हिरण्यगर्भाङ्गभुवं मुनिं हरिः (hiraṇyagarbhāṅgabhuvaṃ muniṃ hariḥ) Śi.1.1, See अङ्गज (aṅgaja) also.

    Something like Hiranyagarbha is born in or through the mind, the state of a Sage--Muni devoted to Hari--Vishnu.

    Vajrangi was created as a reward for him releasing Indra, but had no goodness in her. Taraka:

    relieved his mother from sorrows and hence the name.

    Tarakasura caused the difficulties leading, firstly, how to get Parvati to marry Shiva, while the first try caused Shiva to incinerate Kamadeva into Vajrananga (body-less). Then Ganapati and Kaushiki are produced. Then there are the various issues of Skanda's birth as he is made of six maya seeds in the Ganges. Finally it is only Skanda--Mars who can kill Tarakasura at the age of seven days.

    When Taraka is born, the Puranas seem to forget about the parents, we do not know their fate. Vajrangi re-appears as a name of Tripura Bhairavi:

    dakini yogini kalaratrih kalapriya sada ।
    kalaratrihara kala krsnadeha mahatanuh ॥

    krsnangi kutilangi ca vajrangi vajrarupadhrk ।
    nanadehadhara dhanya satcakrakramavasini ॥

    She is kind of like Vairocani...if they are not killed, they are presumed to last until the end of the world.

    Something unusual is in this strand:

    There was a "first" Kutila who became a river in Brahmaloka, which becomes Ganges on earth, when Kali--Uma--Parvati was accepted as the consort of Shiva. Kutila was the White daughter (Ragini was red, and Kali blue). This stage is what most people would consider "actual creation". i. e. into the material plane:

    Pārvatī (पार्वती) is a gentle benevolent goddess, daughter of the axial mountain — the Himalaya, from which the earth energy radiates into space. The mountain (parvata) or Himavat (“the snow-capped-one”) is a symbol of ether — Ākāśa. The mother of Pārvatī is Menakā, who represents intellect (buddhi). Born of Ether and Intellect, Pārvatī is the omnipresent conscious substance of the universe. Pārvatī is also the matron of all the elemental spirits — the bhūtas and gaṇas (‘categories’) that wander about the earth.

    Kutila has a meaning similar to Kubjika:

    Kuṭilā (कुटिला) refers to the “crooked” form of the energy of the vital breath.—Possibly because of its shape, Gandhamālya is called Mahānāsa—the Great Nose. As Kuṇḍalinī is, amongst other things, the energy of the vital breath that enters and exits from the nose, she is sometimes called nāsikāśakti—the ‘energy of the nose’. Possibly, then, the ‘Great Nose’ is this one above the head through which the energy of the vital breath travels in a straight ascending and descending movement. It is the nose of the upper face above the crown of the head. Moving through the channel of this nose, the energy of the vital breath is no longer ‘crooked’ (kuṭilā) as it is when it travels through the nose of the lower face in the fettered condition.

    Kuṭilā (कुटिला) refers to “she of a crooked form”. “In the meantime, once the goddess had crossed over the most excellent Yoga and once the fifth night had passed, she emerged from the middle of the Liṅga. [...] She (also has other forms with) two or six arms and, beautiful, sits on five ghosts. In the left hand (she holds) a skull and (in her other) upraised hands (she holds a) noose and spear. Crooked [i.e., kuṭilā], her body grey, she is Cāmuṇḍā, the accomplished Yoginī. This Vidyā, of many forms, is the woman who resides within the Triangle. Such is the visualized form of the goddess, the deity called Khageśī”.

    Kuṭilāṅgī (कुटिलाङ्गी):—[from kuṭila > kuṭ] f. Name of a magical faculty.

    It has this same sense as crooked-to-straight in a Prajnaparamita section about the early stages of Dhyana:

    During this beginningless universe (anādikāliko lokadhātu), the mind is always wandering (kuṭila) and without uprightness; but when these spheres of action of right thought are obtained, the mind is straightened out.

    Here, this strand of epithets is close to Kalaratri, and passes through Kutilangi and Vajrangi into something that sounds a lot like Vajradhrk of Guhyasamaja:

    Dhṛk (धृक्).—a. (At the end of comp.) Bearing, carrying, supporting &c;

    and finally she becomes the resident or Vasini in the method or Krama of six cakras.

    Vajradhrk along with Vajradhara and Vajrapani are terms at least as old as Mahabharata. Here and in Brhaddevata it refers to Indra. The earliest such linguistic use of vajra is in Aitareya Brahmana, said to be most heavily developed through RGV and its seven Vajra Pada.

    Those are interesting parallels which seem to have no other correspondence or use. Other names such as "blue body" seem to have over-written the first or white one in the much later Bhairavi literature, which sounds close to Blue Ekajati in Vajra Family, so, this verse with Vajrangi probably is an appropriate match for the huge Laughing Ekajati sadhana, which probably was not developed prior to Bhairavi...Indian knowledge of Ekajati is more ancient than they usually say, but not to that degree of detail.

    Vajrangi's son Taraka's name is similar to Tara, to carry across, or Star:

    “The permutation (of the Transmental) is said to be the Light that precedes the mistress of the Wheel of Rays [i.e., puñjacakra-īśī] (of divine consciousness). [...] (That light) is not the moon, (or) the light of the stars [i.e., tārakā-ābhā]; it is not the light of the rays of (the sun), the lord of the sky, nor is it the brilliance of lightning—nor is it like the beautiful sun (of energy). That Light (bhāsā) is seen in the belly (of consciousness) with the eye of knowledge, that is, in the eye on the path of opening (unmeṣa). She is not seen otherwise. All (things) shine due to her: Fire, Moon, Sun and stars. As the division of Sun and Moon, she bestows the plane of oneness. Thus she is the aggregate (kula) of rays and, ferocious, she is the Supreme One (Parā) who has reached the final end of Kula and devours duality with the Yoga of the Fire of (Universal) Destruction.”

    The Star (Tārā) is the first force that arises in the Bindu [Golden-Embryo — Hiraṇya-garbha], the cosmic location from which the universe evolves. The nature of the Golden Embryo can well be said to be hunger and its power lies in the ability to devour. The name given to this pure and absolute, hunger is — “the Star” (Tārā).

    Although the word Tārā means a star, the Tantras take its etymology to mean “that which leads to the other shore.” “She who brings us to the other shore (Tārāti) is Tārā.”

    Just as the nature of hunger is twofold - ravenous, all-consuming, driving, forcing before consumption, and the other pacified, peaceful and contented after consumption —Tārā also is depicted in a dual aspect, the one fierce, fearful, all-devouring, the other pacified and luminous. This is duality is also the nature of the sun and of all beings.

    Tārā (तारा) is an alternative name of Narteśvarī.

    I was also a bit confused by HPB saying "the" war in heaven, as there were many. She does, however, explain cosmic Tara as a sort of rebellious gate for the human Soma experience:

    Tārakāmaya, Tārāmaya The war in heaven; the struggle between the gods and the asuras for the rescue of Tara or Taraka, the wife of Brihaspati, who had been carried off by Soma. This war may be interpreted in many ways. Spiritually, the gods with Brihaspati as their head represented ritualistic, ceremonial, and exoteric worship, and the asuras were the allies of Soma who was the parent of esoteric wisdom (SD 2:498-9).

    Soma was never given in days of old to the non-initiated Brahman — the simple Grihasta, or priest of the exoteric ritual. Thus Brihaspati — ‘guru of the gods’ though he was — still represented the dead-letter form of worship. It is Tara his wife — the symbol of one who, though wedded to dogmatic worship, longs for true wisdom — who is shown as initiated into his mysteries by King Soma, the giver of that Wisdom. Soma is thus made in the allegory to carry her away. The result of this is the birth of Budha — esoteric Wisdom — (Mercury, or Hermes in Greece and Egypt.) He is represented as ‘so beautiful,’ that even the husband, though well aware that Budha is not the progeny of his dead-letter worship — claims the ‘new-born’ as his Son, the fruit of this ritualistic and meaningless forms. Such is, in brief, one of the meanings of the allegory” (SD 2:498-9).

    Brahma put an end to the war and had Tara restored to Brihaspati. She then gave birth to a son, Budha (esoteric wisdom), whom she claimed was the son of Soma.

    So, that is probably better called Tara Maya, and was in another epoch not directly related to Tarakasura.

    Tāraka (तारक) refers to a “ferryman”, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 2.—Accordingly, “The Buddhadharma is a great sea (mahāsamudra); faith (śraddhā) is its entry (avatāraka), knowledge (jñāna) is its ferryman (tāraka). Evam is a synonym for faith. The person whose heart is full of pure faith (śraddhāviśuddhi) is able to enter into the Buddha’s doctrine; without faith, he cannot”.

    In Skanda Purana, there is a type of distinction between Dhyana and a higher meditation they call Jnana, which is notable because this term is more commonly used for mundane knowledge. It is a syllable Nyasa and also deifies internal principles. It is addressed to Vasudeva, which is another name with meanings at different levels:

    First of the four Vyūhas. He represents Brahman (the Absolute Godhead) and manifests as the supreme self. He possesses all six qualities (ṣaḍguṇa).

    Isvara Samhita Vol 5 (shilpa)

    Vāsudeva (वासुदेव) is the name of a deity corresponding to the first vyūha (part of five-fold manifestation of the Supreme Consciousness) according to Pāñcarātrins thought.—Among them, the form of the first God (Vāsudeva) has the splendour of snow, kunda flower and moon, lour arms, pleasing face, eyes resembling the lotus and yellow silken garment, beautified by a golden flag, offering security to the frightened people by the main right hand, holding the great conch, which is a treasure of learning with the left hand, the discus present (rising) (held high) in the other hind right hand and the mace, in the (similar) left (hand) resting on the ground.

    He is of white and red lustre amidst east and south. The Lord takes to different places because of very pure intentions like the crystal takes to a variegated form with two colours because of two complexions which is the mark of dissolutions.

    Another name for Viṣṇu, as in, one of the male offspring from Mahāsarasvatī (sattva-form of Mahādevī).

    Vishnu proceeds through incarnations; Vasudeva is the father of Krshna:

    1a) Vasudeva (वसुदेव).—Of the family of Yayāti; a son of Devamīḍha (also Śūra) and Māriṣā. Married the seven daughters of Devaka; six other wives of; Father of Kṛṣṇa by Devakī; when marrying her he promised Kaṃsa, who drove the chariot and who heard a voice from air that her eighth son would kill him, to give him all sons born of Devakī to be killed by him.

    Nahuṣa married Virajā (the daughter of Pitṛ) and was blessed with five sons of whom Yayāti was the most famous. Yayāti had two wives—Devayānī and Śarmiṣṭhā. Devayānī gave birth to Yadu and Turvasu. [...] The Son of Yadu was Kroṣṭā in whose race the most glorious kings were born. The text only names them as [viz., Vasudeva].

    whose son is Vishnu:

    Ugrasena’s daughter was Devakī who married Vasudeva and from them Viṣṇu by the curse of Bhṛgu was born as Kṛṣṇa.

    It means both son of Vasudeva and the supreme spirit that pervades the universe.

    and so Krsna gets the name as a double entendre.

    Varuna is also Vāsudeva Kamalajā (वासुदेव कमलजा).

    A few descriptions of what the Skanda calls Jnana Yoga:

    The destruction of sins is brought about by Dhyāna Yoga ānd not otherwise. Karmayoga is undoubtedly a Yoga consisting of Japa and Dhyāna.

    29. The exalted Brahman is attained through Dhyāna. Union with Mūrti (image of the deity) takes place through meditation. The vision of Nārāyaṇa is Sāvalaṃba Dhyānayoga (Dhyāna Yoga with dependence (Dependent Dhyāna Yoga)).

    30. A second (Dhyānayoga) with the entirety as the basis is glorified by Jñānayoga. Brahman is formless. It cannot be comprehended. It is always an omni-formed refulgence incarnate.

    31. It has the brilliance resembling that of ten million lightning streaks. It is unmutilated and ever risen (never sets).

    It is either attributeless or endowed with attributes (It is both). It is (like) the expanse of clear (unsullied) firmament.

    32. There is another aspect in the form of worldly pleasures. The personified one is one with agitated sense-organs and means of action. The permanent one is in the normal (quiescent) state. It is beyond the Tūryā and incomparable.

    33. The Vairāja (offshoot of Virāṭ) is unborn. It is manifest cum-unmanifest. It is brilliant for ever. The manifold one arising from everything is conducive to the spread of virtue (Dharma). That which is Nirvikalpa (the incomprehensible? not admitting an alternative) has none superior to it.

    34. The excellent one is Agotra (having no lineage). It is the cause of hundreds of Cosmic Eggs. It is devoid of desires and sense of possession. It is devoid of impurities. It is the form without even the intellect.

    74. Hṛdayagranthi (knot of perversion in the heart) is of course not created through Yoga. Mamatā (sense of possession) which is our enemy is not generated through Yoga.

    75. Only he is a Yogin without impurities, whose mind is firmly stationed within the head with all the pains rendered steady forever in the casket in the form of tenth door (Brahmarandhra).

    76. If a man closes his ears and attentively listens, he will hear the sound vibration. That is the tip of Praṇava. That alone is the eternal Brahman.

    77. That alone is termed Ananta (unending one); that alone is the excellent Amṛta (nectar) this sound vibration in the breath at the nostrils, the great spot of the gastric fire.

    78. This Pada (place) in the form of Jñana has five elements for its adoḍe. After attaining the Pada there shall be the liberation from the bondage of birth and worldly existence.

    79. But its acquisition is very rare in the world, which gives perfection of Yogic power.

    By "Jnana", Buddhism means "gnosis", which is at some point due to the Gauris. A bit more about them turns up in a new translation of Parnasabari Dharani, with another article for individual practices of Yellow, Red, and Black. But again these are probably basic approaches to her Body, Speech, and Mind.

    There is a lot of copying from Wisdom Library, from which we are able to find a paper on Dakarnava Chapter Fifteen where its mandala information comes from. More on this below.

    They were good enough to attach some information about her relationship to the Gauris, whose class is only briefly discussed:

    When we...encounter the forces
    working in and through and upon us, we image them
    in preeminently human shapes that display distinct
    qualities and, as we might say, character traits. In
    a sense they are the feminine principle's "signatures"
    in the sense in which the physician Paracelsus
    (1493-1541) understood the German word Signatur,
    and in which Jakob Bohme used his signatura
    rerum as a means to understand the nature or
    essence of all that is.

    Imaged in human shapes that
    reflect sociocultural frameworks, its [Mind's] constituents are
    eight femininities. These eight femininities, everpresent psychic realities that are simultaneously
    generative and fostering...

    Significantly, these eight female deities are also counted among the Fifty-eight Herukas (or ‘wrathful deities’, khrag ‘thung lnga brgyad), specifically as part of the retinue or assembly of the Herukas of the Five Buddha Families. Clearly then, in this dhāraṇī Parṇaśavarī is being overtly associated with the Eight Gaurīmas and thereby with Mamos. It thus seems likely that Parṇaśavarī is considered to also be a kind of Mātṛkā or Mātaraḥ, and similar in nature and characteristics to the eight individual goddesses of the Gaurīma group. One obvious point in this regard is that Parṇaśavarī represents a female member of one of the lowest castes in India (in her case, a “wild” tribal woman who lives on the outskirts of human society within the deep forests of South Asia), as do most of the Gaurīmas who likewise represent particular types of low-caste women (and are thus symbolic of these castes themselves). Like the Gaurīmas she has control over plagues, pandemics and other natural disasters. All of them are therefore, in essence, wrathful female nature deities with control over the elements, who hold sway over certain forces of the natural environment. Herbert Guenther’s essay Is the Mind in Search of Itself? (2000), which can be read here, deals extensively with the Gaurī goddesses and their symbolism, and is well worth the read.

    That essay uses the Guhyagarbha Gauris (with Smasani instead of Heruki), and, while probably mostly accurate, is difficult to read and extract, at least for me. Sanskrit and practical terms are better. It does at least refer to Tramen--Objects as a wrathful counterpoint to the Gauris:

    The animal faces of the eight phra-men
    femininities are highly suggestive in that this
    translation of one plane onto another one carries
    with it a certain wildness. The (relative) calmness
    of the first set of femininities translates into the
    (distinct) fierceness of the second set of femininities...

    The old mantra that Parnasabari uses has only five or six Gauris. So, the review misses some points we have made, such as Matangi being probably the first mantra goddess, re-named in Buddhism as Janguli, neither one of whom are in the Eight Gauris. Gandhari likewise fails to become part of the Eight. These goddesses have personal practices; most others are miniscule (e. g., brief prayer to Pukkasi) or non-existent (nothing for Cauri independently). Parnasabari possibly becomes one herself as Sabari in Hevajra Tantra. We have found a very different Vetali whose sense is not even indicated by the black one here, the only one in Dakini Jala who seems to be "herself".

    These studies define themselves as "Chakrasamvara genre", to exclude Dakini Jala. So they are aware that something is not exactly the same. No, it seems to be something other than one name or devi was changed. The mantras are not what we will get in Guhyagarbha, and most of them seem to assign alter-egos to these psychological entities which are Moods. But, they are still in Samputa, so we are able to maintain it must be at least compatible with Chakrasamvara. There is some reason they kept it after three hundred years when at least two different systems of Gauris had come into play. That is probably because Dakini Jala continued in India. Yes, it was translated into Tibetan, at a time when the king was purging vile elements, and because its language and imagery are fairly strong, it was effectively censored, such as none of its particular vocabulary appearing in Mahavyutpatti. We might have to say that Tibetan Buddhism is barely affected by Dakini Jala, by Shurangama Sutra, by Janguli, and by Tara Tantra as a whole with the exception of certain lineages, which don't really show us anything about the tantra.

    The Indian Buddhist tantric system was probably a lot more robust prior to 400 than has generally been presumed, and it probably continued in south Indian resistance pockets until the 1600s. Even after that, there may have been a few lineages, but not enough to call a "system".

    To get what is in the paper but not in the dictionary about Dakarnava, the central deity is a colossal Seventy-six Arm Heruka with a basic Vajravarahi. They are on a lotus with an inner retinue, and around them are four concentric sets of three rings each, which contain large populations that are mostly accumulated from prior practices. Each of these rings is already written up on Wisdom Library, except the Inner Lotus or Bindu Tilaka Cakra deities were previously unavailable:

    Twenty-four dakinis reside on the petals of the lotus. They are headed by the major four dakinis of the Cakrasamvara tradition (viz., Dakini, Lama, Khandaroha, and Rupini). Their names and locations are as follows:

    From east to north, Dakini, Rupika, Cumbika, Paravrta, Sabalika, Anuvarti.

    From north to west, Lama, Yogesvari, Bhadra, Kapalini, Kankalika, and Rajavarti.

    From west to south, Khandaroha, Smasani, Vidriva, Kurukullika, Rudanti, and Nati.

    From south to east, Rupini, Bhairavi, Sikhi, Sikhandi, Jatili, and Rudra.

    Those are alone without consorts.

    The first, or Vajra Circle, has the Four Dakinis with consorts and the Pithas.

    Here, they have been cast backwards. One would expect to see Lama, Rupika, Cumbika, which it might be if forwards. Author just says "these are the locations". If the supporting groups shifted, you would see Dakini with Bhairavi and Khandaroha with Yogesvari, which also sound more appropriate. Lacking the original text, we can still be certain this is the inner ring, but it is not clear whether they go backwards, and so the groups might be different.

    Author has applied reversed casting in every instance along with various kinds of forwards casting of the intermediate directions.

    Strangely, the thing has four sets of cemeteries:

    The outer circles (where there are the four gates and so on) of the four layers of the Heruka mandala are respectively decorated with two, three, four, and five lines. Of these the three, four, and five lines mean the triple dharma (body, speech, and mind), the Four Pleasures (caturananda), and the Fivefold Gnosis (adarsadi), respectively, which are expressive of several aspects of the pure nature (suddhi) inherent in the mandala.

    The first set is outside the Merit Circle and has Eight Samadhi goddesses beginning with Kakasya.

    The second set is outside the Earth Circle and has the Eight Matrikas ending on Mahalakshmi, with feminized Dikpalas, Naginis, and Clouds, and charnel grounds named for mantric actions such as Marana and Stambhana.

    The third set is outside the Gnosis Circle, and uses the "Hevajra yoginis", that is, the Gauris in that style. It has the Planets as Dikapalas and resembles the scene in Vajrapani's Laghutantratika.

    The fourth set is outside the Body Circle and is unique:

    Svetambhuja, Gandharika, Vajranati, Vadavamukha, Vajrajvalamukhi, Vajrabhrkhutimukha, Vajrakhandi, Candi.

    Ultimately these are ringed by female hell-guardians (Narakapala) named after the Trees, such as Pisaca-->Pisacaki.

    The author calls Body Circle "the Three Realms", which is true but understated. It begins with what we call Kama Loka, which is largely equivalent to the planes handled by Vajrapani in Sarvadurgati Parishodhana, so those few words mean a vast amount of tantra. "Formless Realms" are the same as Four Formless Dhyanas. All of this stuff which must seem mystifying and unfathomable to us is the lowest level of Dakarnava. It is like his only physical existance is a profound state of meditation done by a person. Not exactly a physical body.

    Formless realms "intersect" what we call Akasha--Space, but, these are never really called dimensions and elaborated with activities. They are Sampatti or undisturbable, the condition achieved thrugh the Gauris.

    The four formless absorptions (ārūpya-samāpatti) are:

    the sphere of infinity of space (ākāśānantya-āyatana),
    the sphere of infinity of consciousness (vijñānānantya-āyatana),
    the sphere of nothing at all (ākiṃcanya-āyatana),
    the sphere of neither-discrimination-nor-non-discrimination (naivasaṃjñānāsaṃjña-āyatana).

    to which occasionally is added as 9th attainment, attainment of extinction (nirodhasamāpatti).

    What can be in the spheres is Four Skandhas or Four Purified Skandhas. Extinction would mean the Skandhas have been completely stopped.

    As there is a type of highest world or state, Naivasamjnanasamjna:

    The highest of the four heavens in the Realm of Formlessness, or called the sphere of no thing.

    In this sphere the formless beings have gone beyond a mere negation of perception and have attained a liminal state where they do not engage in "perception" (saṃjñā, recognition of particulars by their marks) but are not wholly unconscious. This was the sphere reached by Udraka Rāmaputra (Pāli: Uddaka Rāmaputta), the second of the Buddha's two teachers, who considered it equivalent to enlightenment.

    The root phrase itself is from a Catuskoti in Pali:

    Neva sanna means such perception is not perception.
    Nasanna non perception or without perception.
    Neva nasanna means such perception is not non perception.
    Nevasannanasanna means such perception is neither perception nor non perception.

    So it is not said that Buddha attained a higher plane or spiritual realm not known to Hindu yogis. They take it as the means to liberate oneself from samsara, and that is enlightenment. So Buddha can only be teaching a different attitude and different method about it.

    In Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra 86.11 ff., curiously, the first three ‘stages’, ending °āyatana, are personified as gods (°āyatanānāṃ koṭiśataṃ), while only with the last °āyatanopagatānāṃ (for °nopagānāṃ) is used.

    Vasubandhu writes in knots, and in some of his remarks he outright says the dhyanas are the Hindu ones, so, we do not have a big difference in the blueprint of reality:

    The dhyāna and ārūpya absorptions have for their support (āśraya) beings of their own spheres or of a lower sphere. A lower absorption has no usefulness.

    But, in Bhavāgra, it is by entering the Āryan absorption of Ākiṃcanya that one destroys the defilements. Associated with thirst, absorption has its own existence (bhava) for its object. Pure absorption has all that exists for its object.

    The pure Ārūpya absorptions of the principal spheres do not have lower defiled absorptions for their object. The defilements are abandoned through the undefiled absorptions. And also by means of the sāmantakas, (likewise pure).

    There are eight sāmantakas in the basic absorptions. They are pure; they possess the sensation of equanimity. The first is also Āryan. Some say that it is threefold. Dhyānāntara is without vitarka.

    To three; It has the sensation of equanimity. It has Mahābrahmā for its result. Up to it, samādhi exists with vitarka and vicāra; Beyond, samādhi exists without either.

    The absorption likened to a Vajra (Vajropamasamadhi) of the Fourth Dhyāna has the extinction of the defilements for its result.

    The Immeasurables (apramāṇas) are four in number. Because they oppose ill-will, etc., Goodwill is the absence of hatred. So too compassion. Joy is satisfaction.

    Equanimity is the absence of desire. Their aspects are happiness, unhappiness, joy, and beings. They have the living beings of Kāmadhātu for their sphere.

    In two spheres, it is through the power of cause and of action (karma) that one produces the absorption of Ārūpyadhātu.

    Defilements: Klesa or Klista, which are destroyed in the seventh sphere, Akimcanya. So far, it seems this is also done by Vajrayogini as the operative seventh principle, to the seventh consciousness. As to whether Non-apperception can be said to be on a higher plane than No Thing, I am not sure.

    The main technical difference is that Aryan Kamaloka has six planes, compared to which, Buddhist Akanistha is the purest dhyana of Rupa Loka or Form.

    Akaniṣṭha (अकनिष्ठ).—a. Not the youngest (such as eldest, middle); elder, superior.

    It is a minor Sanskrit word, with no particular significance in Hindu Yoga that I am aware of. Buddhism more or less attaches this to the top of Kamaloka as a Seventh Heaven. It is very similar to Sambhogakaya; early meditations are to reach and stabilize oneself in Akanistha or Pure Land, and, from there, you do meditations into Formlessness, but you also arise and Manifest Complete Buddha in the outer or lower worlds. This largely concerns the ability to encourage and assist other beings to achieve these improvements on their own in a lasting manner.

    Akaniṣṭha (अकनिष्ठ) is part of the group of Gods inhabiting the fourth dhyāna of the Rūpadhātu (or Brahmaloka): the second of the three worlds

    Akanistha is mentioned in the installation of Abhirati.

    Originally, there were five-fold Pure Land deities, with Akanistha as:

    name of the fifth and highest class of the Śuddhāvāsakāyika gods (see deva), and (2) sg., name of the region where they live

    Often mentioned alone as the highest of the ‘form’ (rūpāvacara) gods, as also in the lists of classes of gods: Mahāvyutpatti 3106

    Highest of Eighteen Gods in Dharma Samgraha.

    Mahāvyutpatti alone adds as additional stages of śuddhāvāsakāyika, aghaniṣṭha and mahāmaheśvarāyatanam.

    Suddhāvāsakāyika refers to: belonging to the pure abode, epithet of the Suddhāvāsa devas

    The difference in being a Deva:

    The Śuddhāvāsa (Pāli: Suddhāvāsa; Tib: gnas gtsang.ma) worlds, or "Pure Abodes", are distinct from the other worlds of the Rūpadhātu in that they do not house beings who have been born there through ordinary merit or meditative attainments, but only those Anāgāmins ("Non-returners") who are already on the path to Arhat-hood and who will attain enlightenment directly from the Śuddhāvāsa worlds without being reborn in a lower plane...Because a Śuddhāvāsa deva will never be reborn outside the Śuddhāvāsa worlds, no Bodhisattva is ever born in these worlds, as a Bodhisattva must ultimately be reborn as a human being through their 'compassion' (Sanskrit: Karuṇā) and bodhisattva vows.

    The last five heavens are collectively designated as the five pure abodes, and the divinities residing there are called the Śuddhāvāsakāyika devas.

    The Suddhavasa devas are the rebirths of Anagamins, Buddhist religious practitioners who died just short of attaining the state of Arhat.

    Five Pure Abodes (of the form realms) (Wylie: gtsang-ma'i gnas lnga; Sanskrit: pañcaśuddhanivāsa)

    Avṛha — Free from affliction (Sanskrit; Tibetan: མི་ཆེ་བ, Wylie: mi che ba)
    Atapa — Without torment (Sanskrit; Tibetan: མི་གདུང་བ, Wylie: mi gdung ba)
    Sudṛśa — Perfect form (Sanskrit; Tibetan: གྱ་ནོམ་སྣང་བ, Wylie: gya nom snang ba)
    Sudarśana — Perfect vision (Sanskrit; Tibetan: ཤིན་ཏུ་མཐོང, Wylie: shin tu mthong)
    Akaniṣṭa — Highest (Sanskrit; Tibetan: འོག་མིན, Wylie: 'og min)

    The highest member:

    Brahma Sahampati, who appealed to the newly enlightened Buddha to teach, once the Buddha attained enlightenment but was unsure if he should teach his insights to anyone, was an Anagami from a previous Buddha, said to be the most senior of the Mahābrahmās.

    He is Lord of the Saha Realm (Chiliocosm) in what appears to be Tara Mula Kalpa.

    "Brahmas" were used throughout early Buddhist cosmology. It does not seem to care that he created anything, but is the substratum of reality.

    In the sense of "a being of the Rūpadhātu", the term Brahmā may be related to Brahmavihāra, a term referring to the meditative states achieved through the four Rūpajhānas, which are shared by the inhabitants of the Rūpadhātu. Prior to the advent of the Buddha, according to Martin Wiltshire, the pre-Buddhist traditions of Brahma-loka, meditation and these four virtues are evidenced in both early Buddhist and non-Buddhist literature. The early Buddhist texts assert that pre-Buddha ancient Indian sages who taught these virtues were earlier incarnations of the Buddha. Post-Buddha, these same virtues are found in the Hindu texts such as verse 1.33 of the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali. According to Peter Harvey, the Buddhist scriptures acknowledge that the four Brahmavihara meditation practices "did not originate within the Buddhist tradition". The Buddha never claimed that the "four immeasurables" were his unique ideas, in a manner similar to "cessation, quieting, nirvana". These meditation practices are named after Brahma.

    Akanistha draws in Anangamins and emits Bodhisattvas:

    The fourth dhyāna has eight stages (bhūmi): five stages are the abodes (sthāna) of the anāgāmins and are called the pure abodes (śuddhāvāsa); three stages are the shared abode of ordinary people (pṛthagjana) and saints (ārya). Beyond these eight stages are the abodes of the Bodhisattvas of the ten bhūmis: these are also called pure abodes (śuddhāvāsa). The Śuddhavāsikas are called Maheśvaradevarāja.

    Kamaloka does have Form, it is just mental, not material, or necessarily connected to the material world. And so the Akanistha is found through the highest of the Four Form Dhyanas.

    Dhyāna (ध्यान, “absorption”) or Caturdhyāna refers to the “four absorptions” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 72):

    the first absorption has thinking, reflection, and the happiness and joy born of seclusion,
    the second has internal clarity, and happiness and joy,
    the third is equanimous, mindful, and has full knowledge,
    the fourth absorption has complete purity of mindfulness and equanimity, with feeling that is neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant.

    The Formless states may be a bit more streamlined in a Theravada presentation and similarly in a three-fold manner. The difference is that they use any kasina, while in Yoga one uses a Devata.

    And so if you can enter the Fourth Dhyana:

    Very important to all pure abodes is the 'Source' (Tibetan: ཆོས་འབྱུང, Wylie: chos 'byung; Sanskrit: dharmodaya) from which they dwell and which supports them, the 'Wellspring' of myriad fonts as emergent. It may be understood as an interface, portal or epiphany between the Dharmakaya and the Sambhogakaya. It is seminal in the establishment of mandalas governing the outer, inner or secret dimensions. It is the opening and consecration of the sacred space which enfolds and supports the expanse of the pure abode. In iconography it is represented by the six-pointed star, the two interlocking offset equilateral triangles that form a symmetry. This is the 'sanctum sanctorum' (Sanskrit: garbha gṛha). It later developed into the primordial purity of the lotus which supports the mandala, thangka or the murti of the deity. In temple siting it is the power place or 'spirit of place' that was augured or divined in the sacred geometry of 'geodesy' (Sanskrit: vāstu śāstra). In yoga asana, the 'source' is Vajrasana, the 'seat of enlightenment' the ancient name of Bodh Gaya and an alternate name for mahamudra or padmasana.

    "Source of phenomena or qualities (chos 'byung, dharmodaya). Pundarika defines dharmodaya as that from which phenomena devoid of intrinsic nature originate. "Phenomena devoid of intrinsic nature" refers to the ten powers, the four fearlessnesses, and the other 84,000 aspects of the teachings. Their source, dharmodaya, is the pure realm, the abode of all buddhas and bodhisattvas, the place of bliss, the place of birth; it is not the place that discharges blood, urine, and regenerative fluids, i.e., the vagina. Source: Stainless Light, Toh. 1347, vol. Da, f237a3-5".

    The Dharmodaya is what we seek to "make", or, rather, "uncover", by Pranayama and an Agni Kunda goddess (Ghasmari) and so forth.

    Dhamadhatu is an equivalent source of "all phenomena, samsara and nirvana", whereas Dharmodaya is this in a state of Purity used in full Sadhanas, and so you can "tune" it to transmit Vajrayogini, or Chakrasamvara, etc.

    That is why an outer Dharmadhatu Vajra godess begins it--holding some kind of triangle--and Ghasmari, the Gauri, is a fiery 3D inner reality of it.

    Original tantric Gauri has decapitated Brahma's Four Faces, i. e. entrance to Akanistha is no longer a barrier. The Vajrajvalodaya does not specifically name Brahma, but just uses a term about four heads as a unit; and so chances are, in these things, it may ignore an implied name like Brahma in order to make the words fit a meter. Caturmukha would be commonly understood as Brahma. Her action is described as extremely violent, while her appearance is peaceful and pleasant. It does not seem to say she is holding his head; she shoots four arrows simultaneously. You can do that with violent energy and a calm expression. You just need eight arms.

    Paramaditika, Anandagarbha shows the Assembly Mandala as built through the preceeding chapters of the Mantra Khanda of the Paramadya Tantra. Vairocana has projected Vishnu, Avalokiteshvara is Brahma, and Candisvara is Vajrajvalanalankara. In this sense, Tara is born from Avalokiteshvara's eyes.

    This tantra lacked the ability to express Six Families, which makes those assignments sound a bit odd. Concerning our ability to at least inspect some of this experientially:

    It should be noted, as will be justified in my treatment of the meaning of
    initiation, that the mere assignment to a disciple of a single deity to medi-
    tate upon, along with praises of that deity to memorize and repeat — is not
    counted as “secret” in Anandagarbha’s sense.

    So, again, we can do a Yoga view of most Buddhist deities, and, if any of the Aryan ones such as Bhairavi are not a contradiction of the Dharma, those are available too.

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    Default Re: Nirakara and Shentong Buddhism, Tara, Sadhanas, Sanskrit culture


    Circle of Bliss 73 says that Varuni is also known as Khandaroha.

    This may be the case, but, I cannot really find a scriptural source for it.

    One of the things about that book, is, it does a tremendous service by depicting Varuni, but, they have not used the corresponding Armor Deities from Samvarodaya Tantra, which is how we are revising her. When you have Varuni then there will be Vairocani. All the other tantras and sadhanas just give Vairocani's mantra. This is the Source of her, is about actually manifesting her. Following through, Samvarodaya is barely known outside of Nepal, and apparently has a debatable reputation since it is more or less requiring these Puranic goddesses. The reason Varuni is Puranic is because she no longer means the "Wife of Varuna", but is a daughter nature of the same. She is abundantly well-known, enough to be called Sura in the Samvarodaya. Vairocani is not. You can only pick through certain spots to even get a sense she exists, as she is omitted from Bhagavata Purana and others. Her "meaning", however, goes back to Durga Suktam from Tattiriya Aranyaka. And so in this case, these: are both Hindu deities, with no indication of otherwise being related other than in Buddhism.

    They make perfect sense, once you get the hang of it, it is very excellent.

    Khandaroha may not be traceable as a name or even a word prior to written Buddhist tantras.

    Although Khandaroha meshes into the Four Dakinis and shares all their normal symbolism, she for one thing shows multiple levels (is also in a Pitha), and can easily be found as a performer by individual name, whereas the others cannot.

    Their first member is usually only named Dakini, although she is in Vajra Family, she is not the same as Vajradakini, who is the leader of a class, including Suras and Gauris. This retinue *is* supposed to be cast in reverse, *and* almost everything that even mentions the mantra neglects this. Dakini should still be first. The other members also have names of classes or categories, Lama and Rupini. Rupini is like Rupika or a type of advanced Lama found in the ring of Seven Yoginis and she is like the Citra and ultimately more like a Jnanamudra, and also the highest Bhumi or Paramita or Bodhisattva Stage. Because she matches the highest stage, that matches her being at the end of the retinue. Those three are not that hard to explain just by general meaning, Dakini--any magical woman, Lama--an accomplished one similar to a Bhairavi, Rupini--perfection in form. Khandaroha is like a thorn in the side of this.

    Looking in Monk, Householder, and Tantric Priest:

    The conch shell is often worshipped as Varuna, king of serpents, and this is the
    identification likely to be known by lay people. Here, however, and in all Tantric
    contexts, it is the dakinl Khandaroha who is invoked when the conch shell’s
    water is used. As noted above, Khandaroha’s mantra is in fact the all-purpose
    mantra of Cakrasamvara, so that indirectly it is he who is being invoked.

    Well, not exactly...the standard Chakrasamvara All-Purpose mantra is that of Amritakundalin, except that Khandaroha is able to do it if so desired.

    And so we are making a ritual of Three Cups into one. The first difference is that orthodox Hinduism uses a Varuna Conch of holy water; ours starts as that condition, but is changed by invoking Soma--Varuni into it:


    Om Nagapasatmako nityam jalarajo mahabala
    Nirvikalpeti vikhyato varunaya namo ’stu te.

    OM Obeisance to you Varuna, who permanently takes the form of a serpent noose,
    king of waters, possessing great strength, famous for your indeterminate form.

    This is the verse used to worship the conch during the guru mandala ritual.
    Tantrically, as noted elsewhere, the dakini Khandaroha is invoked when
    using water from the conch, and she has a special link with Cakrasamvara.

    What this means, I am not sure. Varuni is invoked *into* liquid, while Khandaroha is just doing her thing. The All-Purpose mantra is used again in the act of Nirajan:

    The second stage of the worship of the Flask is a series of apotropaic rites.
    This is known as ‘nirajan’ or ‘niranjan yayegu’. A small clay saucer with
    burning coals is brought: a lighted wick, mustard seeds, a flower, and rice
    are offered to it, it is touched to the Flask and taken out of the house and
    placed at the threshold (pikhalakhu). The invocations which accompany
    this rite request Khandaroha and Vajrasattva to remove sins and
    obstacles. Finally to complete this stage, the Flask and other implements
    are worshipped with Foot water and the Five Offerings.

    Following that symbol, then, in an inner yoga sadhana, the "lighted wick touched to the Flask" is the staging ground to (1) get used to visualizing the liquid mixing and purification process and (2) as the Triangle of Inverted Stupa to cause the life winds to actually accumulate heat in one's core. At that point, there is an Agni Kunda goddess such as Ghasmari acting like the lighted wick and if our heat becomes powerful, she will make our liquid boil and glow orange. If we can really feel this, we must be doing the Pranayama right.

    when using more Cups:

    Once the Visualization, purification, and worship of the Flask have been
    performed, the same process is repeated, first for the Tantric implements
    {Khay Pot and Alcohol Pot), [and any other items needed]...

    The worship of the Tantric implements, the Alcohol Pot and the Khay Pot, is
    called in the handbooks kumbhapuja or varunipuja. VarunI is another name
    of the goddess MamakI who is supposed to reside in the alcohol.

    So, more properly speaking, one will establish and mix the three cups individually, and then it all goes into a fourth cup which is what you try to boil.

    If some priests say that Guhyesvari is summoned
    into the kalasa (Locke 1980: 101) it is presumably this ‘secret’ Flask which is intended.
    Vajrayanist textual prescriptions of the goddess Mamakl’s form (e.g. Samvarodaya Tantra
    26.2-7) show evidence of being borrowed from Saivite sources on the goddesses SuradevI
    and Aghoresvari (A. Sanderson, personal communication). Since the goddess Guhyesvari
    in Mrgasthall is generally considered by Buddhists to be Nairatmya, not MamakI, the
    popular identification of the Alcohol Pot with Guhyesvari is probably due to its name

    Guhyesvari is a hypostatic Adi Prajna whose "arms" are Vajravarahi, Nairatma, Mamaki, etc., so there is not much need other than to be aware of her for now. Formal Nirajan uses an actual heat source, which for an Inner Homa would become Vairocani or similar Candali goddess. This is the same ritual formula that may last up to three days and involve hundreds of people, which we are just going to take the inner yoga from it. One may add real flames or cups, etc., if it seems helpful, but regardless, when it gets to Inner Offering, it is visualized.

    Khandaroha's ability is at the beginning of, and in the middle with Sumbha Nisumbha and Offerings, of a White Conch Vajrayogini sadhana. And so we are sifting a reduced version of this to attach to a reduced Homa.

    So in fact it would be pretty clear why Varuni and Mamaki are Flask Worship, and Khandaroha less so or why she "is" Varuni. Varuni arises from the syllable Mam, so she is the worshippable form of Mamaki. Just because of her color, she might be thought of as the red dakini. Her primary function is to add Akash into Water. Paramadya Tantra just appeared to add Akashagarbha and Khavajrini to a form of the Hindu Trinity; similar. Varuni is the palpable shakti of this. You can have a lot of questions about what Bodhisattvas are or how you can be or do this; whereas Varuni is certain and unmistakable.

    From a Nepalese Caitya game:

    In the case of Kalasa puja, the interior of the pot or the water in it correspond to Akanistha- Bhuvana.

    Allright. Varuni is not exactly the Yidam or Devata, she is the way to obtain it. And so the underlying Tara sadhana accompanying Homa is that she has her beginner stage where we are trying to get acquainted and bond with her, but, we believe she has a permanent and superior form in the Akanistha, and so Varuni's fluid is Bhuvana or cultivation of Tara's Sambhogakaya aspect.

    And so we use Varuni as this magnificent composer and wind up consuming her. Khandaroha, once she steps in, is permanent.

    Commemorative Essays from the Royal Asiatic Society, 1917, for some reason, singles out Khandaroha In a Nepalese Dakarnava:

    The fifth chapter of this book treats of the worship of
    Khandaroha ; but what is most interesting is her mandala or
    mystic circle. This consists of five concentric circles, the
    whole forming an expanded lotus, with compartments mark-
    ed out for petals. Each petal has a letter in it. The letter
    is the initial letter of the name of one of the companion de-
    tities (avarana-devata) of Kandaroha whose Mulamantra is
    at the pericarp or karnika. The eight petals just round the
    pericarp form the heart of the Mantra, those following the
    heart form the neck Those round the neck form the
    naval and those round the naval the head. The number
    of petals in concentric circles are altogether 8 + 16+64 +
    32 = 120. So Khandaroha is accompanied by 120 deities.
    Of these 60 belong to the outer world and 60 to the inner
    world the Macrocosm and the Microcosm. The sixty
    spirits representing the outer world are deities presiding
    over different countries, districts and cities of India and
    the surrounding countries, not in any definite order, as will
    appear from the accompanying extracts containing these
    names. There is an exact agreement between these names
    and their initial letters in the petals

    The interest of this mandala lies in the fact that the
    52nd name is Mumbani and the 52nd initial letter is Mu in
    the naval, showing that there was a shrine to Devi Mum-
    bani in the island of Bombay This shrine can be no
    other than the present shrine of Mumba-devi on the Mala-
    bar Hills, So Dakarnava in its fifth chapter speaks of
    the island city of Bombay and its eponymous shrine and

    The 1917 collection translates the first three chapters separately since they are in a dialect utterly unknown to the world. The fifth chapter celebrates Khandaroha, whose mantra has thirty-seven letters. Sixty-four first initials form the navel or body mandala, eight initials form the heart, thirty-two form the throat, sixteen the head. This is also the first known appearance of "Mumbai" in Sanskrit literature.

    It was not said the other dakinis get a chapter or practice like that. They might, but, this at the very least shows Kandaroha as a significant deity with her own mantra.

    Khandaroha is Dum skyes ma, "Arising from fragments", which is Generation Stage. This really has no meaning in general parlance of an esoteric nature. Most yogas refer to inner heat and similar processes, but at this point it moves into distinctly Buddhist method.

    In Chakrasamvara Tantra, when the classes of Lamas are emanated, one kind is Khandaroha Family:

    khaṇḍarohākulodbhūtā mahāyogīśvarī varā |

    Arisen in the family of Khandaroha she is the highest lordess over the Yoginis.

    On a postcard of Weapon Hevajra (i. e. Samputa Hevajra) at Tibetan Art, Khandaroha appears with the Four Yoginis of Nepal:

    Weapon Hevajra (special to Marpa) with "five tantric goddesses", Akash Yogini, Vajrayogini, Guhyeshvari Kali (centre), Khadga Yogini, and Khandaroha Dakini. We can quickly see Guhyeshvari, four yoginis of Nepal, and then Khandaroha is among them.

    Or from the print:

    In the top right she appears in her six-armed form as Khandaroha Yogini, who is one of the four direction yoginis that encircle the central dais of Vajrayogini's five-deity mandala. Red Khandaroha abides in the east and traditionally holds a skull-cup, curved knife, damaru and khatvanga in her four hands, but she appears here with six arms holding a curved knife and skull-cup in front of her heart, with a damaru, rope-noose, lotus and bell in her other four hands, with her khatvanga resting in the crook of her left arm. She stands in alidha posture, with her two feet trampling on two female bhairavis, who lie prone upon her sun disc and lotus pedestal.

    Here she is tiny but if you go zoom the print she is exquisite:

    The lower central Vajravarahi has two Ghonas, and we would suggest that Khandaroha is really in Kurma Padi or Tortoise Stance, which is rare but used by Vairocani.

    In one sense, the Four Dakinis are Elements, similar to Prajnas, with Vajrayogini:

    Body Mandala At the center of the phenomena-sources and moon cushion at my heart is the syllable VAM, which is in the nature of the four elements. It splits into the four letters YA, RA, LA, VA, which are the seed [syllables] of the four elements. They abide as the nature of the heart channel petals of the four directions – Kamini and so forth. Starting from the left, these totally transform into Lama, Khandaroha, Rupini, and Dakini. The crescent moon, drop, and nada of the center syllable VAM, the nature of the most subtle spring-drop union, totally transform into Venerable Vajrayogini.

    Khandaroha personally establishes Sima or Boundary:

    3. a small torma for Khandarohi as the boundary marker. This torma should contain meat and alcohol and is placed near the boundary marker with the set of water offerings mentioned earlier.

    and she does something more:

    The divine water (of the Ganga) and the vase water become inseparable. Above all of this, PAM transforms into a lotus and sun disc. On that appears a human corpse seat. Then PAM transforms into a curved knife adorned with PAM, which then transforms into the deity Khandarohi, red in color with one face and two arms. Her right hand holds a curved knife, and her left, a skullcup. A khatvanga rests on her shoulder. Adorned with bone ornaments, she is naked and her hair falls loose. She has a crown ornament of five dry human heads and wears a necklace of fifty dried human skulls. She has three eyes and stands with her right leg outstretched.

    At her crown is a white OM, at her throat a red AH, and at her heart a blue HUM. From HUM light beams radiate, invoking the wisdom beings, similar to the deity visualized, and the empowering deities from their natural abodes. PHAIM


    Pam syllable is getting close to calling her Pandara.

    The Four Dakinis as a whole are in Ratna Family, and at Completion:

    The wisdom beings become nondual with the deity. The empowering deities initiate the Khandarohi deity. Her crown is adorned with Ratnasambhava.

    That sounds like Vajra Surya Abhisekha. Khandaroha was red, and so forth, but here is a Jewel Family Crown.

    This is how the Offering works, similar to Ziro Bhusana:

    On the tip of Khandarohi’s tongue is a HUM, which transforms into a three-pronged vajra, the size of a barley grain. It is decorated. [It is inside the tongue at the tip, with the top part exposed.]

    From the tip, beams are emitted. She partakes of the torma by sucking [up its essence] through the tube [of light]. By reciting three times, offer the torma: OM VAJRA ARALI HO / JAH HUM VAM HOH / VAJRA DAKINI SAMAYA STVAM TRISHYA HOH (3x)

    Unlike most other practices, when done on a Retreat scale, she is actually conjured:

    Khandarohi, please stably abide here at this place until I, the yogi, complete the activities of nearing attainment (retreat). Please do the actions not allowing outer or inner spirit possession, interferers, and obstacles, and do not let the inner attainment be lost outside. Think that Khandarohi has promised [as you have asked]. Until you complete your attainment [retreat], do not visualize her melting into light. Khandarohi abides there at that place doing the activities [of protection]. Stabilize with the wisdom [of emptiness] the whole object [that is, for Khandarohi to remain] by reciting the heart mantra of dependent arising: OM YE DHARMA HETU PRABHAVA HETUN TESHAN TATHAGATO HYAVADAT TESHAN CHAYO NIRODHA EVAM VADI MAHA SHRAMANAYE SVAHA

    Khandarohi dakini, who is enriched in the sphere is welcomed, having accomplished actions and supported my virtuous activities. Please be here when there is need and please descend here in the time according to my wish.

    On this Brahmarupa Mahakala, Khandaroha is involved with the skullcups, while Rupini and Dakini pass him an offering:

    Himalayan Art managed to clip her in Tramen form.

    If not visible, she is from this 1800s piece:

    Again here is the difference of Tramen forms from personality traits so we do not get confused about Elephant or Hastini. Matching these, Twelve Arm Varahi's central lotus contains the Four Dakinis in theriocephalic form:

    Dakini (on the eastern petal) has a lion's face, Lama (north) the face of a hog, Khandaroha (west), that of an elephant, and RupinI (south), that of a horse.

    Khandaroha is a female parallel to Amritakundalin, who could be called a hypostasis of Ganapati. So this image is the next thing to saying Khandaroha is the mysterious Vinayaki or even Ganapati Hrdaya.

    But when Elephant is a personality, it is a different dakini.

    As explained in the Samvara Origin Tantra [Samvarodaya]:

    Now the characteristics of yoginıs
    And their authentic virtues will be explained.

    Dakinı is padminı (lotus),
    Lama is hastinı (elephant),
    Khandaroha is sankhini (conch),
    Rupini is citrinı (design or picture).

    Khandaroha has a gallant role and oversees Varuna's symbol, the Conch, which also is any woman with a large vagina which projects prominently, vaulted like a tortoise shell, resembling a pair of curved cucumbers. In most understandings, Bliss is an increasingly intense unreleased orgasm, which may include sex with a consort. If this is not intense it is not Mahamudra. I do not know if a female orgasm can be said to release something in the way of a male. It is the male that is described as Unwasted whereas the female simply is Bliss.

    These classes are considered semi-advanced from the similar Kama Sutra, which is mostly physical. And so along with the Puranic emphasis, this also constitutes one of the main subjects of Samvarodaya.

    In Warm Dakinis' Breath, there is a large quote about women from Samvarodaya, but, it does not quite give us any new information about the tantra or why Khandaroha might split off as such a potent entity. Considering the book comes from a lady with experience in training practitioners, some of her points are:

    Criticisms of the guru tradition in Tibetan Buddhism often target the
    preponderance of males in the lineage. In my years as a meditation instructor,
    I have often seen women tantrikas in distress about the difficulty of
    accomplishing the practice when the message conveyed by the lineage tree
    is that only men become enlightened.

    That sounds off. What happened to Tara? Of all things to highlight the concerns of modern yoginis, that seems like it would be the last thing you would run into. But they are talking about Merit Fields; however, these are more of an eighteenth-century contrivance, not really an ingredient in Indian yoga. Her point is that, yes, there really have been tons of yoginis, and no, they are not often recorded if even recognized. Nevertheless, even from the most male-biased view, Buddhism still has more prominent females such as Yeshe Tsogyal or Machig Labdron than found in most other systems.

    In speaking of the deity, the kartri is given the function that in Sanskrit is called Amanasikara:

    Vajrayogini carries a hooked knife (kartari, triguk)
    known as the hook of mercy, the weapon of nonthought that cuts the
    deceptions of self-cherishing. Non-thought (togme) is the most basic expression
    of Vajrayogini, for her mind is completely free from subconscious
    chatter and from the habitual patterns that give rise to obsessive thought
    patterns. Nonthought is a purified form of ignorance or bewilderment,
    traditionally symbolized in Buddhism by a pig. In this sadhana, the dakini
    is secretly known as the Vajra Sow, or Vajravarahl, for her ignorance is
    completely transformed into freedom, the wisdom of limitless space. As
    the sadhana praises her, "Your sow's face shows nonthought, the unchanging

    Her Sanskrit is wanting in that she just wrote "scissors" as used by Nila Sarasvati. But we know what she meant.

    For the second Varahi item:

    Hers is passion in
    the coemergent wisdom sense—it is unconditional freedom from lust.
    With her passionate appearance, she magnetizes the practitioner and intoxicates
    while she consumes; in her left hand she carries a skull-cup holding
    liquor that intoxicates concepts into nonthought. Around her neck she
    wears two seductive garlands, one of fresh red flowers, signifying nonattachment,
    and one of fifty-one freshly severed heads, each exhibiting a
    different expression, representing the fifty-one emotional obscurations,
    which she has cut off before they arise.

    and the third:

    Without this staff, she is not complete, for the feminine principle is merely one
    aspect of the realized mind. In her form as wisdom dakini, she is never
    without her staff, which is adorned with an elaborate scarf with two furls,
    representing the inseparability of the Mahayana and Vajrayana teachings.
    At the top of the staff is a double vajra scepter, below which are impaled
    three skulls. The bleached skull on top expresses the dharmakaya, the rotting
    head below it the sambhogakaya, and the freshly severed head the
    nirmanakaya, showing the inseparability of the three.

    The Staff represents the consort, so when she carries this while alone it means aware of his mind. Or perhaps one could say they are separated in appearance. One can take almost any Shakti. The lover of Locana is Vairocana. Therefor anyone who actually realizes such a Locana is Vairocana Buddha, i. e. it means they have purified Form Skandha. And so when you take Vajrasattva and actualize any of these Shakti or Prajna Yidams, you become the corresponding male. For instance, no one specifically has to initiate you into STTS and you undergo a training. Vairocana is the Universal Dawn of the Deities which is obscured by Ignorance, which is what we call Form Skandha.

    If you interrupt the skandha and purify it, you experience the Dhyani Buddha aspect of it.

    The limitless wisdom nature of the mind cannot be
    explained in conventional language. It can only be expressed evocatively,
    through praise, ritual, and iconography, which in this case is the practice
    of Vajrayogini. It can be experienced, however, and this experience gives
    rise to devotion.

    In addition to various epithets that describe her multifaceted nature, Vajrayogini
    also has alternate forms. The continuity among these forms is her
    personification of Prajnaparamita as a wisdom dakini. In each of these
    manifestations, she embodies the realization of phenomena's ultimate
    emptiness of inherent existence expressed in the passionate and wrathful
    form of a feminine yidam.

    Kurukulla is yet another form of Vajrayogini,...

    Well, it looks like that, but we have found the common Kurukullas are not very explanatory, if not misleading. Kurukulla may be something like a Vajrayogini, but, in Buddhism, she is supposed to be a product of a particular Tara practice. So I would tend to say she is Tara who has more explanation in Sadhanamala than elsewhere. She perhaps is our metaphysical Khecari Mudra.

    In an opposite assessment, Adelheid Herrmann-Pfandt considered
    whether the dakini was a goddess in a way that privileged women, concluding
    that in the early tradition in Tibet female yidams uniquely empowered

    This is also tricky. Pithesvari Tara was mainly intended for women. There must have been a lot of woman-to-woman transmission of this and/or similar deities in India, they must have had communities that were not entirely closed but only occasionally received men. So I am not sure what is "unique" here. But, there were times perhaps when they were not so "dominated" by a mostly-male Merit Field.

    Rita Gross, carefully
    laying theological ground, suggested that in Buddhism the concept of goddess
    appears against a background of nontheism, which means that there
    is no external supreme being, and further that "religious symbols and doc-
    trines have utility rather than truth."

    Within Tibetan Buddhism there is no real equivalent to "gods" and
    "goddesses" as existent beings with salvific power. Instead, Vajrayogini is
    understood to be a yidam, a personal meditational deity, a potent ritual
    symbol simultaneously representing the mind of the guru and lineage of
    enlightened teachers, and the enlightened mind of the tantric practitioner.
    Recognizing the inseparability of these two is the ground of tantric practice.

    This is very true, it is about powers of nature moreso that what religions based on a Creator seem to be doing, but then we can only limitedly translate into conventional terms like "gods", because English does not have words resembling the Sanskrit.

    According to the Birth of Skanda in Brahmanda Purana:

    The holy rite of the Pitṛs is more important than the rites pertaining to the gods.

    That is the page behind most Theosophical doctrine, which deals with Three Formless and Four Form classes of Pitris. These are the basis for the types of worlds or systems of planes. Comparatively, in the Noumenal Buddhist view, the position is a bit more like Three Formless, Kama Loka, and Three Form. So it is like saying Kamaloka and Akanistha are in the highest of the Form Worlds. Akasha is above this, or, the lowest part of the Formless World. The story has a curious name with the Pitris of the highest plane of Form:

    Those Kāvyas, the sons of Agni Kavi (?), are the Pitṛs born of Svadhā...Their mental daughter is well known as Yogotpatti. She was given in marriage to Śukra by Sanatkumāra.

    It says Yoga Utpatti, or Generation Stage. Utpatti is a very common term in Hinduism for "creation" in over twenty texts, the Buddhist version not being mentioned. Here, though, it is compounded with Yoga, which sounds like the sense we mean it in.

    She also found the theme of Reversal:

    Taranatha described the empowerment of
    the reversed Cakrasamvara in the case of the yogin Thakki-nagna-pa, who
    devotedly practiced the ritual of Hevajra in solitary retreat without success.
    Despondent, the yogin aspired for a more fortunate birth and threw himself
    off a cliff. Finding himself unharmed, he suddenly experienced a vision
    of the lord Naropa, who told him that since he had not the disposition to
    realize Hevajra, he should practice the ritual of Cakrasamvara. The yogin
    protested that the Cakrasamvara ritual required such elaborate offerings
    and ritual implements and such refined intellect that he was unable to
    perform it. In response, Naropa instead gave him the rituals of Tara and
    the Samvara in union reversed.

    We perhaps benefit from English in trying to describe difficulties for beginners:

    For example, it is
    possible to see the interplay between the feminine and masculine energies
    in solitary meditation. They are experienced as two common extreme
    states of mind, obstacles that disturb mindfulness practice. Much of our
    meditation vacillates between wildness on the one hand and drowsiness or
    dullness on the other. One moment we are bothered by excess discursiveness
    mixed with vivid emotionality that makes settled state of mind
    impossible. Ten minutes later we find ourselves nodding off to sleep,
    spaced out and blank. The practice is to work with these two obstacles in
    meditation, understanding that they come from a common root.

    We are not really supposed to do this first thing, but the rest is possible:

    There are traditionally three ways to realize the nature of passion in
    the yogic traditions of tantra. First, in creation-phase practice one can
    visualize the yidam deities as yab-yum in sexual union, as discussed in the
    inner dakini description of VajrayoginI and Cakrasamvara. Second, one
    can practice tummo (candall), or the generation of internal heat, through
    the subtle-body practices of the vital breath moving into the central channel.
    Third, one can practice so-called sexual yoga (karmamudra, lekyi chaggya)
    with a consort. Realizing the true nature of passion in all of these
    forms transforms ordinary passion into the basis for the experience of great
    bliss (mahasukha), which greatly accelerates the removal of emotional and
    conceptual obscurations in one's practice.

    Karmamudra is meditation:

    This practice is closely
    linked with subtle-body yoga: with the arising of sexual bliss, the vital
    breath leaves the flanking channels and enters the central channel, and
    the bodhicitta essence-drops ignite intense, radiating heat and joy. This
    experience too creates the conditions for the arising of mahasukha.

    That must be a practice, because it is said that usually you will generate some inner heat, but, in a few minutes it will slip into one of the branch nerves and dissipate and the sex is over. Five hundred pendulum recitations is something other than this. And so this is still tummo entering the central channel, i. e., is an aspect of Pranayama:

    Renouncing self-gratification
    is also reflected in the practice itself. Through karmamudra, practitioners
    generate bliss mutually in each other's subtle bodies through passionate
    Play; simultaneously, both partners contemplate the nature of bliss
    through meditation. This practice highlights in an intensified way the synchronization
    of body and mind essential to yoga. Renouncing sexual release,
    the partners contemplate bliss mutually filling their bodies. Then,
    moving the bodhicitta through all the channels of the body, they experience the pervasion of bliss.

    Karmamudra practices may have been at one time a part of the path for all tantrikas, and
    it is clear that in Indian Buddhist tantra such practices were commonplace.
    However, as Buddhist tantra became mainstreamed and practiced in conjunction
    with vows of celibacy, the detailed lore of these practices was
    deemphasized and in many cases lost. Greater emphasis has been placed
    upon the visualization of yab-yum deities and tummo practices, the other
    two methods of generating bliss and contemplating the nature of passion.

    Tantric lore says that Sakyamuni joined with Sujata the
    milkmaid as his consort at the foot of the bodhi tree and thus attained

    Getting back towards the Four Dakinis as women:

    While I was interviewing Khenpo Tsultrim Gyamtso Rinpoche in an
    attempt to distinguish the classifications of the different types of consorts,
    he began to laugh. When I asked why, he gave a characteristically Tibetan

    All these categories, they are just Indian. They have to do with
    India, and these categories apply to their cultural situation. That's
    not going to help people in the West. The thing to do here is to
    look at what's actually important. It is important that the consort
    you practice with has faith [tepa], exertion [tsondru] and wisdom
    [sherap]. That's all. And it has to be someone that you like and
    someone who likes you. Mutual getting along. You like that person,
    they like you. Somebody who is a companion and is going to
    help you on the path, and that you could practice with—it's not
    about infatuation.

    Well, sure, basically more important, but we are still trying to see what the Families are, and it is said that any practitioner is mainly characterized by one of these. As it happened between Milarepa and Tseringma:

    Milarepa recommended this practice for her as an important way to understand
    the process of bodily emanation in the intermediate state (pardo),
    adding that arousing Prajnaparamita through the practices of inner heat
    and karmamudra would help her understand the third abhiseka and to
    vanquish instinctive jealousy.

    As they approached, they assured him that they represented the four
    classic physical types of qualified consorts: the lotus, conch, picture, and
    elephant. Milarepa responded with the benefits of each, succinctly summarizing
    the intricate lore: the lotus-type consort promotes bliss, the conch type
    speeds ecstasy, the picture-type prevents obstacles to holding the bliss,
    and the elephant-type aids the realization of the nature of reality.

    So you draw in this Tummo and it is intended to rise, and this may be exhilirating but it is not the First Joy until it melts the White Bodhicitta of the Head. Khecari Mudra may be helpful in getting it to drip into the body. So then we have three descending joys, which should become stationary platforms or lodging points in the throat, heart, and navel. This final or Fourth Joy is easily understood as Sahaja or Bharati; this is how it and the next phase are described:

    (2) Holding (jiltang) or pooling describes how to practice
    when the bodhicitta descends; it is held and retained within the body. This
    is described as similar to holding "a lamp in a storm, constant in one's
    inner vision the reality of coemergent joy." With turning back (dokpa),
    the next yogic step, the bodhicitta is sent upward through the channels
    passing through the heart center and the throat center to the crown of the
    head. This practice is likened to "an elephant drinking water, to make the
    four joys ascend (to the head region) and to keep them stable." Each level
    of ascent through the centers evokes a new level of awareness, likened to
    the stages of enlightenment (bhumis). The last one, spreading out
    (dren), extends the bodhicitta through all the intricate channels. This is
    when the experience of bliss pervades the body. The analogy is that of "a
    farmer watering his crops carefully to saturate every pore and experience
    the joy as consummation." This pervasion of coemergent joy purifies all
    obscurations and obstacles, states of mind, and the subtle body itself, yielding
    buddhahood. Milarepa practiced these four stages with each of the
    consorts, inspiring each of them to realization.

    The Third Initiation is really difficult, but the Fourth just kind of extends from it:

    The practice of karmamudra confers what is called the third empowerment
    (abhiseka, wang) in tantric ritual, leading directly to the fourth empowerment
    of nonconceptual wisdom. The third empowerment is associated
    with removing obscurations of the mind so that the mind blessings of
    the deity and the lineage can enter the mindstream of the practitioner. The
    third empowerment is also called the prajna-jnana abhiseka, referring to
    the realization of nondual awareness through union with the consort. Thus
    the ritual union with the dakini, the symbol of one's innermost wisdom,
    leads to nondual awareness of the nature of mind in the fourth abhiseka.

    Finding another Dakarnava quote:

    In the Dakarnava it is addressed to Sahaja,—“ Thou art the cause of all the Dharmas,—but who art thou Sahaja, mysteriously unknown to all ? ” Again it has been said,—“ Only Sahaja-nature is seen (—nothing else is there),—salute to the Lord of all the Suras (gods) and the Asuras ! The senses do not know where it is,—worship it through the songs (gat ha)

    in a general yoga text:

    ...it is held that the rousing of Sakti in the Sahasrara is instrumental to the trickling down of the nectar,—and sometimes Sakti herself is depicted as the drinker of the nectar. This liquid, trickling from the moon, is also called the wine of the immortals ( amara-Varuni ), and as the gods have become immortal by drinking Amrta or the ambrosial wine, so the yogins become inimortal by drinking this wine trickling from the moon. Drinking of wine and eating of meat, which are indispensable to a Tantric Sadhaka, are explained by the Natha-yogins as the drinking of the nectar from the moon and turning the tongue backwards in the hollow above. We have seen that the moon has sixteen digits. The secretion of the Soma-rasa in the Kalagni (the solar fire of destruction) is sometimes figuratively called the eating up of the digits of the moon by the Rahu ,2the passage from the moon to the Kalagrti being conceived as the Rahu. The idea of the disappearance of the digits of the moon one by one and* the reappearance of the digits in order has given rise to the theory of the Tithis (i.e. the lunar day, or the thirtieth part of a whole lunation^, including the Purnima (full-moon) and the AmaVasya (i.e., the night of the new moon),—the processes of disappearance and reappearance of the digits being represented as the black and the white fortnight.

    Arthur Avalon's Chakrasambhara appears to split Khandaroha and then use two of her:

    Then from the Bija Mantra Hum which lies in the heart
    emanate ten female Devatas (Dakini) who are the keepers
    of the doors. There are eight of them in the eight
    points of the compass and Khanda and Roha are above
    (zenith) and below (nadir).

    The Mantra is
    ' Om Sumbhani Sumbha Hum Hum Phat." From this the Eastern
    and zenith door-keepers are produced, namely, Kaka-sye and
    Khanda. Rohe ; from ' Om-grihana grihana Hum Hum Phat "
    comes Ulluka-sye keeper of the northern gale ; from " Om Grihana-
    paya-grihana-paya Hum Hum Phut " issues the western door-keeper
    Shvana-sye and the guardian of the Nadir Khanda-rohe.

    He seems to have typically misspelled the mantra. I cannot find this splitting in our text. Khandaroha does stand out in a few areas, again one of these being the Seven Yoginis or Lamas such as Cumbika. Later in the tantra, the Four Dakinis actually give space to Four Armor goddesses:

    śrīherukasamāpannā vajravārāhī | pūrvadale ḍākinī | uttare lāmā |
    paścime khaṇḍarohā | dakṣiṇe rupiṇī | aiśāne yāminī | āgneye mohanī | nairṛte
    sañcāla(ri)ṇī | vāyavye trāsanīti vibhāvyam |

    At which point, Cumbika appears to become Vajravarahi.

    The Tranquility or Prasrabdhi which is Khandaroha probably should have a Samata--Complete characteristics of Calming sense, like the stages in Vajrosnisa or Kriya--Charya instructions. She has just been portrayed in a vicious manner able to penetrate the physical plane, and at the same time she is extremely subtle. Therefor the power of action in the outer world is reflected in the subtle. That is why you have to use a lot of Virya or energy in doing things that affect the environment. The inner plane mirrors its output.

    That is not so literal that an eighty year old man is supposed to go out and become a bricklayer. Maybe he can do a lot with only a few words.


    calm, serenity, lack of any disturbance, bodily or mental

    Vasubandhu says:

    In the first two Dhyānas, happiness (sukha) signifies well-being (prasrabdhi).

    The Third Dhyana alters the vocabulary:

    But, whereas the sukha present in the first two dhyānas is simply the good physical state (praśrabdhi), the sukha of the third dhyāna is the feeling of bliss (sukha vedanā)

    And so if the few first Dhyanas are those of a "practitioner", you migrate into actual Bliss, and then at a higher stage as a Bodhisattva, the same meaning or trait, Prasrabdhi, is at the strength of a Jewel of Enlightenment, Khandaroha. Prajnaparamita says:

    In all dharmas, there is nothing but an object of mind (cittālambana): this is the factor of enlightenment called relaxation (praśrabdhisaṃbodhyaṅga).

    ...the bodhisattva puts his joy (prīti) into real wisdom (bhūtaprajñā): this is true joy (bhūtaprīti).

    2. Having acquired this true joy, first he eliminates unwholesome physical states (kāyadauṣṭhulya), then he eliminates unwholesome mental states (cittadauṣṭhulya), and finally he eliminates all characteristics of dharmas (dharmalakṣaṇa). Thus he acquires well-being that fills the body and the mind and that constitutes the factor of enlightenment called relaxation (praśrabdhisaṃbodhyaṅga).

    Mental Object is Dharmadhatu Vajra. In all, there is nothing but a Dharmadhatu Vajra. Relaxation is this in perpetuity.

    Khandaroha is in note 27 from a Japanese article on a page mentioning Jam--Janguli. The note seems aimed at All Purpose mantras in Bhattacharya's NSP. It is a strange list with subordinate deities like her and Ghasmari mixed with principals like Vajramrita and Buddhakapala. But I have not found her in there in any remarkable way.

    She has a Tramen, two, four, and six arm forms, none of which quite match Varuni. On the other hand, Buddhist Varuni does not have minor forms. I am not sure why the equivalency was made. But it is in reference to the manuscript that also has Horse and Ram Chakrasamvaras, with Guhyesvari and the Varuni hypostasis. This would make the hypostasis show "Khandaroha and the Four Yoginis of Nepal" similar to the printed thangka with her Six Arm form. The association seems to be there; and Varuni is perhaps unique to Samvarodaya, not being found in Chakrasamvara. So the Samvarodaya has a big Varuni and probably just a formulaic Khandaroha, and Chakrasamvara has a big, or, at least active, Khandaroha.

    Samvarodaya uses Puranic Varuni, who contains, what I would also call Puranic, Vairocani. That is part of its uniqueness. Those devis might not have other appearances in Buddhism. This is not original, but, an add-on to the overall Chakrasamvara corpus which seems to be more relevant to Generation Stage.

    In its last chapter (33-30), the Samvarodaya refers to the

    Sriherukabhidhana-tantra. It defines itself in the final remark of the

    last chapter as the Sahajodaya-kalpa extracted from the

    Sriherukabhidhana-mahatantraraja of 300,000 slokas. bTson kha pa points

    out the importance of this information; it will be discussed by us again later.

    ...in order to explain here sahajanda (the innate joy}, the Sahajodaya-kalpa, alias the Samvarodaya as an uttara-tantra, (and at the same time} a laghu-tantra and also a commentarial tantra, has been extracted.

    So, that is Sahajayana, which is teaching the Fourth Joy. Although this is a later, ca. tenth century tantra, it remains considerably prior to the common Sahaja genre of what is roughly the Renaissance era. And still, there is not any such Mahatantra known to exist; Chakrasamvara Heruka Abhidhana is about fifty-five chapters. In speaking of large and missing root tantras, to me it seems like a rough estimate about "Dakini Jala in the wild" in terms of how many possible Chakrasamvara-type, such as the forty-six Vajravarahis in GSS, might have been realized in the course of a few centuries. Because we can show that there was an additional Mamaki rite, which must have come from south India around 1600, it is inestimable how much has just probably never been heard of.

    Samvarodaya chapters may look better from Wayback Machine. Or possibly on Library. Scans from typewriters are pesky.

    We don't know if they are yoginis, but, Kinnari women have a traditional style involving silver net jewelry:

    or turquoise:

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    Default Re: Nirakara and Shentong Buddhism, Tara, Sadhanas, Sanskrit culture

    Agni Homa, Swayambhu Purana, and Preparation

    Homa is a bit like an accumulation of everything. It takes a whole Buddhist Guru Yoga sadhana and immerses it into a larger ceremony. It is not something one would do on a regular basis, but special occasions like New Year's or something. It is going to bundle the following subjects:

    I. Agni, which is a detailed matter that can perhaps be addressed afterwards

    2. Apri Hymn, Vasudhara and ritual items

    3. Buddhist sadhana such as Mahattari Saptavidhanuttara

    4. Tri-Samaya

    5. Varuni and ritual cups

    6. Horse Head rite

    7. Homa steps

    This is going from the same sense that Buddhism has no Yoga that does not involve Deity Yoga. On the face of this being pantheistic, there is a variable of "your deity" which, perforce, begins with Vajrasattva, and, if one pursues the topic, is eventually dovetailed into Vasudhara and Agni.

    As a scriptural example howso, Vairocana Abhisambodhi Tantra ch. 29 vaguely mentions descent of Agni: Abhimanin was Swayambhu. Pavaka the first mundane fire, parent of asura fire. Pavamana parent of pitri fire, Suchi of deva fire. Pavamana's son Mangala for women's "parting of the hair" in late pregnancy. Maruta (Wind Fire) at the time of entering the womb. They say you have to know all the agni natures to do homa, and don't give them; suggests forty-four sons of Brahma.

    Sunyata destroys the skandhas, dissipates sense objects, turns off the issuance of vijnanas, bodhichitta which stopped them is stopped by non-issuing prajna. Prajna abiding in avikalpa is the inner homa. One stops the "fire wind" (Maruts) by restraining prana and ayama; the burnt offering of skandhas "burns thought immobile" (aninjya). Pavaka the first born is usually purifying, whereas Pavamana is blowing, Marut Fire, first light in darkness, womb fire is Asitarcis: black flame. The inner homa (free from karma and ayus) is taking the three, self, fuel, fire, in voidness. Is Deity Yoga. Uses just the first fire, gold Mahendra, Jnanagni, completer of wisdom.

    That is the same subject that has been attempted in western occultism called Forty-nine Fires, and so instead of dealing with all these, we can go from a simplstic view that eastern occultism recognizes two fires:

    First is a Three-in-one, which is transcendental or formless, related to Agni and his three eldest sons, and the Agnishwattas, similar to other trinities

    Second is the seven-rayed manifestation through the visible Sun, to include the more complex divisions and Samjna

    From researching goddesses, we found that Durga Suktam bends the male-based vision of agni into female power. It was slipped in to what would otherwise appear to be a typicallly male-based text. In Buddhism, there is the sole Inquiry of Narayan which uses this epithet of Vishnu as himself, the reply to whom is Mahamaya Vijayavahini. Conversely, we have found that the tantric preservation of Vairocani from Durga Suktam stems from:

    Tattiriya Aranyaka chapter ten which is actually Mahanarayana Upanisad.

    According to Kamakoti, the main point of the Tattiriya Aranyaka is what Buddha called an Inner Homa:

    The 10th chapter is Maha Narayaonopanishad. An important highlight of this Script is the „Manasika
    Yagjna‟ which has ready applicability to the present generation; one may not be able to execute Agni
    Karyas or even time for Introspection with- standing the harsh winds of materialism and family

    It means Manasic or Mental Yajna or Sacrifice.

    Or, by tenth chapter, they suggest it is the meaning of Mahanarayana Upanishad, which has Durga Suktam on p. 26.

    There is a Sanskrit Mahanarayana Upanishad where you may need to select Roman script and it is "durgaa sooktam"; or, here is that section with a translation and commentary. It says the Vairocani line is from Rg Veda and:

    This is prescribed for japa undertaken to ward off the difficulties that beset the path of life.

    Jātavedas, interpreted physically as fire, stands for the all-knowing Divine Reality that is worshipped with the Vedic rituals. As Fire He is worshipped in the soma sacrifices with the oblation of soma juice.

    the Upanishad text as a whole is still based on male Narayana and so it is Vaisnavite. It is not necessarily too sectarian, because, according to Wiki:

    The Upanishad, despite its title which means "Great Narayana", is notable for glorifying both Narayana and Rudra (Shiva), both as the first equivalent embodiment of Brahman, the concept of ultimate, impersonal and transcendental reality in Hinduism.

    If you just look at that page, it unmistakably highlights Tapas.

    According to a discussion, its important practice is Nyasa.

    The Viraja Homa Mantra chant is also part of the Maha Narayano Upanishad (Narayana Upanishad / Narayana Valli), Taittireeya Shakha of Yajur Veda. During Avani Avittam (Upakarma), the Viraja Homa is usually performed after Mahasankalpam & Vedaarambam. This practice is mostly followed by people in Andhra/ Telangana and parts of Karnataka and a few in Tamil Nadu.

    One of Agni's progeny is the Terrible Fire which, terrestrially speaking, entered the Mare's Mouth at the ocean's floor, or, relative to the body, is digestive fire.

    Terrible Fire itself has an origin in Mahabharata:

    that terrible water-drinking sea fire called Vadava is the fifth son of Vrihaspati. This Brahmic fire has a tendency to move upwards and hence it is called Urdhvabhag, and is seated in the vital air called Prana.

    This is in pre-material creation. They just gave a meaning with respect to yoga practice in a human body while talking about how fire blazed on Jupiter. In other words, original Vadava is a cosmic being related to Jupiter, but, it is simultaneously considered to have a human embodiment.

    And so Vadava or Terrible Fire destroys the world, however, it first begins the world in the hands of a five color flame, of whom only four are given:

    ...when the invocation was made with the vyahriti hymns and with the aid of the five sacred fires, Kasyapa, Vasistha, Prana, the son of Prana, Chyavana, the son of Angiras, and Suvarchaka—there arose a very bright energy (force) full of the animating (creative) principle, and of five different colours. Its head was of the colour of the blazing fire, its arms were bright like the sun and its skin and eyes were golden-coloured and its feet, O Bharata, were black. Its five colours were given to it by those five men by reason of their great penance. This celestial being is therefore described as appertaining to five men, and he is the progenitor of five tribes. After having performed a penance for ten thousand years, that being of great ascetic merit produced the terrible fire appertaining to the Pitris (manes) in order to begin the work of creation, and from his head and mouth respectively he created Vrihat and Rathantara (day and night) who quickly steal away (life, &c.). He also created Siva from his navel, Indra...

    You have to read a few more creations until "it" has a name, Tapa.

    Tapa (तप).—A Deva of fire-like splendour. Born of the power of penance of five sages named Kaśyapa, Vasiṣṭha, Prāṇaka, Cyavana and Trivarcas, this Deva has got a name Pāñcajanya (born of five) also. He did severe penance (tapas) and got the name Tapa. His head is like fire, his hands like Sun, his skin and eyes are of golden hue and his waist, blue. (Śloka 4, Chapter 220, Vana Parva).

    The full Agni Homa has many stages and includes a few esoteric sacrifices. It does have a second inner meaning of Nirajan, which is similar to the Buddhist Pitha dakinis, meaning a warm liquidy flow inside the subtle channels. Externally or visually, it also makes use of Vahni--the name we found related to the flying Dhisnis of the Kritikka or Pleiades--similar to any vahan or vehicle, but, in the way of a prodigal or something like Osiris, there is a sense that Agni is shattered or dispersed and you have a Problem to re-constitute him. This simultaneously is like the adherence and increase of Vishnu or Consciousness, and so together they become Agni Vaisvanara, Agni Vishnu Man. This is the same metaphor, and, almost the same thing as, Anuttara Samyak Sambuddha or Vibuddha, which is the goal of Buddhism.

    The climax of the Homa is about going through the Purnagiri Pitha into the Voids and the Great Void, and afterwards you re-emerge and rain fullness through your aura and across the world, which is Annapurna. In similar terms to non-dual sadhanas, this is like the male seed Agni illuminating a certain female Prajna, Annapurna, although this has nothing to do with union, more like cause and effect.

    When you go Formless or enter the highest Joy that you can, Dissolution is done by:

    Filling the Fireplace with Offerings


    pūrṇam adaḥ pūrṇam idaṁ
    pūrṇāt pūrṇam udacyate|
    pūrṇasya pūrṇam ādāya
    pūrṇam evāvaśiṣyate||

    Then the Third esoteric sacrifice is that nectar of Tvastr rains on Talu (palate).

    This is called the Deity Agni entering the body.

    Compared to the following diagram, the Pitha system says when you can actually use the Ajna, you then focus energy into the Brahma Chakra, which makes nectar rain on Talu. It then descends into the body, and, when it comes back up, you attempt to insert Vajra Danda into Higher Yoni Triangle. You dissolve these voids and go to what is called Parasunya by Sukla Tara:

    That makes it a physiological yoga technique, which we want to conform to the timing of sadhanas.

    Tvastr's nectar comes from the secret Water (Apas) Vajra Sikhin Vaidyuta, who turns out to be Garuda Thunderbird Senya. There is an Avestan Homa Bird which is the griffin said to never land. In a Homa Bird article mixed with widely-scattered evidence, its role is to transfer Soma.

    Bogazkoy (Turkish) seal with Indus Script:

    Can be gold, female, charioteer of dawn; it is any vajra up to the extent of Vishnu's Chakra.

    So the highest quality nectar is held by Tvastr, however, there is also a kind of secret way to it, owing to a Sage named for Curds (Dadhyan, i. e. Dadhi) and those sons of Samjna called the Aswins involving the symbolism of Horse. In the broadest sense, this was an animal sacrifice which was re-taught as symbolic in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. Samjna conceived the Aswins in her form of Best Mare. It is the original animal of the sun's chariot. Rupini is a Horse Head.

    The Nectar of the Aswins, Madhu is Mead--Honey and Wine. The Bees of Kashi and Varuni--Brandy, Watery Fire.

    Aswins as sons of Samjna and solar charioteers.

    Dadhyan is a hermit. Once Indra taught this hermit Madhuvidyā (the art of mead). Indra told the hermit that his head would be cut off if he taught anybody this art. The Aśvinīdevas approached Dadhyaṅ to learn this art. Fearing Indra the hermit refused to teach them the art. Aśvinīdevas cut off his head and buried it in a place. Then they cut off the head of a horse and fixed it on the neck of Dadhyaṅ. Having the head of the horse he taught the art to the Aśvinīdevas. When Dadhyaṅ had finished teaching, they took away the head of the horse and fixed his own head in place. (Ṛgveda, Maṇḍala 1, Anuvāka, 17, Sūkta 166).

    The stories regarding the two hermits Dadhici and Dadhyaṅ in the Purāṇas are not very clear. In Mahā bhārata Dadhīca is mentioned as the son of Bhṛgu, and in Ṛgveda it occurs that Dadhīca was the son of Hermit Atharva who was the son of Vasiṣṭha. Moreover the story of Dadhyaṅ teaching the Aśvinīdevas the 'Madhuvidyā' is connected with Dadhici in some other purānas Some statements in the Ṛgveda make it difficult to assume that both Dadhyaṅ and Dadhīci are one and the same person.

    An example of blending them into one identity:

    Dadhīci (दधीचि).—(also Dadhyañja, Dadhyanga) the son of Atharvan and Citti.1 A sage of much eminence. Taught aśvāśiras mantra to Aśvins and nārāyaṇa varma to Tvaṣṭri, who gave it to Viśvarūpa.

    1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 42.

    Dadhyanc is the teacher of Madhu-vidya, the mystical doctrine that brahman is present every where (SB the name of this Vidya comes from the essence of sweetness in all flowers, transformed by bees into honey, which is not apparent to anyone.

    The Asvins give a horse's head to Atharvan's son Dadhyanc (Curds Ward), who then proclaims the location of the mead (madhu) of Tvastr.

    The Aswins are called Ocean-born (abdhi-jau), Sons-of-the-submarine-fire (vadabeyau), Wreathed-with lotuses (pusbara-srajau). Both, Wondrous Dasra and Without Untruth Nasatya, are consorts of the sun's daughter.

    Cf. p. 62 on Madhu Vidya. Sri Kapala Sastri explains it as dadhi and anc, "a distinct lustrous power moving in the field of Light fiexed in the intellectual mind". That is fairly close to what we mean by Luminous Mind, or, the actual male seed that participates in sadhanas.

    So the basis of Horse Head rite is with immortality--Aswins, and it involves the Curds which one might literally make, or visualize, which become Vasudhara. The symbol of Curds is also that of Luminous Mind arising in the Akash.

    Atharvan as well as Angiras are co-authors of Atharva Veda. Angiras is the re-emanation of Agni, and is the father of Brihaspati--Jupiter, as well as the emanator of Pratyangira devi. He and his descent are likewise complicated; but our Buddha who has called himself Viraja is also:

    Angirasa (Angirasa) - A name applied to the Buddha several times in the Pitakas. (E.g., Vin.i.25; D.iii.196; S.i.196; A.iii.239; Thag.v.536; J.i.116). In the Commentaries three etymologies are given: Buddhaghosa says that it means emitting rays of various hues from the body, and that the word is therefore applicable to all Buddhas alike (DA.iii.963).

    Agni is Sapta Jihve or has seven tongues, possibly with Rudra as the fire or lightning which the seven tongues are of.

    The tongues are named for instance in Mundaka Upanishad (part of Atharva Veda):

    Kali (black), Karali (terrific), Manogava (swift as thought), Sulohita (very red), Sudhumravarna (purple/smoke), Sphulingini (sparkling), and the brilliant Visvarupi (having all forms), all these playing about are called the seven tongues (of fire).

    The tongues also have purposes like Vasikaran and names like Gagana in a system that is almost impenetrable.

    [Śuklayajurveda. 17.79]

    The Purāṇas have also named these seven tongues of Agni. That tongue of Agni which monitors time is called Kālī (Kali); the one to cause doomsday-like tumult is called Karālī (Karali); the one with the yogic quality of laghimā (laghima; ‘lightness’) is called Manojavā (Manojava); the one to satisfy desires of all creatures is Sulohitā (Sulohita); the one to burn away all the diseases of the world is Sadhumravarṇā (Sadhumravarna); the one to cause the birth of each body and soul is called Sphuliṅgiṇī (Sfulingini); and the one to look after everyone’s welfare is named Viśvā (Vishwa).


    They are part of Purnahuti which most Hindus do not understand, But someone at least replies it is in the head, which, for the Inner Homa, yes.

    Of the published names, it is claimed Kali and Karali as Durga, evolved from Agni. This gets closer to Buddhist Vairocani.

    Homa is an extensive subject of Samputa Tantra Chapter Seven.

    From Sarvadurgati Parishodhana, concerning Sattvavajri, in her first section, she appears to develop Avesa Mudra by taking bits of Vajrasattva mantra and compress it into the power of Vajra Fist. And lastly around section 85, Agni Homa is related to Avesa, which looks equivalent to Vajrasattva gaining Sattvavajri in Wrathful mode:

    samidbhir madhurair agniṃ prajvālya susamāhitaḥ||

    tato homakuṇḍān
    nirgatya jvālākulair vajrais tasya śarīre pāpaṃ dahyamānaṃ cintayet| tataḥ
    punar vajrāveśaṃ tathaivaṃ baddhvāveśayet| niyatam āviśati| evam api yasyāveśo na
    bhavati tasyābhiṣekaṃ na kuryād iti| āviṣṭasya ca pañcabhijñādiniṣpattis tat kṣaṇād
    eva bhavati| tataḥ samāviṣṭaṃ jñātvā punaḥ| oṃ vajrasattvasattvasaṃgrahādigītim
    uccārya| krodhamuṣṭyā tathaiva sattvavajrīmudraṃ sphoṭayet| sa ced āviṣṭo
    vajrasattvakrodhamudrāṃ badhnīyāt|

    Vasudhara and Homa

    The Homa begins with one of the most ancient pre-tantric use of goddesses. In some Buddhist sadhanas it is abbreviated to Asking Permission of the Earth Goddess. But its most complete form uses Sarasvati and two Vasudharas. Of these, Bhu appears to have more of the aspect of planetary globe, physical plane, and prakriti, whereas Ila has to do with cultivation, increase, and prosperity thereof. Bhu is the root form of Bharati. Over time, Hindu Bharati has become mixed with Sarasvati's role of Eloquence, whereas in Buddhism she "expands" into tantra at a somewhat advanced point. Bhu is also the root of Varahi who is the basis of Vajravarahi. So a certain hypostasis is going to occur with a devi whose origin is Vedic:

    "Bharati is also called Mahi, the Large, Great or Vast. The three, Ila, Mahi or Bharati and Saraswati are associated together in a constant formula in those hymns of invocation in which the gods are called by Agni to the Sacrifice.

    Iḷā sarasvatī mahī, tisro devīr mayobhuvaḥ; barhiḥ sīdantvasridhaḥ.

    “May Ila, Saraswati and Mahi, three goddesses who give birth to the bliss, take their place on the sacrificial seat, they who stumble not...”

    ...The formula is expanded in Hymn 110 of the tenth Mandala:

    ā no yajñaṁ bhāratī tῡyam etu, iḷā manuṣvad iha cet ayantī; tisro devīr barhir edaṁ syonaṁ, sarasvatī svapasaḥ sadantu.

    “May Bharati come speeding to our sacrifice and Ila hither awakening our consciousness ... in human wise, and Saraswati, — three goddesses sit on this blissful seat, doing well the Work.” "

    The article proceeds in the direction of Agni and the Sun.

    That leads to a class of hymn called an Apri Sukta. Ultimately the hymn addresses the Lord of the Forest, Majestic Tree, or Lord of Trees, Vanaspati, and here we would take the same meaning as Dragon Tree for Nagarjuna, i. e. One Initiator. They end with Svaha. Agni is at the beginning, then a few others, the Doors Dvarah and Durah (increasers of Rta), Night and Dawn (naktosasa, usasanakta, usasa; Mothers of Rta), two Divine Hotras--daivya hotara--who remain unknown, then Ila--Sarasvati--Bharati, then Tvastir (Architect) and Vanaspati and Indra.

    Hymn X.110 would generally be understood as Parasu's lineage. Barhish is usually Kusha grass as Buddha also used for a mat during enlightenment. Tanunapat "Son of thyself" is a title of Agni referring to different methods of fire manifestation. In one version, "Ida instructs us (causes us to perceive) as she did Manu", and the goddesses rest on same Kusha grass.

    Ila is food, a milch cow, mother of a herd, dripping with clarified butter. The devas made her the teacher of man. Agni is at her feet or is her son. His third birth place is in the waters apsu, he dwells in secret, gives three times seven secret names, reveals treasures to those who serve Rta. Ila shows the way.

    The goddess iḍā- or iḷā- is daughter of manu- or of man thinking on and worshipping the gods; she is the wife of budha- and mother of purū-ravas-;in another aspect she is called maitrāvaruṇi- as daughter of mitra-- varuṇa-, two gods who were objects of the highest and most spiritual devotion. According to Aurobindo, "She also is connected with Surya, the Sun, as when Agni, the Will, is invoked to labour by the rays of the Sun, Lord of the true Light, being of one mind with Ila, iḷayā sajoṣā yatamāno raśmibhiḥ sūryasya. She is the mother of the Rays, the herds of the Sun. Her name means she who seeks and attains and it contains the same association of ideas as the words ŗtam and Rishi. Ila is the vision of the seer which attains the truth."

    "manuṣvad iha cetayantī" is one of her most common phrases, the last term referring to sentience and animation. "May Ila, Saraswati and Mahi, three goddesses who give birth to the bliss, take their place on the sacrificial seat, they who stumble not", in whom there is no false movement with its evil consequences, duritam, no stumbling into pitfalls of sin and error. Saraswati is the Word, the inspiration that comes from the ŗtam, the Truth-Consciousness. Bharati and Ila are different forms of the same Word or knowledge, in Aurobindo's understanding. He gets it as Bliss, by which we would mean Sambhogakaya.

    Bharati is drink, sometimes called Hotra Bharati. She is the vastness of luminosity. According to Aurobindo, this relates to Brihad and Brihaspati--Jupiter., and she is "for the sacrificer, a branch covered with ripe fruit". She is also described as varūtrī dhiṣaṇā, a widely covering or embracing Thought-power. So, he has just vividly described Cintamani, even to the seed syllable. She indicates the universal well, and so we can see the purpose of the meditation if starting with that basic Yellow form and then separating her into Ila and Bharati, and so on from there. Her name is an early term for the whole Jewel Family.

    Sarasvati can even be mimicking and buffoonery. All three are understood as communitaction between mortal and divine according to Yajur Veda:

    adityair no bharati vastu yajnam
    sarasvati saha rudrair na avit
    idopahuta vasubhih sajosa
    yajnam no devir amrtesu dhatta

    May Bharati with the Adityas love our sacrifice
    Sarasvati with the Rudras [Maruts] (helps us?)
    Ida invoked with vasus in union
    Our sacrifice, oh goddesses, place with the immortals.

    These three goddesses are consistently found in the eighth verse of all ten gotra lineages of Apri Hymns.

    Those all start with a particular sage's perception of pure consciousness of Agni and all are similar. Arrangement of the Rig Veda shows organization where the Bhrigu-Angiras lines are separated. The hymns vary by whether they invoke Tanunapat or Narasamsa or both. It is the very last section around the last Apri which refers heavily to such things as Pitris, Mrtyu, seven ancient Rishis, Angiras, and others, giving it a distinct atmosphere, referring to X.85 and forward. The first main group centers on Atreya, referring to the Moon as the parent of Budha-Mercury, Atri is the source of Soma-Moon.

    The candelabra style balance of gotras:


    Regardless of what changes around, all rely on the same trinity of Sarasvati with Ila and Bharati. She also has a blackened form from once stopping Shiva's Badavagni, fire from his third eye unleashed at a wicked world. She used her watery or river power to hold the fire to the ocean and make the "Mare's Mouth". In another version, the fire was from Aurva, Parasu's great grandfather.

    In any case, Sarasvati with two colorful attendants is extremely consistent with one of the most ancient and widespread sacrificial rites.

    Hindu Ila is the consort of Mercury-Budha and she is the true "Jupiter" or guru of men.

    Om Illayah Namah

    Gavesanam, On the Track of the Cow, explains Ida. Physically it is a food offering with milk, curds, etc. offered to the priest with:

    surupavarsavarna ehi

    you of fair rain color, come here (every shade of krsna [raincloud])

    ida ehy adita ehi sarasvaty ehi rantir asi ramatir asi sunary asi

    Come Ila, Aditi, Sarasvati, you are delight, delighting, and fair

    Saptadevagavi, or Seven Names of the Cow. This is part of idopahvana or invocation of Ila, starting low and building up:

    bhuyasy ehi, sreyasy ehi, vasiyasy ehi, citta ehi, dadhisa ehi, 'da ehi, sunrta'ehi ti

    Come greater one, better one, richer one, desired one, thoughtful one, Ila, truthful one (or Ida with Six Cows)

    Saptamanusagavi is spoken by attendants when the voice is raised:

    cid asi mana'si dhir asi ranti ramatih sunuh sunari'ti

    Citta, manas, and dhih are involved with Ranti, Ramatih, Sunuh, Sunari (daughter of Manu)

    devir devair abhi ma nivartadhvam / syonah syonena ghrtena ma sumaksata / na ma idam upa / dambhisak rsir brahma yad dade / samudrad udacann iva sruca / vag agre viprasya tisthati srngebhir dasabhir disan

    Return to me with the gods, o goddesses / sprinkle me thoroughly with the lovely sweet ghee, o lovely sweet ones / this shall not harm me, what the rsi, the Brahman, has given / scooping as though with a ladle out of the ocean / Speech stands before the ecstatic poet, pointing with ten horns.

    While this is going on, one meditates that Vayu is the calf of Ila.

    vayava ida te mata

    Holding the idapatra or offering to the mouth:

    ido'pahuta / upahute'da / upo asmam ida hvayatam (repeatedly)

    The ida is called, called is the ida, and may the ida call us

    another says:

    matre' vatsam upavasrjati

    He lets the calf go to the mother

    Ila is the rain and the milk above Bharati and Sarasvati, who flow on her stream, the last being visible and five-fold, or completing seven rays; when the milk becomes luminous and multicolored, that cow is Prsni. Ida and the solar/lunar races remain the principal branch nerves and their activity.

    In relation to the main Homa ritual items:

    Mamaki is Three Flasks (Anti wine, Khayakori yogurt, Thapin beer).

    This is a yogurt into which dried meat is mixed. At this point we are getting a Buddhist Varuni-based sadhana which may or may not include a Homa. From Monk, Householder, Tantric Priest:

    Flask Worship (Kalasa Puja) is what a Newari priest does at any occasion, after Guru Mandala and Tri-samadhi. For instance, a baby has a "first rice feeding ritual", and this would happen. On more complex occasions, they will add Fire or Agni Homa.

    Brahmans use all of the same things except Alcohol Pot. So they have valid Hindu and Buddhist understandings, except Guhyeshvari is only Buddhist:

    It begins with the pow[d]er of Kumari.

    The Pow[d]er Container, Sinhamu, or Sindura Kumbha, has the identity of Lakshmi or Vasudhara, considered Gauri.

    Four Yogurt Pots may be Four Brahma Vihara or Vasudhara.

    The main Flask [Mu Kalas] is Five Dhyanis. If Alcohol and Khay Pots are used, it becomes Tantric.

    Cow's Mouthful, Cow or Five Gomata

    The Mirror also has the Identity of Lakshmi, and is considered Sarasvati.

    The Black Powder Pot is Chakrasamvara.

    The Alcohol Pot or Guhya-kalasa is Guhyeshvari or Varuni Mamaki [Bala Kumari].

    The Khay Pot, Sahaja Sukhabandha, is Bhairava, upaya, or Hevajra.

    The Lamp is Agni Vaisvanara or Surya, Ganesha.

    In the Flask rite, to summon deities into it, Khandaroha and Vajrasattva are invoked to purify and remove obstacles. Varuni--Mamaki is supposed to be in the alcohol. It includes Guru Mandala and Tri-samadhi. Conch Worship is included in Guru Mandala. Full tantric visualization is in the Tri-samadhi. Sometimes there is red powder for Varahi.

    Here is a retelling from a Table of Ritual Items trying to establish their identities:

    "Power" of Kumari is kumarisinhah (Newari) or kumari^candana (Sanskrit: sandalwood). Parenthetically this Kumari is Varahi. Again, if we just said Bala Kumari, we would tend to think it means her power anyway. By "Power Container" it should probably be "Powder", Sindura Vermillion, as used by Gauri and Mahamaya Vijayavahini.

    Four Yogurt Pots, Saga Dhaupatti or Sapta Vrddhi Mangala Bandha are Vasudhara. Vasudhara is "holding" fermentation vats where development or Vrddhi of Seven Auspiciousnesses is doing Bandha, as in Bandhaya Vam, or Chain activity. The ability of yogurt to mix with new ingredients and make more yogurt is also in play.

    Conch Water "is" Varuna, but, Khandaroha is invoked and it becomes Khandaroha when used. It is poured from the Conch to the Flask three times. Main Flask or Mu Kalasa uses Five Buddhas in form of seven oceans.

    Cow's Mouthful


    Black (Powder, or lamp-black or soot):



    (Chakrasamvara, or Shaktirupa to the Hindus)

    Alcohol pot, or Varuni, Mamaki, Guhyeshvari, was unable to be given an identity by the Hindu priest; this part is exclusively Buddhist. It is probably not that they do not know who Varuni is, but, they do not use this item.

    Khay pot or Khaythala: sahaja-sukhabhanda (Upaya Hevajra, Bhairava or Bhairavi). Khay is fermented curd, or i. e. yogurt, traditionally made into a mixture which contained a piece of meat. In Kathmandu, a crow must eat some before people can. "Ciranjivas" of "Four Yogurt Pots" are likely crows.

    Lamp: Agni Vaisvanara, Surya, or Ganesh

    Those are three kinds of Hindu Sun, and--since this is all interchangeable by following the meaning--it could be a Buddhist one. Sarvadurgati pulls it into Jewel Family in a strange manner.

    The Lamp is called Dipa, which, exoterically, is not hard to find.

    Dipankara or first Buddha is highly important to Nepal or was thought to have dwelt there, although he transmitted no teachings; however, he is also in Buddha's Jataka Tales with disciples.

    Mul Dipankara of Bhaktapur where they honor Five Dipankaras:

    After Guru Yoga, Tri-samadhi includes Muttering and runs all the way to Sukshma Yoga, the limit of Generation Stage. Nepal allows for example, Sarvadurgati, as a source of Tri-samadhi.

    The way Newari Tri-samadhi works is:

    Adi Yoga: from meditation on Sunyata, White Two Arm Samvara is generated. Sacred Sites are applied to the body. Blue Samvara comes back in a nine-deity configuration not known from Indian sources, and Grounds, Fence, Canopy, etc., are done. Then the Samaya and Jnana beings unite.

    Mandalarajagri: Starting from the Four Brahma Vihara, then a major sixty-two deity Chakrasamvara is conjured. Cittachakra dakinis are Khecari, Vakchakra dakinis are Bhucari, Kayachakra dakinis are Patalavasini. Mandalas are combined and Four Abhisekas are done.

    Suksmayoga reverts to Sahaja White Two Arm Samvara, and releases all deities into the body. Then there is Muttering and Bali Offering.

    This is the right pattern, but is not quite linear. Tri-samadhi and Flask go inside Guru Yoga. In other words, main part of Guru Yoga leads to Tri-samadhi, then Flask, then Flask is dismissed, and then Guru is dismissed with Merit Offering, etc.

    So if we take this Vasudhara and Apri Hymn, and/or Flask Worship, it is "modular", you can clip it and install it before any sadhana, being particularly compatible with what is called Day Yoga or in open spaces. You can actually roll out mats for them to sit on and give them place settings like a child's imaginary tea party, or, you can visualize the whole thing. And then we are moving towards a certain explanation and practice of the one thing that could be considered in common to all Vedic systems regardless of emphasis or sect. It is kind of its own subject, but, if one is not familiar with using it as part of "any sadhana", it is part of any Homa.

    In a similar modular sense, to do the Homa, you do "any sadhana", meaning at least a Vajrasattva-based Guru Yoga. Most of the time in Nepal, it would mean the whole Chakrasamvara sequence. But let us keep in mind that just by way of training, a person could learn the words and so forth, but, as to whether they "get" the inner meaning and obtain the type of pshysio-psycho-spiritual event we mean by Yoga, is a different question. And so the more we follow the meaning and experience various Families or Deities, "our sadhana" can be anything that works for us. In Nepal, the next most common Homa uses Mahattari Tara, which turns out to be very significant for the system of Indian Taras that are not reflected by Tibetan Tara systems. And then the whole Homa is strongly associated with Four Activities, i. e. you may attach a rite to focus one or to develop the cycle.

    When Chakrasamvara is spoken amongst the Nepalese, it has the connotation of Samvarodaya. The Samvarodaya is not thought to be the first written form of Chakrasamvara, which is Dakini Jala. However, its meaning and technique is "Source of Chakrasamvara", which does have definitive meaning according to an on-the-ground post about it:

    Disi Puja

    Newar Buddhists recently celebrated Disi puja. Disi Puja is a abbreviated form of Sambharodaya disi which is connected with Bodhisattva Manjusri and Ista devata Nairatma devi.

    According to Svayambhu Purana, Lord Vagisvara Manjusri, who drained the Kalihrada Lake, was the founder of the Nepal Valley. He had a vision revelation (darsana) of the consort of the Adibuddha, the goddess of Perfected Wisdom, Nairatma (Guhyesvari), in her characteristic universal forms – both peaceful and wrathful - on the ninth day of the waning half of Marga. In order to commemorate this event, a large statue of her universal form was installed in Mrgasthali forest in Guhyesvari, Pasupati area. The day after having a vision of the goddess Guhyesvari's universal form, Manjusri visualized Mahasamvara. On the occasion of receiving blessings from Mahasamvara, he performed an elaborate offering ceremony and received an empowerment of Vajra water from the sacred pool (Kunda) of Dharmodaya Guhyesvari.

    Manjusri built this sacred pool (kunda) magnificently and according to the rules. To commemorate this day, Newar Buddhists celebrate the Creation of Samvara with formal worship (Samvarodaya disi puja). Newar Buddhists revere Guhyesvari with great respect and devotion, and venerate her with distinctive rituals and ceremonies. Hem Raj Shakya, Sri Svayambhu Mahacaitya, p. In this festival, a sacramental food called Wisdom Food is partaken of, visualizing one may accomplish the wisdom and skillful means to perfect Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. This food is called Prajna bwon or Wisdom Food in Nepal Bhasa which contain two rice pancakes and the samay baji. The symbolic meaning of Samaybaji I have already described in my previous posting. But the practical and visualization aspect both are lost, the majority celebrate this festival merely for the merry making activity.

    Chakrasamvara Practice in Nepal from Circle of Bliss says that the most important texts are Samvarodaya Puja, Tri-samadhi Puja, Vermillion Worship, and of course Vajravarahi. Only the senior-most Vajracharyas lead Disi Puja.

    And so here is this whole public regalia of a goddess we would say is imperceptible and useless to the average human being. And the Samvarodaya Tantra has been stitched to the Swayambhu Purana, which has a late written form that I am not sure we can say is any older than Samvarodaya, both seem to be tenth century. We have an untranslated Swayambhu available, which is broken into chapters, so it is a bit unwieldy; but one can find a few things in it. Vasudhara comes in at Chapter Seven, and, the whole thing is a tantra, but, it is not that much about Vasudhara. It is about Guhyeshvari. That is because Khaganana is her murti, and she is also Agni Yogini. Samputa did not seem to mention the Yellow Agni Samaya Sattva, which might roughly correspond to Agni Yogini. It did say you summon the normal Red Agni but, he may change color, or take on multiple colors, and may or may not have the presence of smoke.

    Samputa does refer to Prasanna. She is a compound or synthetic unit, highly advanced. It appears that she is an interception of Locana, who assumed the guises of Dharmadhatu Purification and Divine Eye. This is a Sutra-level teaching. In tantra, we are doing something similar to Madhu Vidya, by generating Nectar from Varuni, and as a "stage" we are going to say that Kurukulla is what is described in the traditional Homa as Nectar of Tvastr rains on Talu. When rain collects in the lower Vessel, that is Bharati. And so Prasanna is somewhere out beyond a heavily-cranked Bharati. She is a fusion that becomes Nectar Eye. And it is this we want to stabilize to have use of massive forms, such as Amaravajra Devi and Eighteen Arm Varuni, Padmanarttesvara, Cunda, Khaganana, Mantranusarini, or other perhaps more famous ones.

    In Swayambhu Purana, the main themes being described include:

    Namasangiti, Khaganana, and Vimala and Prasanna Atma. The other keyword highlights besides Khaganana would seem to be Dhruvam (which sounds like Pentagram co-axial to Hexagram) and Prasanna. This may sometimes be an adjective but can also be a name. I am not sure how close this is to Durgottarini Dhruvam Arya Tara:

    durggatiṃ naiva yāyāta kadācin kutracid dhruvaṃ||193||

    Allright. Khaganana is a hypostasis of the body and nectar. She is a Pitha goddess who is a sexual center, but, in this case, she is identical for males and females in the view of yoga, called the Tip of the Jewel. We are different in the root center. Khaganana governs an energetic flow from the part that is the same to the part that is different. By association, then, her power is probably pretty close to Prasanna Tara. Actually inert without proper grounding and opening.

    As an example as to the mandatory gating-ness of Vasudhara, she appears to be used in the Swayambhu's particular handling of the Four Elements.

    Now if we recall the Samputa passage about Fire opening the Space of Wind, that is why Vahni is a regular synonym for Fire:

    vāyupure pratiṣṭhāpya vahnipuro'gnidevatā|

    nāgapure ca nāgendro vasupure vasundharāṃ||157||

    Perhaps Nagas = Water and Vasudhara = Earth; and it turns out the key component of this book is Fivefold Form pinned to Six Gunas, which I take to be Dhruvam.

    When Vasudhara and the Elements are first rolled out, there are at least sixteen verses for Vayu, including Bhakti and Bhajan to Nandi.

    It appears to reflex to Agni and Kambhojya:

    nīrogyaṃ śrīsamāpannaṃ kāmabhojyaṃ sadā bhave|

    ye cāpyevaṃ samārādhya sagaṇāṃ vahnidevatāṃ||168||

    And to Naga:

    paripuṣṭendriyārogya mahāsaukhyaṃ sadā bhave|

    ye cāpyevaṃ samārādhya sagaṇāṃ nāgadevatāṃ||170||

    And to Vasudhara in their accent, connected with Bhava of Sampatti:

    bhadraśrīratnasaṃpattikāmabhojyaṃ sadā bhave|

    ye cāpyevaṃ samārādhya sagaṇāṃ śrībasundharāṃ||172||

    And then speaks of Six Gunas and Six Dharma Samapattis of Caitya Manjushri.

    Then there is a Vimala Atma of Bhadra Sri Sad Guna.

    Vimala Atma of Parishuddha Indriya.

    Four Brahma Vihara, Ten Bhumis.

    Bhaskara or Radiance of Six Dharmas as the Pada of Sambuddha.

    For a quick look at the occult properties summarized in the whole Swayambhu Purana, Chapter One looks like it may be saying something about Bhiksuni Cunda:

    vihāre vāsinī cūḍābhidhānī brahmacāriṇī|

    arhantī bhikṣuṇī bhadrā saddharmmaguṇavāñchinī||112||

    and Six Dharmas--Gunas is already right there.

    Chapter Two has a Khagesvara which is unusual; it has Prasanna in relation to Sapta Ratna and to Great Fruit.

    In Chapter Three, Mahadevi Khaganana Dharmodaya comes up right after Heruka Mandala; she comes up four more times, so, this is largely about her. It also looks like there is Manjushri with Samvari which makes Prasanna Atma. Prasanna is a somewhat frequent adjective here. In tantric terms, Guhyeshvari initiated Manjushri into the tantra--mandala--reality of Heruka Chakrasamvara, which is plain here.

    Samvari is Vimala, and Vimala Atma also recurs in Swayambhu Purana.

    In Chapter Four, Khaganana appears after Krakuchanda Buddha, and three more times related to Manjushri. There is a Prasanna Atma in the form of a song, and again in relation to Divine or Divya Amrita.

    Chapter Six has a Prasanna Atma in what looks to be a "Root Door", Dvaramule, and eight pranas which follow mentally--manasa. Then, arguably, the name Dvaraka appears. Devi Kesini, a Manjushri attendant, stems from whatever this is.

    The initiation or Abhiseka of Prasanna in the Vajradhrk terms follows. It deals with Twelve Syllables and Twelve Bhumis. Dharmasri Mitra and his Namasangiti explanation are referred to.

    In Chapter Seven, Khaganana is Mahadevi Yoni Rupa. This is another Prasanna Atma, there is a Jyotir one, and a Sraddha Bhakta, Prasanna Dhih.

    Chapter Eight begins with Khaganana Bhajan.

    Chapter Eight is aimed at Bhupalas, such as Pisaci, Dakini, etc., and Vimala Atma of Tri-Ratna.

    It has Gosringa Parvati's place.

    It seems to give Jagganatha = Dharmadhatu and starts Pancha Deva again.

    At 107 you find Maheshvari Khaganana.

    And Khaganana appears again.

    Nagas get a long workout with Karkotaka as the important one and mayavic speech.

    Chapter Nine Vasudhara is the same formula with Wind, Fire, and Serpent.

    Chapter Ten is the same formula and then you get Dharmodaya Devi Maheshvari Khaganana. It mentions Santikar Acharya, Samantabhadra, Sakya Simha, Nairatma, Nirvikalpa, Nisprapanca, Vinayaka, Caitya Manjushri, Swayambhu Jyotirupa, Sridatri Pranava Rupini.

    Nandi seems to liberate from birth in the three worlds.

    This Samaya has to do with Prasanna Dhrk, which is as if like making a Prasanna Family in Guhyasamaja Tantra.

    The Vasudhara formula cycles again, and Khagana and Caitya Manjushri come in the same verse.

    Then it looks like there is Refuge in Durga.

    It may be that Bhadra Tara is generated from the merit of cultivating Swayambhu:

    evaṃ bhadrataraṃ puṇyaṃ svayabhūṃbhavanodbhavaṃ|

    natvā taṃ trijagannāthaṃ bhajadhvaṃ sarvadā mudā||153||

    The chapter calls itself Dharmadhatu Swayambhu Utpatti.

    Through it all, there is the context that the main synonym of "goddess" is Dharmodaya, and male god or Manjushri is Dharmadhatu Vagisvara.

    The Swayambhu is the only Buddhist Purana, and it is the background for a Buddhist Homa that does not just start with Vajrasattva, but, is the major basis of:

    Samputa Tantra along with Weapon Hevajra, Dakini Jala Gauris, and Vajraraudris

    The "system of Abhayakaragupta" who compiled NSP, Sadhanamala, and Vajravali, the main source of all our sadhanas, along with those of Mitra Yogin and some others.

    Samvarodaya Tantra with Varuni and Vairocani

    The basic pattern of the main Homa is:

    (1) Purification and Lighting of the Fireplace

    One meditates on Samayagni.

    Om Vaisvanaraya Vidhmahe Lalelaya Dhimahi Tanno Agni Pracodayat

    Om Let us know Him who burns inside of us, let us meditate (and absorb His energy) to Him with the 7 tongues, may Agni inspire and guide us.

    Conjuring Agni from Ram (Hrum), you unite three fires: stomach, bindu, terrestrial. Place into fire the consciousness of Vahni: Om Hrum, before the consciousness of Vahni I bow! Terrestrial in this sense means ritual fire (Ahavaniya, presence of Samsya and Saharaksa).

    (2) Fire Offering to the Fire God Agni

    In the Agnyahuti, meditate on Jnanagni. Then unite Jnanagni to Samayagni. Then draw them into the body into the Sesahuti.

    When Ahamkara is burned in Jnanagni, the person becomes Nandi. Sacred form of Taurus.

    (3) Fire Offering to the Main Deity

    Then start with Akshobya ritual.

    (4) Bali Offering and Worship of Holy Places

    Then Devatahuti, fire offering of grain and butter. Followed by hundred syllable mantra. First esoteric sacrifice is the Soma offering.

    Brihadaranyaka Pavamana (Soma) mantra:

    „Om Asatoma Sadgamaya,
    Tamasoma Jyotirgamaya,
    Mrityorma Amritamgamaya,
    Om Shanti, Shanti, Shantihi.”

    Lead me from the Unreal to the Real, Darkness to Light, Death to Immortality, Om Shanti.

    (5) Purification of Disciples

    Then 1,000 offerings, Sahasrahutihoma. Brass plate with barley and red cloth.

    Without knowing any better, we are going to do an Inner Homa of 1,000 Lights Ceremony in Brahma Randra, and, using our seven head colors, insert Vajra Danda into Higher Yoni and elevate on Three in One Fire.

    Second esoteric sacrifice of King Moon.

    (6) Filling the Fireplace with Offerings


    pūrṇam adaḥ pūrṇam idaṁ
    pūrṇāt pūrṇam udacyate|
    pūrṇasya pūrṇam ādāya
    pūrṇam evāvaśiṣyate||

    7) Offering the Remainders of Oblations

    Sesahuti, offering of remainders. Fourth esoteric sacrifice of rain into Food or Anna Purna.

    We emerge slowly and methodically by specific imaginations instead of random, uncontrolled. There will be a few Wars in Heaven and we will do a few incarnations of Vishnu as the layers of form and oridinary waking consciousness are restored.

    Anna Purna sloka:

    annapūrṇe sadāpūrṇe śaṅkaraḥ prāṇavallabhe ।
    jñāna vairāgya siddhyarthaṃ bhikṣāṃ dehi ca pārvatī ॥

    (8) Sending forth the Gods

    Finally Visarjana or sending forth the devas. Formal dismissal. Fifthly seed may be esoterically offered to a woman. If done, that kind of seed is supposed to be offered in a ritual way, Lata Sadhana, that aspect of the Path called Vira Chara.

    "Sending forth" is perhaps similar to Ganapati's "sending away" by Gauri.

    We can see the sketch of an Inner Homa is really to use Soma and to penetrate the void as deeply as possible and experience Nectar, or Abhisambodhi Sequence, Dissolution, etc., and after it passes our Talu or throat, then it becomes "rain", i. e. it will definitely work on our body and if we are any good at magic it will work in the world, Annapurna.

    If possible, we would like to have Milk and Curds and Honey and add Grain and Soma.

    The Homa itself is really step four, "Soma offering", taking place after a preparatory period:

    1. Bringing the fire from Tretagni Agnihotra.

    2. Ishti fire. Ishti means whatever is inside us we offer. It is a basic requirement for the other steps of the Somayag.

    3. Pravargya for three days. This is preparation for the Soma offering.

    4. Soma offering.

    5. Wrapping up–final offerings and prayers.

    6. Bath in the Narmada River.

    Without the traditional fire, a big temple, ritual, and river, we are going to perform an Inner Homa. It's for New Years or retreats because it is very large. Step one would have to be symbolic, and two is a basic statement similar to what we might say in Abhisambodhi, something dies and gets reborn.

    The "preparatory period" is something you could do with real items, or, if not, try making visualized things beforehand.

    There is a Nepalese Buddhist Sahasrahuti Homa. Sruti is the communal practice of the Vedas, oral or esoteric practices. Recorded in Aranyaka, or the Wilderness literature. So these are the origin of Tantric Homa, and Nepal adds grains, beans, or medicinal plants to the offering.

    The Preparation or Pravargya is associated with Atri family (Book Five in Rig Veda). Pravargya is a Vedic sacrificial rite. Though considered as an independent rite, it is actually incorporated in the Somayāgas like the Agniṣṭoma. It is generally performed twice a day for three days. An important item of this sacrifice is the preparation of gharma out of the milk of a cow and a she-goat, along with ghee. The offerings of gharma are made through fire to the deities Aśvins, Vāyu, Indra, Savitṛ, Bṛhaspati and Yama. The sacrificer drinks the remaining from the upāyamani. During the performance of the Pravargya rite, the doors of the prācīna-vaṅśa or the sacrificial shed are kept closed.

    The temperature in the sun's chromosphere is 4,320℃. As part of Pravargya (a special ball of fire), a sudden flash of temperature to the tune of 3870℃ is created in order to cleanse the environment.

    The object is the Sun and Celestial Fluid gracing this milk. It is the divine pairing, Devayoni in which you will be reborn. Celestial Gandharvas, the light of inner vision. A produced Gandharva Sun. It arises in the Ocean of the Heart. Connection with the spiritual sun. It has the Emperor's Throne above Kings. It is sweet or Madhu. And again the Jivanmuktas or a living network of light and sound. So to speak, it reacts the sun with water, into the concentrated form we can take. Solar Fire is not "of the ocean" but it reacts with water, drinking it.

    This is our Milk to which we add Curds and Grain further on.

    If you put a glass pitcher of water in the window, that would be a good substitute. If you want to handle ghee, yogurt, etc., also fine. Not many of us have a blast furnace to do a mini-sunburst. But we can all spend time feeling the beneficial aspects of the sun.

    Its container is the Horse Head which the Aswins install by surgery to make a new year. This is blasted in its own super fire and then it is then held by tongs and taken to the AhAvaniya fire and the gharma offering to the ashvins is made. An indra pouring with the formula “svAhendrAya svAhendrA vaD.h” is made and the milk is made to overflow from the pot into the fire. This is meaning Mahendra which is the one fire Buddha says to give huti or sacrificial invocation. The last word sometimes given as vat, "like" or "as", such as brahmana vat or pitri vat.

    The pourings to pUshaN and rudra are made. Aditi Solar deity. Vishnu is Vamana deva at this level. Bhaga's sister is Ushana. Bhaga resolving discord with Shiva.

    Then after performing the agnihotra and worshiping the prANa as indra and agni with the formula “prANa evainaM indratamegnau juhoti” the yajamAna, his wife and priests eat the congealed milk of the gharma with honey. Note that yajamana is the patron, somebody that the priest is doing this ritual for, like for the construction of a house or their seventy-seventh birthday. For inner homa, you are priest, patron, and anyone else involved.

    The adhvaryu then disposes the sacrificial implements used in the rite: the forceps, the tripod, the fans, two fire pokers in the east by arranging them in the shape of a man. The prastotA priest sings the rakshoha sAmans during the process. Then singing the shukra samans, the yajamAna, his wife and the priests dispose the pravargya pot on the east on the west sides of the uttaravedi platform. If he desires to slay his foes he lays a death-dealing charm invoking agni-vaishvAnara and disposes it on the branch of an audumbara fig tree. He may also dispose it near a termite heap with darbha grass for successful farming.

    Milk from luminous cows becomes fixed as curd in the mind. Aswins delight in the mind fixed with luminosity and take it to the next level, using one's vitality, perfuming the prana. Ashwins are password or pass-key when higher orders need to take charge of the Path.

    Dadhikravan or Dadhiyan with Horse Head, as Fiery Lord of Speech on Wind Horse, invoked first before Ushas, Aswins, Agni. Paranormal Curd Fire; Celestial Sun enters the Curds.

    Ashwins pouring mantra AV 7.73 (Shaunaka SaMhita).

    The mind of man is framed even like the breath And harmony of music.

    Pravargya is related to the Riddle Hymn of Rig Veda 1.164. The hymn is academically discussed with Sanskrit slokas here.

    The Atharvaveda has no surviving Aranyaka, though the Gopatha Brahmana is regarded as its Aranyaka, a remnant of a larger, lost Atharva (Paippalada) Brahmana. The Taittiriya Aranyaka is associated with Taittiriya recension of the Krishna Yajurveda and divided into ten chapters; fourth gives the mantras for this rite. This currently does not exist online in English, only in Hindi characters. Consequently it is difficult to obtain the Maha Shanti Mantra.

    The "beginning peace invocation" (purva santi) of the Pravargya

    (Taittiriya Aranyaka 4.1)

    Adoration to Speech, the spoken and unspoken, to this Speech be adoration.

    Adoration to Speech.

    Adoration to the Lord of Speech.

    Adoration to the seers, the creators of mantras, the lords of the mantras.

    May the seers, the creators of mantras, the lords of mantras not abandon me.

    May I not abandon the seers, the creators of mantras, the lords of the mantras.

    May I speak the Speech which belongs to all the devas, which is auspicious, unfaded, agreeable to the devas.

    Let heaven be my shelter, let Brahman and Prajapati be my shelter. Let the moon and the sun be my shelter, let Brahman and Prajapati be my shelter.

    I shall speak of what exists, I shall speak of the world, I shall speak of brilliant energy, I shall speak of glory, I shall speak of ascesis, I shall speak of the Brahman, I shall speak the truth.

    For that I spread out the spreading [the grass on which the devas are invited to sit for the offering]. May it be a spreading for my children, for my cattle. May I be a spreading for children, for cattle.

    O Prana ('breathing out') and Apana ('breathing in'), do you two protect me from death. O Prana and Apana, do not abandon me.

    I shall think of the sweet, I shall generate the sweet, I shall convey the sweet, I shall speak of the sweet. May I speak the Speech which is full of the sweet for the devas, which is willingly listened to by the people. The devas should lead me who am like this to splendour; the fathers should rejoice sympathetically.

    Ooom! Peace, peace, peace!

    This invites the Aswins for prana and apana. We don't want to completely die if we go into an oblivious trance by stopping the wheel of the body. If you don't have children and cattle, you might change that, the main meaning is already established. Ascesis is discipline and we have Buddhist terms for that.

    Next, this is the central portion of the famous Mahashanti Mantra, the great prayer for peace; As well as being the final anuvaka of the Pravargya mantras, it is also the Shanti mantra of the 5th Prasna of the Taittiriya Aranyaka which is the Brahmana for Pravargya.

    Prthivee Shaantih Antarikshan Shaantih
    Dyaushshaantih Dishashshaantih
    Avaantaradishaashshaantih Agnishshaantih
    Vaayushshaantih Aadityashshaantih
    Vhandramaashshaantih Nakshatraani
    Shaantih Aapashshaantih
    Vanaspatayashshaantih Gaushshaantih Ajaa
    Shaantih Ashvashshaantih Purushashshaantih
    Brahma Shaantih Braahmanashshaantih
    Shaantireva Shaantih Shaantirme Astu
    Shaantih. Tayaaham Shaantyaa
    Sarvashaantyaa Mahyam Dvipade
    Chatushpade Cha Shaantim Karomi
    Shaantirme Astu Shaantih


    "May there be peace on earth, peace in the
    ether, peace in the heaven, peace in all
    directions, peace in fire, peace in the air, peace
    in the sun, peace in the moon, peace in the
    constellations, peace in the waters,
    peace in the plants and herbs, peace in trees,
    peace towards cattle, peace towards goats,
    peace towards horses, peace towards
    mankind, peace in the absolute Brahman,
    peace in those who have attained Brahman,
    may there be peace, only peace.
    May that peace be in me, peace alone.
    Through that peace may I confirm peace
    in myself, and all bipeds and quadrupeds.
    May there be peace in me, peace alone."

    Without the full thing, those are the first and last parts. Sufficient for meditation purposes. We may not have a blast furnace, but we can have milk and curdle it or make yogurt, or cook it into oatmeal or cafe' au lait for example. Consecrating and partaking for three days will definitely do something.

    Handbook of Tibetan Buddhist Symbols has a decent article on Inner Offering including the two polarities for the Meats.

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    Default Re: Nirakara and Shentong Buddhism, Tara, Sadhanas, Sanskrit culture

    Samputa and Ramya, Mahabala and Jambhala and conversion of the Ten Wrathful Ones

    Samputa Tantra has just been published ca. 2020. Besides finding its mantras and so forth, it turns out the Introduction is rather good, and here is the part that nips at what Samputa means, and that it is intentionally derived from Dakini Jala.

    It is chiefly a compilation of eleven or so tantras and explains how Vajrasattva is a "bookworm" of it.

    So this is a pretty straightforward progression from Khasama Tantra. That one is a fairly easy, light read that gives Vajrasattva in terms of principles, but does not really have practices and mantras and so forth. The Samputa then attaches several related practices, without overhauling them. It preserves Apabrahmsa verses from the originals, and their meter and style, without altering them to fit any standardized format, such as the Kalachakra Tantra is composed entirely in Sragdhara meter. Samputa is not, itself, any particular revelation or transmission, but collects several that may be written different ways. For example, it has the section using Dakini Jala Gauris, but also has the ones in Hevajra mode. It can, perhaps, be credited with its own Weapon Hevajra, although this is also in NSP. If we follow the non-category of "Vajrasattva tantra", it says that we can make the Accomplishment which enables him to operate *any* male principal deity of the advanced tantras. So it would not matter if he led to Chakrasamvara or to Hevajra. The main difference in these is the goddess perspective. Chakrasamvara takes Vajravarahi, who: inevitably will arise if we proceed through Varuni. Hevajra is looking for her, along with Nairatma and Vajrashrnkhala. It probably would be the best system, if we were raised within the culture where all this was familiar and available to us, and we have an aptitude for yoga and a supportive environment. Because this is not usually the case, that is the reason to slowly get Varuni. She is ready for anyone with a Buddhist Sutra background who wants to advance, or, from a non-Buddhist yoga that has begun to affect Prana.

    If you do this and you find that she begins working as directed, then, ultimately she also manifests Tri-kaya Vajrayogini who is Cinnamasta. Therefor there must also be a Vajrayogini of an intermediate stage. These can be used in a Yoga view without union. It is always possible that someone's "power level" could start racing ahead, and so there is a Guide for it in this manner, which is mainly based in natural forces and definitions, and because it is based in Tara it is very immanent.

    According to the Introduction:

    What is sampuṭa then? This important term, central to the Sampuṭa and other tantras in its class, can be understood on different levels. The word itself denotes any spherical hollow space, and especially the space enclosed between two bowls or round vessels. The notion it thus evokes is the union of two elements, with a protected or special space created by their union. This notion is perhaps the basis for the esoteric interpretation of sampuṭa—a nondual, awakened state of mind produced by sexual union. The Sampuṭa sums up this state in this way (10.­46 et seq.):

    When the vital powers of the coupling pair combine,
    Their bodies, speech, and minds likewise coalesce. {10.4.10cd}
    By this means they attain identity with the deity,
    Thus becoming reflections of the Victorious One, devoid of all forms. {10.4.11ab}

    As the “coupling pair” conceive of themselves as deities, sampuṭa can be regarded as a nondual, blissful awareness as expressed by the sexual union of Heruka (whether Saṃvara or Hevajra) and his consort. All these esoteric connotations, however, boil down to the union (sampuṭa) of emptiness (female) and compassion (male), or gnosis and skillful means. The cultivation of this nondual state (sampuṭa) is the central theme of the Father and Mother tantras, with the former laying the theoretical foundation for the processes that occur in the body by explaining the subtle body with its channels, winds, and drops, and the latter shifting the emphasis to consort practice with its powerful dynamic. Whatever the exact method, the result of this practice is the recognition of the ever-present (but mostly unrecognized), blissful, nondual wakefulness, in which emptiness and compassion are an indivisible unity.

    Lastly, as the Sampuṭa tells us, sampuṭa—or its realization—may be seen as the deity Vajrasattva. This realization is the aim of the profound practices taught in this tantra, a teaching that has itself emerged from sampuṭa. The “sampuṭa” nature of Vajrasattva has been poignantly expressed (without, however, mentioning sampuṭa explicitly) in the opening verse of the first known tantra of the Saṃvara cycle, the Sarvabuddhasamāyoga:

    rahasye parame ramye sarvātmani sadā sthitaḥ |
    sarvabuddhamayaḥ sattvo vajrasattvaḥ paraṃ sukham || SBS 1.1 ||

    The prevailing exegesis interprets “secret” as referring to Vajrasattva/Saṃvara’s indivisibility from the ḍākinīs (because of which he is called Ḍākinī­jāla­saṃvara, “Saṃvara of the Host of Ḍākinīs”). The varied interpretations, linguistic and otherwise, of Vajrasattva/Saṃvara’s connection with the ḍākinīs are too many to present here. The ḍākinīs, however, are usually interpreted as the movement of vital energies in the subtle channels, which brings us to the secret and profound practices that also include sexual yoga.

    SBS is their common title for Dakini Jala; so, yes, that is the first line of the tantra, which we have found strewn and twisted into a great deal of other material. We already have the Rahasya or Secret Doctrine of that. Moreover, the term which failed to be emphasized here is:

    ramya (रम्य).—a (S) Delightful, charming, gratifying or grateful to the senses or mind.

    Rāmyā (राम्या):—[from rāma] rāmyā ([Ṛg-veda]) or rāmyā ([Atharva-veda]), f. night.

    Ramya (रम्य):—[(myaḥ-myā-myaṃ) a.] Pleasing, handsome. m. Michelia champaca. f. Night; name of a river. n. A cucumber; semen virile.

    E. ram to sport, aff. yat

    Ramyā (रम्या) refers to “she who is beautiful” and is used to described the Goddess (i.e., Khageśī), according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “In the meantime, once the goddess had crossed over the most excellent Yoga and once the fifth night had passed, she emerged from the middle of the Liṅga. [...] She (also has other forms with) two or six arms and, beautiful [i.e., ramyā], sits on five ghosts. In the left hand (she holds) a skull and (in her other) upraised hands (she holds a) noose and spear. Crooked, her body grey, she is Cāmuṇḍā, the accomplished Yoginī. This Vidyā, of many forms, is the woman who resides within the Triangle. Such is the visualized form of the goddess, the deity called Khageśī”.

    And so it has incorporated Agni's Fire syllable Ram:

    Ram (रम्).—ramate ramati ramṇāti [participle] rate (q.v.) tr. stop, fix, settle; gladden, delight, enjoy ([especially] carnally); [intransitive] stop, rest, stay gladly with ([locative] or [dative]); delight in, be pleased with or to ([locative], [instrumental], or infin.); be happy or content; dally or have sexual intercourse with ([instrumental] ±samam, saha, sākam, or sārdham). [Causative] ramayati or rāmayati = [Simple] [transitive]

    Manjushri is perhaps closer to the Source of it. It is as if he has been holding this practice until there were enough knowledgeable disciples for something like Dakini Jala to be writeable, whereas the specific Samvarodaya Tantra cannot be shown to be quite as old as that. And so we see in Swayambhu Purana that this whole national epic is based from Heruka Yoga and is an interaction with Guhyeshvari, mostly as Khaganana, i. e. her worshippable form, whereas Manjushri directly beheld her Universal or 1,000 Arm forms in Peaceful and Wrathful aspects. Khaganana was called Maheshvari, who is Ghasmari here in Samputa Tantra.

    Although Swayambhu Purana writes the name various ways, Keith Dowman says they all have to do with Santikar Acharya and the Santipur (Akasapur) area around Swayambhu. He has to do with Amsuwarman and his daughter Bhrkuti, whose loom remains at the Sankhu Mahacina Vajrayogini temple.

    The Acarya of Santipur is the lineage holder of the Sadangayoga (sbyor drug) of the Guhyasamaja, the six rDzogs-rim practices which lead, not to the Rainbow Body of the rNying-ma-pas, but immortality in a state of suspended animation, all outflows extinct.

    We have found that the fiery Takkiraja becomes the consort of Manohara in the Sakya system of Reds. Similar to him is another Wrathful Directional Guardian:


    In Shurungama Sutra, Ucchusma is Dimbha or Mahabala who makes a crystal clear declaration about the cooling of heat as the foremost method of enlightenment, and he vows to serve as a knight.

    His full name is Great Strength Furious Diamond Ucchuṣma, in Sanskrit "Vajra Krodha Mahābala Ucchuṣma", from the Chinese version of the Sūtra of Mahābala and the Tibetan version of the Ārya Mahābala-Nāma-Mahāyāna Sūtra.

    We are not quoted the verse but the translation:

    According to the Shurangama Sutra, Shakyamuni Buddha asked the bodhisattvas and arahants to present their methods to understand the ultimate truth, the eighteenth to present his character was Ucchusma.

    The sutra states:

    "Ucchushma came before the Buddha, put his palms together, bowed at the Buddha’s feet, and said to the Buddha, I can still remember how many kalpas ago I was filled with excessive greed and desire.

    There was a Buddha in the world named King of Emptiness.

    He said that people with too much desire turn into a raging mass of fire.

    He taught me to contemplate the coolness and warmth throughout my entire body.

    A spiritual light coalesced inside and transformed my thoughts of excessive lust into the fire of wisdom.

    After that, when any of the Buddhas summoned me, they used the name 'fire-head.'

    From the strength of the fire-light samadhi, I accomplished Arhatship.

    I made a great vow that when each of the Buddhas accomplishes the way, I will be a powerful knight and in person subdue the demons' hatred.

    The Buddha asks about perfect penetration.

    I used attentive contemplation of the effects of heat in my body and mind, until it became unobstructed and penetrating and all my outflows were consumed.

    I produced a blazing brilliance and ascended to enlightenment.

    This is the foremost method."

    Correspondingly from the same Shurangama in terms of Expedient Means:

    When Manjusri Bodhisattva (文殊師利菩薩) brought Matangi’s daughter and Ananda back to the Buddha, the Buddha taught Matangi’s daughter about causes and conditions of a human body, and thus put out Matangi’s daughter's desire. She then attained the fruition of Anagamin (阿那含).

    According to Bhattacharya:

    Jambhala in his fierce form of Ucchusma or Dimbha is not known either in Tibet or in China.

    Goddess Aparajita is a destroyer form of Sri Durga. She manifests from the womb of the earth with the help of


    Vajrayogini is another of the important and popular goddesses who does not seem to bear the image of any of the Dhyani Buddhas on the crown. she is a Tantric Buddhist female Buddha.


    She is a companion of Red Tara Kurukulla...

    From a brief Jewel Family description which uses the wrong Vajra Tara entirely.

    Unfolding a Mandala finds Capeta Mudra or Slapping Aparajita at Ellora and Ratnagiri.

    Most tantras or sadhanas do not reveal their origin, but, a 1050 Nepalese Samvarodaya commentary as well as Vimalaprabha say they are from Ratnagiri.

    Ratnagiri's Asokakanta Marici as listed on Wiki is probably Vasudhara according to someone who simply suggests her item is grain, not flowers.

    Considering the name of the place, it might not be too unusual to find Jewel Family portrayed there.

    Jambhala and Vasudhara are characteristic of it, but, they are also in Vajra Family.

    According to a Commentary from The Sixth Patriarch's Dharma Jewel Platform Sutra:

    Everyone has sexual desire, but you do not need to be afraid of it. In The Shurangama Sutra we read about Ucchusma, the “Fire-Head Vajra” whose sexual desire was unbearably intense when he first began to cultivate. But he was able to discipline and temper the fire of lust, transforming it into the fire of wisdom and transforming himself into the “Fire-Head Vajra.”

    “The root cause of purity is the lust nature.” Proper thoughts are the cause of purity in the nature, and deviant thoughts the cause of impurity. Therefore cut off the nature of sexual desire, which means transform it. This certainly is not telling you to castrate yourself. That’s not the answer. Just change your thoughts and make them pure in nature. You don’t have to cut off sexual desire. Don’t cut it off, transform it instead. Transform lust into purity, which is simply proper knowledge and proper views. The lust within the nature is simply deviant knowledge and deviant views.

    “Once rid of lust, the substance of the nature is pure.” To get rid of lust means to transform it. You don’t have to throw it away, all you have to do is transform it. You don’t have to throw it away, all you have to do is change your thoughts and direct them to the pure nature. That is the clear, pure, substance of the self-nature, the Dharma-body.

    The five desires are for wealth, sex, fame, food, and sleep. They may also be explained as forms, sounds, smells, tastes, tangible objects, and objects of the mind. In general, stay far away from them; do not have deviant thoughts within your selfnature. Cultivate proper knowledge and proper views, and abandon the five desires. Once you leave the five desires, you can see the nature in an instant and obtain your own truesuchness wonderful nature.


    “But now I will begin with the last seven Buddhas. In the Past ‘Adorned Eon’ there were Vipashyin Buddha, Shikhin Buddha, and Vishvabhu Buddha. In the present ‘Worthy Eon’ there have been Krakucchanda Buddha, Kanakamuni Buddha, Kashyapa Buddha, and Shakyamuni Buddha.”


    In the Adorned Eon (Alamkarakalpa) a thousand Buddhas appeared in the world. The 998th Buddha of that kalpa was Vipashyin Buddha. His name means “Victorious Contemplation,” “Every Kind of Contemplation,” “Victorious View,” or “Every Kind of View.” If you just remember “Vipashyin Buddha” that will do for general purposes.

    “Shikhin Buddha.” Shikhin is translated as “fire.” “Vishvabhu Buddha” was the last Buddha of the Adorned Eon.

    We are now living in the Worthy Eon (Bhadrakalpa), socalled because many worthy sages will appear during it.

    Of the thousand Buddhas of this eon, Krakucchanda Buddha was the first. His name means “Worthy of Offerings,” because he should receive the offerings of humans and gods. His name also means “Adornment.”

    The second Buddha was Kanakamuni, the third, Kashyapa, and the fourth, Shakyamuni. These are the most recent Buddhas.

    Shakyamuni Buddha, in the midst of the millions of humans and gods who were circumambulating him, picked up a flower and Mahakashyapa, the First Patriarch, had to smile. No one knew what was happening when Shakyamuni Buddha said, “I have the Right Dharma-eye Treasury, the wonderful mind of Nirvana, the real mark, which is unmarked. This is the mind-tomind transmission, transmitted outside the teaching. I have already given it to Mahakashyapa in mind-to-mind transmission.”

    Nagarjuna Bodhisattva, the Fourteenth Patriarch, is the one who went to the Dragon Palace and brought back the Avatamsaka Sutra. He was very, very wise.

    Our copy of Sadhanamala does not contain Jambhala's section, so, we are sort of at the mercy of what Bhattacharya says. Likewise,

    Only one Sādhana in the Sādhanamālā is devoted to the worship of Mahābala, a fierce emanation of the Dhyāni Buddha Amitābha.

    In Java he has a Six Face form. He is also in the Drukpa Sadhanamala set with Laughing Ekajati. Here, he is surrounded by Vajra Family deities including Nairatma:

    Considering this is a set of only five paintings, his presence is noteworthy. It also contains the odd:

    Shri Heruka Vajramanjugosha: A semi-wrathful, red manifestation of Manjushri embracing the consort Nairatmya.

    With just Manjushri as the header, the closest thing in Sadhanamala is probably Ali Manmatha 73 due to the presence of:


    Theirs has eight red faces and sixteen arms with no items; Manmatha lacks a more specific form unless that statement more or less matches the thangka.

    Mahabala is normally in the Ten Wrathful Ones in the Northwest--Vayu--Air direction. However, in the subtle body, Mahabala recurs in multiple male and female versions such as:

    Mahābalā (महाबला) is the name of a Ḍākinī who, together with the Vīra (hero) named Padmanarteśvara forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Vajracakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15.

    Mahābalā (महाबला) is the name of a Ḍākinī (‘sacred girl’) presiding over Sindhu: one of the four Śmaśāna (‘sacred spot’) present within the Kāyacakra (‘circle of body’) , according to the 9th-centruy Vajraḍākatantra. Mahābalā has for her husband the hero (vīra) named Padmanarteśvara. She is the presiding deity of Sindhu and the associated internal location are the ‘insteps’ and the bodily ingredients (dhātu) are the ‘tears’.

    If, like other synonyms for "Virya", it is some kind of strength reaching new levels, then Sutra Mahabala is probably tantricly transformed like Takkiraja.

    And so by using Vajrahumkara, we will find that normal Mahabala "goes away" and by conversion:


    and what is happening here in this conversion, well, among ten deities, Humkara takes three Wrathful Manjushris and makes ostensible tantric traits:

    Yamantaka..........Vajradanda [susumna extended beyond the head] [also a planet in Sarvadurgati represented by Tortoise--Saturn]

    Prajnantaka...........Analarka [blaze]
    Padmantaka...........Vajrosnisa [fiery crown center]

    The fourth is more commonly called Vighnantaka, which is generally synonymous to Ganapati. As the fourth here, Ganapati and The Servant seem to become the Sun of Sarvadurgati Parishodhana:


    That may be the most wicked and important one of these.

    Basic Amritakundalin roughly described as the male All-Purpose mantra similar to Khandaroha. Vajrakundali as "a planet, red, riding a horse in the East" is probably a felicitous discovery.

    His new name has the usage that:

    The Hindu Sun, Aditya, became Vajrakundali with Vajramrita as Shakti.

    And so that is the basis of what we call Jewel Family.

    In Sarvadurgati Parishodhana, the Sun, Surya, is the deities male Vajrakundali and female Vajramrita.

    We think this corresponds to Vajra Surya Abhisekha, also because male Vajramrita is considered one of the first and most important yogini tantras. It is, of course, possible, that his consort is named Vajramrita, but in our version, no name is given.

    Sarvadurgati Parishodana also refers to Vajramrita in the male sense of Daka as if he were the same male in Vajramrita Tantra.

    NSP says the mandala splits the sun into the couple Vajrakundali and Vajramrita. And we can find a section where Vajrakundali's form is given as a red wrathful deity related to or even holding a whole Mena mandala. In Sarvadurgati, there was the nebulous statement:

    vajrakuṇḍalikrodhavad eva|

    This is the only possible reference to the solar shakti of female Vajramrita.

    This final major mandala refers to Seven Families; it has more detail, and explains the Sun deities Vajrakundalin and Vajramrita as Red, with a Vajra and Lotus in their right hand, Sun disc and Lotus in the left. Vajrankusa and Vajramukhi have boar heads. Sarvadurgati conveys Seven Paramitas, the first six plus Aspiration. In this scheme, Vajrasaumya is the Moon. The final member is:

    śyāmavarṇā siṃhārūḍhā dakṣiṇabhujābhyāṃ vajracakradharā vāmābhyāṃ paṭṭiśāśaṃkhadharā|

    also having:

    śyāmavarṇā dakṣiṇena vajradhāriṇī vāmena khaḍgapheṭakadhāriṇi|

    There is a superior commentary saying Maunavajra (Silence) is Brahma, whose cosort is Vajrasanti. The Vajrasaundas are Brewers--cerebral fluids, the six directions are the six realms, and then the six goddesses are "aspects of enlightenment" obtained by transformation.

    The male Vajramrita apparently is Humkara, or Vajrahumkara, due to using Vajrakundali mantra.

    The Guimet has the Vajramrita mandala from Ngor. In this, the six-armed god Vajramrita is portrayed seated in the centre of the composition embracing the goddess Svabhaprajna. Bright green is used to convey the “priyangu flower color” of his skin. The couple is surrounded by eight other goddesses within the petals of a centrally placed lotus. The overall layout of the composition is constructed around the shape of this flower. Two male and two female guardians protect the access to the divine sphere: blue Bhrikutitaranga to the East, white Bhayabhisana to the South, red Hayarupa to the West, and green Gananayaka to the North.

    So one can see that hypostaticly, Ganapati becomes Amritakundalin, becomes Vajrakundali or the male half of the Sun, which either is or is parallel to Vajramrita Tantra. This is like Ganapati's role in Homa with Solar Fire.

    Female Elephant Head or Khandaroha is similar but has no direct attachment to him.

    Proceeding, we will find that DDV re-converts some of the Wrathful Ones. It is the Dharmakaya, so, more like the destination or end version. When Vajrahumkara gets to the Intermediate Directions, there is the Hook and consort of Manohara:


    By capturing him, Manohara has perhaps taken command of the Yaksha Kingdom. In the Vajrahumkara Mandala his name is Vajrayaksa. In the Dharmadhatuvaglsvara Mandala he is Vajrajvalanalarka. This is in the Agni corner; Takki who is fiery gives way to proliferous combustion.

    The next one is less straightforward in his identity:

    Herukavajra (हेरुकवज्र) is another name for Nīladaṇḍa; Herukavajra (हेरुकवज्र), or Śrīherukavajra is an alternative name of Akṣobhyavajra. Herukavajra is associated with the skandha named tathatā (suchness) and the color black. He is to be visualised as standing in the warrior (ālīḍha) stance, having three eyes, matted locks and bearing the five signs of observance (mudrā). In the dharmadhātuvagīśvara-maṇḍala his name is Herukavajra. He is in the Nairrta, Southwest or least favorable direction.

    This original Staff deity turns into something like an axis of the wheel of time:

    Niladanda...................Vajrakala [in Savadurgati in the West on a Buffalo]

    which is probably not too different from the Hindu Samvarta mandala.

    Saṃvarta obtained the Kiraṇāgama from Devavibhava who in turn obtained it from Sadāśiva through parasambandha. Saṃvarta in turn, transmitted it to through divya-sambandha to the Devas who, through divyādivya-sambandha, transmitted it to the Ṛṣis who finally, through adivya-sambandha, revealed the Kiraṇāgama to human beings (Manuṣya).

    or feminized:

    1) Saṃvarta (संवर्त) (more commonly in these sources the feminine—saṃvartā) [Cf. Saṃvartāmaṇḍala] is the fire that burns within the Cosmic Ocean in which the universe floats and imparts to it the energy that sustains it. Literally called the Fire (that issues) from the Mare’s Mouth (vāḍavāgni), the Doomsday Fire flares up at the end of each cosmic cycle to consume the universe and make way for the next one generated at the beginning of the next cycle by means of its energy.

    as discussed here:


    Like the previous:

    Mahākāla (महाकाल) is the name of a deity who received the Vātulāgama from Śiva through the mahānsambandha relation...

    In the vajrahūṃkāra-maṇḍala he is given the name of Mahākāla. But in the dharmadhātuvagīśvara-maṇḍala he is known as Paramāśva.

    So that is the ancient name of Amoghasiddhi, and probably a clue as to why Karma Mahakala gets very intricate. As to whether it may be approproate, Vilasavajra used Vajrajvalodaya (Dakini Jala commentary) to match additional meanings to the basic verses of Namasangiti. The appearance of Paramasva without a corresponding Vajrasurya, Padmanarttesvara, etc., appears intentional. Supreme Horse is basically at the end of these fiery wrathful transformations.

    Mahakala is a Teevra who uses a Chopper and a Trident. This mass of reborn ash has innumerable forms, but again follows a type of expansion:

    Two arm Panjarnata Mahakala has the unusual hexagram retinue with the hypostasis of Ekajati. With four or even sixteen arms, he has eight goddesses which Mitra's M65 says are Crow-headed, but not named. Hahn Foundation has them with various animal heads. Bhattacharya names these only for the Sixteen Arm form, who ironically embraces his shakti, and she is also copied in the North, but does not name her. He preserves Red Carcika and Yellow Candesvari in this personal retinue, along with Mahāmāyā (consort of Maheśvara). He tramples the Buddhist deity Vajrabhairava, who was the Nadir of Sarvadurgati Parishodhana.

    At one point he uses a Spear:

    In his six hands he exhibits the Kartri, the rosary and the Damaru in the right and the Kapala, the Sula and the Vajrapasa in the left.

    His major form has also:

    yamadandah (Staff of Yama)

    svetacamara (white chowrie)

    Mahakala continues in the "Brahma group" of DDV which includes:

    "Camunda rides on a corpse (Pretopari) and is of red colour. She is four-armed. With the first pair of hands she holds the Kartri in the right and the Kapala in the left. In the second she exhibits the Anjali".

    Mahakala with Candika from IWS.

    Kali Raksasi with a Yantra in her belly.

    In Hinduism, "his shakti" would rather easily be Kali, Mahakali, or Smasana Kali. In Buddhism, they have a convoluted relationship. It must not be that easy, since out of Twelve forms, "with consort" applies to one. Well, just look through history and institutions to find their utter helplessness in naming her:

    Two Arm Mahakala with Shakti

    Two Arm Mahakala with Shakti

    Four Arm Mahakala with Shakti

    Six Arm Mahakala with Shakti

    Ten Arm Mahakala with shakti

    According to The Met:

    Panjaranatha is understood as the “original” Mahakala from which all other manifestations emanate. Several of the latter, along with the deity’s associates, surround him, including Brahmarupa (the “lesser Mahakala,” at left), blowing a thighbone trumpet, and Palden Lhamo (Mahakala’s consort), riding her mule.

    Only if we look at his Sixteen Arm form do we get the following:

    In that text [Mahakala Tantra] there are ritual practices and descriptions for a total of eight forms of Mahakala:

    - Two-armed solitary with two retinue figures (right arm raised or placed at the heart) (similar to "with Candika")
    - Four-armed solitary with four retinue figures
    - Six-armed with consort [no consort in link]
    - Eight-armed with consort
    - Ten-armed with consort (not in the painting)
    - Twelve-armed with consort
    - Fourteen-armed with consort (not in the painting)
    - Sixteen-armed with consort

    In the main image, at the upper right is Two Armed Mahakala. At the upper left is Four Armed Mahakala. Both of these figures are without a consort. At the bottom left side is a Three Faced Eight Armed Mahakala. At the bottom right is a Three Faced Six Armed Mahakala. At the bottom center is a Four Faced Twelve Armed Mahakala. These three figures each have a consort with one face and two arms.

    In addition to the tantra, there is also:

    - Eight Faces, Sixteen Hands (Sadhanamala Text, no image)

    Some traditions have the form of Chaturbhuja in singular aspect or embracing the consort Chandika.

    This form of Chaturbhuja Mahakala was passed from Gva Lotsawa to Nyangral Nyima Ozer. Nyangral subsequently modified the central deity and retinue figures to suit Nyingma practice. This tradition represents about eight of nearly twenty-four similar images. It comes from:

    Vajradhara, Bodhisattva Mati, Nagarjuna, Aryadeva, Acharyavira, Du Shap Greater and Younger, Vajrasana the Greater, Abhayakaragupta, Tsami [Lotsawa] Sanggye Shap, Gva Lotsawa Namgyal Dorje, Nyangral Nyima Ozer...

    Four-armed with consort resembling the tantra versions.

    In a Bhutanese example, he is over Vaisravana, who is between:

    11. Tseringma Riding a Snow Lion
    12. Dorje Yudronma Holding a Drum

    In another Bhutanese, he is beside Spear Ekajati. He is also in IWS. His oldest 1400s Nepalese has the monkeys who raise Tormas with their feet.

    If we look for "the consort":

    IWS 265 is White Hayagriva with Ekajati (similar to RG 165). She perhaps has this destination. In Panjara, she is Mother of all Mahakalas.

    Ucchusma Jambhala is IWS 317. Servant Kundali is 339.

    And then we will find that "she" is several. Mahakala collects many shaktis.

    In IWS, it can be seen that Karma Mahakala is blue, black, or purple, and can emanate Karma Family in that type of color. So, there may be some blending and confusion between Ekajati and Candi as we have seen before. Ekajati is rarely if ever in Karma Family, Candi rarely if ever leaves it.

    Gnosis Mahakala starts in Six Arm forms at 340 by using Radish Ganapati. He also uses Takkiraja and Sri Devi Kamadhatvishvari. 343 abides in Sitavani with a Red Hook dakini at his heart. Yellow 344 stands on male and female Ganapatis, having the consort Smoky Rudrani--Dragmo. Red 345 has the consort Padma Dakini. Green 346 has the consort Blue Vajra Dakini, has another Four Dakinis around him, and Ha Ri Ni Sa. These were cast forwards.

    Four Arm Black 349 has the consort Black Hrih-arisen Pledge Queen Mahakali. He has Cam--Camundi and others, and the Mother's "manner of rotation is inverted". 351 has Red Candika and the Tramen; this Candika is called Mahakali in her mantra. 352 is similar and adds Remati and Ekajati.

    Two Arm Red 354 has an unidentified Mother with a hook and features Red Ekajati. 355 is Thin Black Candika with two male attendants, who is again Mahakali in her mantra. Raven Head 356 again has Sitavana as his abode. 357 is Panjara Brother and Sister, i. e. emanates Ekajati and immediate family. Mahakala comes from the heart of Vairocana in Akanistha, Devi from the abode of true nature. 358 continues this. 360 is Root Panjara with Mahakali.

    362 begins Excellent (Club) Mahakala who is with Dark Red Devi and emanates Mon tribesmen. 363 calls her Dark Purple Sri Devi Remati. 366 has Dark Blue Sri Devi, followed by Dakinis of the Five Families and others. Atisa's 367 is with Red Guhya Dakini, and Purple Remati Sukhodaya Dakini. 369 also has Red Guhya Dakini. 370 has Kamadhatvishvari, Ekajati, and Purple Karma Mahakala. 372 has Eight Matrikas as named in ODT 55 [?].

    373 is Nine Deity Knife Mahakala. Guna or Purple Lion-munted Ganapati Mahakala 376 has Crane Face in his retinue, and Sapta Matrika ending on Mahanasa.

    Traksad 377 means Activity. He emanates six Black Dog-faced Mon women. Atisa's Traksad 379 gives Vetali the role of Mother. 381 emanates seven Mon women, one of whom becomes Prajnaloka and the others black dogs. 384 is similar.

    Four Face 385 has Black Dombini as the Mother, or, he has four mothers who remain as he changes color in the next few sadhanas. The last is Dark Red Jackal Face Pisaca 393.

    Next is a Sri Devi section, although it has 395--Queen of the Weapon Army (Sarasvati) and Ekajati 402--Remati. 394 is Smoke-clad Dudsolma Kamadhatvishvari, who is Mahakali in her mantra. Her Mental Gnosis takes the form of an Egg in her heart. It evidently has as the caption, Smoke Charcoal:


    Also Dhumavas or Dhumavati. Dhumangari in the transmission of Ngok. Translation of Dudsolma. According to Gellner:

    Not surprisingly, the high castes are usually much clearer in their
    minds than other Newars that their Lineage Deity has a definite Sanskritic
    identity. In the case of the members of Kwa Bahah it is Jyotirupa
    Svayambhu (also called Adibuddha) enshrined in the centre of the
    monastery, but they always refer to it in ordinary speech as digu dyah. Other
    such deities are the kalah waye dyah (Remains Deity) and the chwasa or
    chwasa dyah. The former simply means ‘the god where the ritual basket is
    thrown’, and is the spot where the leftovers of a feast are thrown. It is
    identified in Buddhist liturgy as Dhumangari or Ugracandi, but only priests
    are aware of this.

    That is an interesting name since Angaraka--Charcoal is Mars, representing latent heat. Plain female Angaraka is Simhika. The shorter version, Angari, has more of the connotation of a portable Kunda.

    396 Vitality Remati begins using the syllable Ma. 397 White Conch Protector (having Ma at her heart) and forwards are Vimalamitra lineages. 399 is Nagi Remati led by Makara Devi. It ends on Atisa's Namkhai or Skyclad Goddess, Digambari Devi, dark or pale blue from Sitavana, who again is Mahakali in her mantra. If anything, she is "wearing" sesame oil.

    Sitavani is a major, but not sole, source of all this; Mahakala has at the very least, Vajra and Padma Dakinis, and Candi and Sri as consorts.

    So from sublimating Mahabala who is fiery, there becomes Mahakala who is ash and smoky. The last few wrathful conversions include:

    Chandamaharoshana Vajrapani:


    In the Vajrahumkara Mandala he is given the name of Vajrabhisana, but in the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala his name is Trailokyavijaya.

    Navosnisa Body Mandala of Sarvadurgati Parishodhana:


    Because these "name changes" most likely represent some type of practice, then, basic Mahabala is a Wrathful Lotus Family member, who evidently fuses with a certain Jambhala.

    Similar to how "takki" stems from doubt or skepticism, sophistry or drowning in words, this Mahabala Jambhala is:

    Ucchuṣma (उच्छुष्म).—Confusion.

    It can also be feminized:

    Ucchuṣmā (उच्छुष्मा) is the name of a river and a Goddess, according to Tantric texts such as the Kubjikāmata-tantra, the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “She [i.e., the Goddess—Kubjikā] quickly went (to the place) where the auspicious river Ucchuṣmā (flows). It is in the Mahocchuṣma forest and transports the Divine and Mortal Currents (of the transmission). The goddess, endowed with the attributes of the divine Command, sports there where the lakes Mahocchuṣma and Nīla (are located). [...]”.—(cf. Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā verse 1.36-37, 4.5, 4.26-132)

    According to the Śrīmatottara: “[... ] The goddess went quickly to where the great forest of Ucchuṣma is. (The goddess) called Ucchuṣmā resides there in the form of a river. She whose passion has been fulfilled (pūrṇakāmā) went where the great river Ucchuṣmā (flows). At that moment, the goddess Ucchuṣmā, beautiful in all (her) limbs, spontaneously appeared”.

    According to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā: “Ucchuṣma is in the central aperture. At the left [peak] the Nīlahrada should be, and the Hrada [= Mahāhrada] at the right peak.... This pair of apertures, O Devī, is known as the peak of Trikūṭa. The third one is the (brahmarandhra), which is called the Forest of Ucchuṣma. From [this] Ucchuṣma a [twofold] stream comes forth, right and left. Where [this twofold stream] comes together, O Varārohā, there abides Parameśvarī. Because she can see [there every form] at will, that [place] is known as Kāmarūpa”.


    1) Ucchuṣma (उच्छुष्म):—[=uc-chuṣma] mfn. (ud-śuṣma [√2. śuṣ]) one whose crackling becomes manifest (said of Agni), [Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Atharvaveda-pariśiṣṭa]


    Ḍimbha (डिम्भ).—

    1) A young child

    2) an idiot

    The Sarnath image (Fig. 130) illustrates this form of Jambhala standing on Dhanada or the Hindu god of wealth. Streaks of jewels may be noticed as coming out of Kuvera’s mouth. The peculiar feature of this sculpture is that here Ḍimbha is accompanied by his Śakti Vasudhārā.

    Appearance: terrible;
    Vāhana: Kuvera vomiting jewels;
    Āsana: pratyālīḍha

    So he represents a fool on the level of a five-year-old.

    Following his own research, he might have put the correct one in Jewel Family, these here. Fig, 181 is the Orissa image of Vajratārā illustrated in N.N. Vasu’s Mayurbhanj Archaeological Survey. Fig. 182 is the image of Vajratārā discovered at the Sarasvatisthan close to the Svayambhu Temple in Nepal.

    Capetadana or Yellow Slapping Aparajita with a worldly god holding her umbrella:

    Two basic Jambhalas entered Tibet with Bari ca. 1050:

    [35] Shri Jambhala.
    Yellow Jambhala with one face and two hands. The right [hand] holds a bijapuraka [fruit] and the left a mongoose with jewels showering down. [With] two feet pressing down on a conch and lotus treasure. Adorned with a blue utpala garland and jewel ornaments.

    [36] Jambhala Ucchushma.
    Jambhala, with a body black in colour. [Having] the form of a dwarf with the belly hanging down, naked and without pierced ears. Brown hair bristling upwards and bared fangs. Adorned with the eight great nagas. The right [hand] holds a blood filled skullcup and the left a mongoose expelling various jewels. [Standing] in a manner with the right leg extended, pressing [down] on the yellow Lord of Wealth [who is] expelling jewels from the mouth.

    1700s Kagyu where he appears to be over his own Simhanada form, or actually I believe it is a Dragon:

    Another lineage came with Sakya Sri Bhadra around 1200. These transmissions became in turn for the Nyingma a "Sarma-inspired terma". Here, his basic form is in the lower right, and the central has Vasudhara. He has added an Axe and Banner and she has a Vase:

    He is found in five principal colours: yellow, black, white, green and red. The most common are the yellow and black Jambhala forms followed by the red and white forms. Some of these forms can also have several different appearances with varying numbers of hands and heads. If Jambhala is appearing with a consort it is is almost always the goddess Vasudhara. Aside from the Indian Buddhist forms, there are also Nyingma forms of Jambhala that arise from the 'Revealed Treasure' Tradition.

    Yellow (Siddhaikavira, Guhyasamaja & miscellaneous tantras)
    - Red (Chakrasamvara & other tantras)

    The Siddhaikavira tantra describes a number of different Jambhala and Vasudhara practices.

    Along with blue, his white form is also from Sadhanamala:

    Jambhala in Yab-Yum has another form with three faces, six arms and white colour. According to the Sādhana his two faces to the light and left are red and blue respectively, Jambhala sits in the vajraparyaṅka attitude, and embraces his Prajñā Vasudhārā of his own creation with the two principal hands. In the two remaining right hands he carries the red vajra and the sword, and in the two remaining left hands he holds the emerald and the lotus.

    So, if it is possible Jambhala knows something about Ucchusma in Yoga, it is a Raudra Krama, according to The Practice Involving the Ucchusmas, where the word has an alternative meaning:

    The time-biding (?) Kāmbojas, and the roaring, up-energetic (ucchuṣman) dogs, as well as the down-vapored monkeys, make a reverent approach there during (?) the Pūrvāṣāḍhas, with devotion.

    A goddess Ucchuṣmā or Mahocchuṣmā figures in several Śaiva Tantras. She is included among different sets of female deities. In one such set she is listed together with three other female deities called Raktā, Karālā/ī and Caṇḍākṣī. Cf. Heilijgers-Seelen (1994: 92 93), who observes that in the KubjMT 2.24ff., these four goddesses are installed as the main deities at the four Pīṭhas: Raktā in Oḍḍiyāna, Karālī in Jālandhara, Caṇḍākṣī in Pūrṇādri and Ucchuṣmā in Kāmarūpa. They also play an important role in the system of the Brahmayāmala or Picumata, where they are the principal Śaktis of the Bhairava Kapālīśa.

    Those are the Four Major Pithas for any kind of tantra. The etymology of it seems to be preposition + verb:

    As to the Vedic origin of the name Ucchuṣma, in the light of the fact that our text (36.2.1) calls the Ucchuṣmarudras atharvavedodbhava, it is remarkable that the exact words uc chuṣmāḥ occur (exclusively) in three different Atharvavedic mantra passages (only one of which has a parallel elsewhere in Vedic literature).

    Up [stirs] the Dawn, up also the Sun, up [stir] the energies of the plants, up stirs the bull Prajāpati with prize-winning energy
    Up do the energies of the plants move, like cows from a stall, about to win wealth, and a body for you, O man
    Up [move] the energies of the plants, [up] the powers of the bulls. O Indra, self-ruler, place the manly power of men in him here.

    The compound ucchuṣma, however, is not known from any Atharvavedic Śruti text, but is found at TS úcchuṣmo agne yájamānāyaidhi níśuṣmo abhid sate Keep your energy up, O Agni, for the yajamāna, keep it low for the one who assaults him.

    She who, going about at night without clothes, urinating in a circle, feeds blood and, with dishevelled hair, causes pain, should be recognized by the adepts as Ucchuṣmikā, the mistress of heroes. According to the same text (Tantrasadbhāva quoted in NeTU ad 19.55, vol. II, p. 146), Ucchuṣmā is a portion of the mother goddess Vārāhī: vārāhyaṃśā tathocchuṣmā kathitā vīravandite.

    In his introduction (p. cxxvi), Bhattacharyya quotes a typical verse: dāridryaduḥkhāhatamānasānāṃ kā cittavr ttiḥ sugatasya kr tteḥ ǀ ataś ca kopād iva jambhalo sau ucchuṣmarūpaṃ bhayadaṃ cakāra (Sādhanamālā 292, p. 570), which he translates: People who are stricken down with the misery of poverty[,] what desire can they have for the rites laid down by Sugata [the Buddha]? It is for this reason it seems that Jambhala in his anger assumed the terrific form of Ucchuṣma (cf below, and the Tantrasadbhāva verse quoted just above). The Ucchuṣmajambhalasādhanas, deriving from various authors, paint a fairly consistent picture of this figure s iconography: in our context, it is only relevant to note that he is piṅgorddhvakeśa, vāmanākāra.

    The take-away is upswept hair:

    the Rudra-epithet Piṅgala

    Ucchuṣma heads a series of ten Rudras, Ucchuṣma, Śavara, Caṇḍa, Mataṅga, Ghora, Yama, Ugra, Halahala, Krodhin and Huluhulu, who acted as teachers (gurutvena) in the past.

    The editors describe the contents of this Pariśiṣṭa as [t]he ritual of ceremonies to obtain various wishes from certain forms of Rudra-Śiva known as the ucchuṣma-rudras or ucchuṣmas .

    This is the cuirass oṃ namo mahāpiṅgalāya 36 siṃhanādanādine namaḥ svāhā ǁ ity astramantraḥ ǁ Om. Homage to the great yellow one, who roars the lion s roar! Homage! Hail!. This is the weapon mantra. 2.1 eṣām ucchuṣmarudrāṇām ataḥ kalpo nigadyate ǀ atharvavedodbhavānāṃ tithir kṣādyayogataḥ 37 ǁ

    As to the qualification atharvavedodbhava, we could on the one hand imagine this is a mere attempt to incorporate these Rudras into the Atharvavedic tradition and hence to claim authority for this tradition in dealing with them. On the other hand, we must note the existence of a class called atharvarudras in NiGu f. 55 r l. 4, where they are said to be living in the town Ratnavatī in the sixth Pātāla. We do not know these atharvarudras from any other source.

    The same chapter 5 of the Niśvāsaguhyasūtra, which contains a list of the seven Pātālas with their towns and regents, locates two Ucchuṣmarudras (or Ucchuṣma and Rudra?) in the town Ucchuṣmā in the first Pātāla. The first world is made of metal. The city Bhasmavatī [there] belongs to the serpent Dhanaṃjaya. And the two Ucchuṣmarudras / Ucchuṣma and Rudra have the city of metal called Ucchuṣmā, garlanded with palaces.

    We owe our interpretation of ayogatas to Alexis Sanderson, who clarifies that this statement means that the practice is so powerful that its success is not dependent on any of the conditions that normally apply.

    I resort to the crest of the Ucchuṣmas, the Goddess Śaṃkarāyaṇī...

    ...the goddess referred to in pāda a is in fact a mantra, viz. the (ucchuṣma)śikhā, so we understand ucchuṣmāṇām [mantrāṇām]. This Śikhāmantra is given in (cf. our note 34 ad ).

    Ucchuṣma-Jambhala is also notorious for his connection with impurities. He figures in several early eighth-century texts from the Turfan region in Chinese Central Asia, where he is called the Vajra-being of Impure Traces (Huichi chin-kang). His cult became particularly popular in thirteenth century Chinese Buddhism and Daoism, in which he played a central role in exorcistic rites involving child-mediums. In addition to Ucchuṣma-Jambhala, Buddhist sources also know of a female demon Ucchuṣmā.

    Elsewhere in the Sādhanamālā, there is one more, unfortunately rather unclear, occurrence of ucchuṣma, without connection with Jambhala. Cf. the two verses at the top of vol. II, p. 410: jvare gare tathā roge saṃgrāme ca tathaiva ca ǀ ḍākinī[sa]bhūtocchuṣmanadīśatruprapīḍite ǁ aśanividyunmeghānāṃ parvvate vanamārgayoḥ ǀ tasmān mantraṃ smaren nityaṃ sarvvaśaṅkānisūdanam In the case of fever, of disease, of illness, and of war; and in the case of trouble from Ḍākinīs, from Ucchuṣmas together with Bhūtas, from rivers and from enemies; on a mountain of (i.e. shrouded in?) clouds with thunderbolts and lightning; in the forest and on the road, he should therefore always mutter the mantra, which dispells all apprehension.

    Jambhala has not been called a significant Hindu deity such as an aspect of Shiva or even a planet. That changes when blended with Ucchusma, which is Mahabala to begin with. The name Jambhala has a general meaning as a citrus fruit, or:

    a yakṣa according to (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 549.23; 607.1; 648.6 (yakṣa- rāṭ)

    in Mahāvyutpatti 4331 rendered by Tibetan rmugs ḥdzin, which [Tibetan-English Dictionary] renders by jalendra (compare next), ‘the chief of water,’ the sea…

    E. jabhi to destroy, (sickness, sin, &c.) kalac aff.

    Although "the sea" does not sound very accurate, he has never been anything other than a Yaksha of untold antiquity.

    The Jambhala definitions include "a female Raksasi", which is unsourced but usually means in Mahamayuri Vidyarajni Sutra. This Sutra includes a male:

    The yaksha Jambhaka resides in Marubhumi.

    To the extent the feminine version is "a Raksasi", she is not mentioned in the Seventy-three Raksasis. The following dharani that binds them could be called "a mantra of Maitreya", since he is the first Buddhist being specifically named, and then it uses Hindu Dikpalas and the Four Kings, etc., until it is only after Lunar Mansions and the Planets that it ends with an evidently female Jambhala amongst the Gauris:

    gauriye svaha / gandhariye svaha / jamguliye svaha / amrtaye svaha / jambhaniye svaha / capetiye svaha / dramidiye svaha / savariye svaha / adharsavariye svaha / candaliye svaha / matangiye svaha / naga-hrdayaya svaha / garuda-hrdayaya svaha / manasiye svaha / maha-manasiye svaha / sadaksariye svaha / mani-bhadraya svaha / samanta-bhadraya svaha / maha-samantabhadraya svaha / maha-samayaya svaha / maha-pratisaraya svaha / sitavanaya svaha / maha-sitavanaya svaha / maha-dandadharaya svaha / mucilindaya svaha / jayantiye svaha / santiye svaha / asvakridaya svaha / maha-mayurya- vidyarajaya svaha.

    The Sutra does, however, also carry the common appearance of the term as a verb:

    mohani stambhani jambhani svaha

    These powers work towards Mohini Vasikaran, or towards Pacifying Anger and Fury.

    On Evolution of Mantra from Proto-Indo-European which gives Ugra--Vira Vishnu as Narasimha:

    Again the taittirIya AraNyaka supplies similar calls in the formula called “the placing in yama’s jaws” (TA 4.37.1):
    yadamuM yamasya jambhayoH | AdadhAmi tatha hi tat | khaN-phaN-mrasi ||

    Other examples of longer mantras from the uchChuShma kalpa are:

    shive jaTile brahmachAriNi stambhani jambhani mohani huM phaT namaH svAhA || (an Atma-rakShA mantra)

    Interestingly, two of the mantras from one of the earliest tantric texts of the bauddha tradition known as the mahAmAyUrI-vidyA-rAj~nI are orthologous to the above two longer mantras of the AV kalpa.

    or as in Siddhaikavira Tantra:

    oṁ stambhani stambhaya jambhani jambhaya mohani mohaya rakṣaṇi rakṣaya māṁ varade siddha­locane svāhā |

    Oṁ, Stambhanī, immobilize! Jambhanī, destroy! Mohanī, delude! Rakṣaṇī, protect me! Varadā, Siddhalocanā, svāhā!

    This heart mantra of Locanā will remove all fear.

    This remains perpetually intertwined with Stambhani or i. e. "nameless post" goddess, or tree, or stump, etc., as found around Orissa or Vindhyan tribes prior to Shakti-naming. The power of Paralysis or Stoppage goes to Mahavidya Bagalamukhi.

    Compared to the strand of Gauris, one might say that Sadaksari is perhaps the first specifically-Buddhist being, followed by others including Santi or Peace which usually isn't a name and is such a common characteristic that it usually isn't even mentioned at all.

    Here, Jambhani is after Amrita (i. e. Varuni and her descendants), before Capeta, which as we can see is Aparajita. Just go to some UNESCO monuments. It says so in stone 1,500 years ago. And this trio is in the middle of more common "Gauris or Sabaris".

    One of them is Janguli who "is" Buddhist Matangi and Manasa. Therefore Janguli is like a set of parentheses that includes everything from her to Buddhist Sadaksari. That is the next thing to giving her an eight-member retinue ring followed by Naga--Nadir and Garuda--Zenith, followed by lesser and greater Manasas. Obviously nothing says there is such a sadhana here. But then we get to Pratisara and nothing says there is a sadhana about her, but, she goes off in a ring with at least two of the following, Sitavana and Mayuri, again kind of like they are in parentheses here.

    Mahamanasa is a vast time period involving evolution of Manas Tattva, or is the time period before Final Perfection, the sense of which is found in Rg Veda Hymn 165. Or in Vi.40.4 between Indra and Soma. Second interpretation.

    In modern Sahaja:

    In human beings Lord Shiva resides in the left side of the Heart
    Chakra with His Power, Shivani or Parvati. She stores all that is dead
    and all that conditions the mind in humans. As in a working factory
    where fumes are created in the process of combustion, the activity of
    the Virata, in the process of existence, creates the Primordial
    Collective Subconscious Mind (Mahamanasa). Fumes from the
    existence activity of the Virata collect in this Primordial Subconscious
    Mind also known as the Primordial Superego.

    Jayanti is too general of a name that could be anything from Parvati to a minor Pitha, although she is also part of a code for Isolation:

    Jayantī (जयन्ती) is the name of a sacred place associated with a “palace”.—The Śrīkāmākhyaguhyasiddhi, also called simply Guhyasiddhi, is attributed to Matsyendranātha. In this text, the eight sites normally associated with the Mothers are identified with eight such places [i.e., isolated, lonely places] as follows:—1) Prayāga—cremation ground, 2) Varaṇā (i.e. Vārāṇasī)—a solitary tree, 3) Kollā—a mountain peak, 4) Aṭṭahāsa—a temple of the Mothers, 5) Jayantī—a palace, 6) Caritra—a deserted house, 7) Ekāmraka—the bank of a river, and 8) Devīkoṭa—a forest.

    The next-to-last Raksasi has an unusual meaning:

    Once a sage called Rcīka went to Gādhi and asked for the hand of his daughter, Satyavatī, in marriage. He demanded as dowry a thousand horses black in colour and with only one ear for each. Ṛcīka prayed to Varuṇa and he gave him the horses required. The river Aśvakṛta (created by horse) was made by the flow of urine from these horses. (Chapter 57, Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa).

    Aśvakrīta (अश्वक्रीत):—[=aśva-krīta] [from aśva] mf(ī, [Pāṇini 4-1,50])n. bought (in exchange) for a horse

    Produced by or exchanged for a Horse.

    Although Oath-binding is frequently a hostile, forceful act against evildoers, Buddhism recognizes the same kind of thing as for instance with Prahlada--Asura being a Vishnu devotee. Thousands of Asuras--Danavas voluntarily converted to Dharma with Buddha personally at Kapilavastu.

    Considering Jambhala's couterpart, Vasudhara, on "luminous universal curds", HPB says:

    To begin with, the whole pantheon of mysterious objects, every one of them having some definite Occult meaning, extracted from the allegorical "churning of the ocean" by the Hindu gods. Besides Amrita, the water of life or immortality, "Surabhi" the "cow of plenty," called "the fountain of milk and curds," was extracted from this "Sea of Milk." Hence the universal adoration of the cow and bull, one the productive, the other the generative power in Nature: symbols connected with both the Solar and the Cosmic deities. The specific properties, for occult purposes, of the "fourteen precious things," being explained only at the fourth Initiation, cannot be given here...

    Hmm. Well, we apparently have this fourth initiation in writing mostly. Maybe that means chela initiations like in the Kalachakra system. But she always followed orders which meant she was forbidden from explaining this.

    It is suggested in Buddhism by Samvarodaya Tantra. Mahesvara subjugation is readily known as a type of Buddhist overpowering of Puranic entities, whereas Samvarodaya pretty much takes Churning of the Ocean as-it-is. Apparently there is no hesitation on Varuni's part to be used by a Buddhist.

    Circle of Bliss says that Vasudhara's presence as Yogurt is mandatory for Homa. When three-faced, she is Morning--Orange Red Vajrakumari, Noon--Brilliant Yellow Vasudhara, Evening--Vermillion Vajravarahi. This is the "accessible" form of Chakrasamvara--Vajravarahi.

    Naresh Bajracharya's Homa description.
    Last edited by shaberon; 21st October 2021 at 03:16.

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    Default Re: Nirakara and Shentong Buddhism, Tara, Sadhanas, Sanskrit culture

    Homa and Agni's Fires

    The preview that comes up as Notes on Sources is fairly readable, and starts with Homa in Nepal found in MMK, and has several including Krishna Yamari Tantra, Vasanta Tilaka for Adhyatmika Homa, and Samvarodaya Chapter Twenty-three.

    The subsequent lists contain several of the substances and rites. This is a fragment of a copy which is page 19 or 307 of a pdf. This has the complete article, starting with a performance at Harvard by the co-author. And so these details are drawn from a general purpose Homa. It is probably a better reference than something to copy outright.

    After the detailed version, it mentions what are considered initiatic Homas:

    It explains that Meat or Mamsa Ahuti Homa is to burn the Skandhas, the same as Candali Yoga.

    Head or Sira Ahuti Homa sacrifices the senses like in Bali Offering, except it is Vajravarahi initiation.

    Human or Nara Ahuti Homa is to sacrifice one's "body" (image) which affects death consciousness. This is a Lokottara or Transcendental Homa.

    Because we understand how that matches up to the tantras, we are more or less going for Nara Ahuti, in a more streamlined yogic way. There is for instance an "at-home" Day--Night Homa when Day is exoteric and Night is esoteric (Lokottara). Homa prominently uses Pancopacara or Five Offerings, being Flower, Incense, Lamp, Perfume, and Food. Likewise, this is an exoteric or with-effort visualization, and then next it is esoteric or actually the Five Dissolutions. The first Lamp is Dipa Tara which is like hanging a lantern on a pole, and then it is Ghasmari doing Nirajan or Inner Heat.

    It mentions Ten Agnis used for Vihara (monastery) construction:

    Krodha, Pavaka, Maruta, Kama, Mahendra, Lohita, Pramoha, Tapasa, Amrita, Yojaka.

    They find that Hindu performers of Homa do not have the underpinnings such as Bhuta Agni, Samaya Agni, and Jnana Agni, or evidently they do not know that things like this mean anything. Bhutagni digests intellectual matter.

    Veda in its origin says the Sages did not author it, they entered trance possession by Agni and spoke them, as the Vedas revealed themselves that way. Buddha agreed this is valid, and, recommends doing an Inner Homa. His background mainly would have been with Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. Tattiriya Aranyaka which we are using for the Vairocani and Viraja references was somewhat after him. In the Upanishad you are taught that the Horse Sacrifice is really only yogic symbolism. The later Aranyaka then follows the suggestion of Inner Homa or repeats it. Interiorized Fire Rituals p. 604 explains this became a standard practice for wandering yogis. It is also able to find the subject that Buddhist Six Limb Yoga sounds similar to but is not functionally the same as Patanjali's Eight Limb Yoga.

    Fire Philosophy is extremely intricate and has perhaps been mis-reviewed by western occultism. The Theosophical view is that originally, what we call Zoroastrianism was the western branch of it, but, over time and civilizations, became degraded and turned into a non-spiritual institution, most later western systems spilling forth from that. Not everything in the east, or, mainly India, is always pretty, but something of the spiritual aspect remained intact.


    Vedic Agni was originally cast in three roles: Garhapatya, Ashvaniya, Dakshina. His first category was for his own essential divinity. The second is a "welcoming" form, of other deities, or physically, towards one's guests--the custom of lighting lamps--and in temples, the ever-burning lamps. Dakshina is his guard against evil, seen as coming from the southern direction; esoterically, from the south pole; and is the term for the right hand path, when facing the eastern dawn, south is to the right, and you shield it. Usually it was considered Yama's direction.

    Those three roles are Fixed Fires.

    In other words, a Daksina fire is supposed to be kept going in place and used for its purposes, as are the others.

    The overall deity and shakti may be called:

    Agni Abhimani (in Vishnu Purana) with Svaha (Aerial Flame).

    Although it may be the oldest, for some reason, I have rarely found Vishnu Purana specifically called for. Maybe I have missed its specialty. The Vayu Purana's internal legend places its recital a few generations after the events of Mahabharata; although it is quoted in Mahabharata 3.191. The Brahmanda Purana is thought to have been an almost identical parallel text.

    Instead of Abhiman, the Brahmanda mentions various primordial Agnis as:

    The secular fire is well known as the first son of Brahmā.

    8. The good son of Brahmadattāgni (the fire handed over by Brahmā) is well known by the name Bharata. Vaiśvānara was his son, and he carried Havya for a hundred years.

    Abhimani is instead distributed as a lesser epithet of several others. Then it explains nothing about Vaisvanara. He is not obscure, as we find it matches the Pranas at the beginning of Viraja Homa mantra:

    1a) Vaiśvānara (वैश्वानर).—A name of Agni;1 to be propitiated by eight oblations or Vaiśvadeva and five others. prāṇa, apāna, samāna, udāna and vyāna.2

    1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 2. 24.
    2) Vāyu-purāṇa 15. 3-8.

    Vaiśvānara (वैश्वानर, “the all-pervader”):—One of the five natural forms of Agni (Vedic god of Divine illumination). This form, known as Vaiśvānara, represents the power of digesting, found in all things, all beings. It is the support of life.

    In Brihadaranyaka Upanishad:

    1. This fire that is within a man and digests the food that is eaten, is Vaiśvānara. It emits this sound that one hears by stopping the ears thus. When a man is about to leave the body, he no more hears this sound.

    One should meditate upon that fire as Vaiśvānara, or Virāj.

    In Buddhism:

    Vaiśvānara (वैश्वानर) is the name of the protector (dikpati) associated with Lakṣmīvana: the south-eastern cremation ground (śmaśāna) according to the Vajravārāhī-sādhana by Umāpatideva. Here, the synonym Vaiśvānara is given, the name of the fire in the cāturmāsya sacrifice; hence it is also listed as Hutavahadigīśa (Guhyasamayasādhanamālā 34) and Hutāśana (Saṃvarodayatantra 17). He is described in the Adbhutaśmaśānālaṃkāra as mounted on a goat, potbellied, red-limbed, having a “firepit skull bowl” (kuṇḍakapālī) and a “pot with rosary” (sākṣasūtrakamaṇḍalu).

    In attempting to summarize all Forty-nine Fires, HPB says:

    This makes 48 "cognitions of Buddhi". Maya includes them all as the 49th fire. Once that you have reached the cognition of Mâyâ, you are an Adept.

    We are not quite going to grind out all forty-nine, but, take the three lines and add a few things.

    Let use see if the following sounds mayavic.

    At the end of most mantras is Svaha:

    Svaha represents the star Zeta Tauri, which is the tip of one of the horns of Taurus. Svaha was desperately in love with the god of fire, Agni. Unfortunately, Agni was infatuated with the seven Krttika, who were married to the seven Rishis of the Bear. Svaha then disguised herself as the Krttika and conquered Agni's love. Six times, Svaha made love to Agni, who believed that he had conquered the attractive wives of the seven Rishis. Svaha could mimic only six of the Krttika since the seventh sister, Arundhati, was too devoted to her husband to be imitated. After a while, Svaha gave birth to a child that she named Skanda. With his birth, rumors began to spread that six of the Rishis' wives were his mother. The seven Rishis divorced their wives. Arundhati was the only one that remained with her husband as the star Alcor. The other six Krttika went away to become the Pleiades. She is the only one invoked in the regular daily ghee offering.

    Skanda grows six faces to suckle all his mothers.

    It does not sound the same as Agni carrying Shiva's semen into Ganges, who gives birth to Skanda, which happens later. Svaha is likely making the planetary lord himself, whereas Ganges is making his projection into our world.

    The above is from Mahabharata using a Suparni bird. Or, using a Garuda.

    From a somewhat handwritten take, it begins with Agni in a condition like some of the Wrathful Ones:

    His flames of desire leapt higher and higher at the sacrifices as he wanted the seven wives for himself.

    She becomes the gaping mouth of agni who will swallow all the sacrifices. That’s why..even today..all sacrificial fires are fed with incantations that end with ‘swaha’. It is not a sacrifice if Swaha isn’t present.

    Meanwhile the six shadow wives live in the grove called Saravana.

    There he was seen by Brihaspati’s daughter, Goddess Svaha who could take the form of a star.

    She is also known as Manyauti or Manyanti and is present in all matters (as Prakriti).

    Brihaspatiwith Puranic Tara:

    Symbolically, the seven children of Tara represent the seven sacred fires. His daughter Svaha had three sons, of them the son named Ukta created the sacrificial fire called Panchajanya.

    In a bale of information on Brihaspati, it is evident that, as well as being mixed with Agni and Angiras such that Jupiter is much like a mini-Sun:

    Bṛhaspati had a wife called Cāndramasī and that she gave birth to six Agnis. In Kampa Rāmāyaṇa, Yuddhakāṇḍa mention is made that Bṛhaspati had a daughter named Sulekhā. Six sons and a daughter were born to Cāndramasī.

    Among whom:

    On all full-moon days offerings of sacrifices are meant for Bharata. Bharata had a son named Bhārata and a daughter named Bhāratī. Bharata the Agni is said to be the son of the Agni who is Prajāpati Bharata.

    1) Bhāratī (भारती).—A famous river mentioned in the Purāṇas. It is stated in Verse 25, Chapter 222 of the Vana Parva that Agni (fire) originated in this river.

    In Lalita Mahatmya, Bharati is Sarasvati. But there is a Fire Bharati, prior to Mahi--Vasudhara--Bhu--Varahi as Earth Bharati of the Apri Hymn, who is not Sarasvati. Here again Bharati could be said to have a cosmic then terrestrial existence. It is very clear that Buddhist Bharati is Vasudhara, not Sarasvati.

    and then:

    Svāhā was the daughter of Cāndramasī. Svāhā had three sons. They are three Agnis called Kāmāgni, Amogha, and Ukthya. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 4).

    Agni and Svaha curse Ravana; the next ones out of their fireball are Brihaspati and his daughter Sulekha. This name, or, even this event, are apparently only so in this specific edition of Ramayana. Whereas:

    Cāndramasī (चान्द्रमसी).—Tārā, the wife of Bṛhaspati. She fell in love with Candra and lived with him for sometime, and came to be called Cāndramasī. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 219; see also Tārā).

    Sulekha usually means "calligraphy" and does not seem to be recognized elsehwere. We see that Tara has six sons with Jupiter, and Svaha, the daughter of Tara (Arundhati). She can take the form of a Star.

    In Brihaspati's other accomplishments:

    In the Ṛgveda, Maṇḍala 1, Anuvāka 19, Sūkta 126, it is mentioned that Bṛhaspati had a daughter named Romaśā. When her husband teased her Romaśā said to her husband: "You please come and feel your hand on my body. Don't think that my organs are small. Though I am hairy like the goats of Gāndhāra, I have got all the organs fully grown."

    Romasa revealed this hymn and some of the Sama Veda.

    But it is disputed as to whether 1.126.6 and the following mantra are as strong as the commentary by Sayana...who is the one used on that published page. But the publication just says:

    I am covered with down like a eve [ewe?] of the gandhārins.

    1) Lomaśa (लोमश)—Sanskrit word wich could mean “ram”, “sheep”, “female jackal” or “ape”. It could also translate to “of a cat” or “of various plants”

    2) Lomaśā (लोमशा)—Sanskrit word meaning “fox”.

    It is probably not any of those animals, because it is probably an adjective.

    In the original, she is lomasa "hairy/wooly/downy" gandharinam iva "like/as":

    Vīka (वीक).—

    1) Wind.

    2) A bird.

    3) The mind.

    In the first mantra, she clings like a:

    Kaśika (कशिक).—A mungoose.

    Derivable forms: kaśikaḥ (कशिकः).

    --- OR ---

    Kaṣikā (कषिका).—A bird in general.

    It is not apparent why it may be interpreted as mongoose, except perhaps they are clingier. The mantras were spoken by "I, Kaksivat" to Bhavya, and there is no indication the speaker suddenly changed to Bhavya. When the lady speaks, she says Manya which is more like "sir" than it is a name for a husband. And it says nothing at all about Brihaspati here. It is two short lines, there is no room for her to brag about her body.

    The mantra is in an etymological dispute as to whether it should mean sheep due to the association with Gandhar, because goat was an older meaning. Down is on birds, wool is on sheep.

    Overall, the first mantra says she is ripe for enjoyment, and the second says come on, I am pubescent.

    Agni and Svaha:

    Svaha, Tara, and Fire Bharati just had an existence somewhere ethereal, and then they move towards our world in new guises. This is where we find the descent of Agni:

    Svāhā (स्वाहा).—A daughter of Dakṣa (with Prasuti) and the mother of Pāvaka, Pavamāna and Śucī through Paśupati-Agni; from these three have sprung up forty-five agnis. All of them form a group of 49 agnis.1 Mode of offering in invoking devas while svadhā for invoking Pitṛs.2

    1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 60-61; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa I. 1. 62; II. 9. 52, 56; 10. 81. 12. 3; Vāyu-purāṇa 1. 76; 10. 28, 32; 27. 53; 29. 1; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 7. 25, 27; 8. 8; 10. 14-15.
    2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 25; 11. 18 and 116.

    Svaha is also in Shiva Purana as daughter of Prasuti.

    Prasūti (प्रसूति).—f.

    1) Procreation, begetting, generation.

    Brahmanda Purana Chapter Nine grants Prasuti more daughters than in other sources:

    Lord Dakṣa begot of Prasūti, the daughter of Svāyambhuva Manu, twenty-four daughters who became mothers of the world.

    48-49a. All of them were highly fortunate. All of them were lotus-eyed. All of them were wives of Yogins and all of them were Yogic mothers. All of them were expounders of Brahman and all of them were the mothers of the universe.

    Thirteen become wives of Dharma, and there are eleven younger with beautiful eyes such as Svaha and Sati given to various Sages.

    Svaha is represented also as a wife of the Rudra Paśu-pati, [Ṛg-veda]

    Svāhā (स्वाहा):—The consort of Paśupati (aspect of Śiva, as in, one of the eight names of Rudra) according to the Pādma-purāṇa

    She is also the mother of Aagneya (Aagneya) - the daughter of Agni.

    su "well" and the root ah "to call"

    A female divinity, peculiar to the Baud'dhas. E. su well, auspiciously, āṅ before hveñ to call, to invoke

    Her sister, Svadha, is for Pitris invocations.

    1c) Married Kavi Agni: her sons were Kāvyas: her daughter the source of Pitṛs with forms.*

    * ^1 Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa I. 1. 62; III. 10. 85; Vāyu-purāṇa 73. 35; 74. 3; 75. 56, 77.

    gave birth to two daughters Vayunā (Menā, Vāyu-purāṇa) and Dhāriṇī, who were Brahmavadīns.

    Menā was given in marriage to Himavān who begot two sons—Maināka and Krauñca and two daughters—Gaurī and Gaṅgā.

    Menā was the eldest. Dhanyā was the middle. Kalāvatī was the youngest. All these were mentally conceived daughters of the forefathers. They were not born of the womb of Svadhā. They were conventionally considered her children.

    1) One's own nature or determination, spontaneity. (they are produced without an external cause)

    2) One's own will or pleasure.

    Name of Māyā or illusion.

    In a re-statement, the three elder fires correspond internally as well:

    Pavaka--Subterranean (Form): Electric, or Magnetic (Vaidyuta) when mixed with Water, Watery Fire; Dakshina ritual fire; parent of Saharaksa Asura fire

    Pavamana--Terrestrial, from Friction: fire of Humans, Laukika (Mundane), Taijasa; Garhapatya ritual fire; parent of Kavya-vahana Pitri fire

    Suchi--Solar, Saura (Celestial), Formless: Prajna Akasha, Aerial Flame, Ahavaniya ritual fire; parent of Havya Vahana Deva fire

    Those are Fixed Fires (Sthavara).

    Fixed in the body are Garhapata or Jatharagni (stomach), Ahvaniya or Darshanagni (face, for invocation), and Jnana or Dakshinagni (heart).

    Nirmatha or Fire by Friction in the Secret Doctrine is the occult Marriage.

    Friction is really the action of Bodhi sticks--i. e., Bodhi Mind, so there really only is Fire by Friction if there is Purified Bodhi Mind, otherwise this is all forms of Taijasa, subjective, including dreams, delirium, etc.

    Because that pertains to mantra, and it is fixed in the stomach, this is like Nirmana Cakra.

    Originally, I suppose in a pastoral Eden:

    Agni Vaisvanara dies while carrying Havya offerings to the gods.

    Consequently, Bhrigu has a son named Atharvan, and his son named Angirasa (or just Atharvan himself, as Terrestrial Fire) Churns the Cloud to produce the fire Puskarodadhi--Atharva Alaukika Agni or Dakshina Agni--by non-rubbing or without friction. Called Dadhyan in the Brahmanda. With those names, Churning the Cloud makes Right-Hand Paranormal Fire of Watery Curds. The second name Dadhyan makes it an actor. Dakshina is a Fixed Fire in our abode to the south.

    Sometimes considered the father of Agni, Atharvan is the terrestrial fire (in the ocean), Bhrgu (father of Surya), and churned amrita in puskara (the waters); from him come Dadhyan (earth or matter, worldly fire) and Angiras. Bhrgu also fathered Sukra-Venus (also attributed to Pavamana). Atharvan a Great Bear (married Shanti and spread Yajna) is the father of Venus and Surya and Angiras.

    Havyavaha is Agni Vaisvanara who dies carrying Havya offerings, and Atharvan's response is Fire called Puskarodadhi (Matsya), or Dadhyan (Brahmanda).

    Havya Vahana is Fire Vehicle. Havya is offering ghee to Fire.

    Kavya can simply mean Venus, or also a priest, seven sages, deities of Angiras class, offering to Pitris. Kavya Vahana, or the vehicle of Kavya (Pinda offering), is the Vahni (Soma); Ram is Vahni Bija. Kavya is Usana Sukra, Acharya of Devas and Asuras.

    Agni may be called two-faced by taking offerings to Devas and Pitris.

    In explaining Agni's descent, Matsya Purana Chapter 51, and Vayu Chapter 29, are comparable to Brahmanda Purana Chapter Twelve:

    As a matter of fact, it is a Vedic concept as can be seen from the notes. This section concerning Agnivaṃśa must have been possibly a part of the original (Ur-) purāṇa as many verses hereof are textually identical with those in Vā.P. 29, Mt.P.51.

    Brihaspati, Atharva, and Ushana are the main Sages in these families. What has been called Electric Fire is really Ocean Fire since

    The fires born of water are three, viz. : Vaidyut
    (Lightning) Jathara (gastric) and Saura (Solar).

    They do however work differently because

    Thereafter is the solar fire Śuci. It is called Āyus [Life] by the Gandharvas.

    39. This fire generates other fires on being churned in the Araṇi; this fire is taken from one place to another; this lord is known by the name Āyus.

    Corresponding in Buddhism to Amita Ayus:

    Amita (अमित).—a.

    1) Unmeasured, boundless, unlimited, infinite, great, immense

    or, Amitayus, Long Life deity.

    Simple origin in Brahmanda Purana:

    A mental son of Brahmā is remembered as the deity identifying itself with fire in the Svāyambhuva Manvantara. Svāhā bore to him three sons.


    Pavamāna (=Gārhapatya)
    Born of or source: Araṇi (cf. Rv. III.29.2)
    Functions: kavya-vāhana (pertains to Pitṛs)

    Pāvaka (=Dakṣiṇāgni)
    Born of or source: Water or Lightening
    Functions: (Vaidyuta) Saharakṣa (belongs to Asuras)

    Śuci (=Āhavanīya)
    Born of or source: The Sun
    Functions: Havya-vāhana (pertains to Devas)

    Two lines of descent:

    Pāvaka—Hṛcchaya—Mṛtyumān (Manyumān)—Saṃvartaka (Vaḍavānala)—Saharakṣa—kṣāma—Kravyādagni.

    Śuci or Āyus, Mahiṣa, Sahasa, Aḍbhuta, Vividhi, Arka—nine sons of Arka as enumerated in V.43.

    According to its footnote, what looks like a descent of primal Agni is an equation. And so probably everything related to "secular fire" is equal:

    The secular fire is well known as the first son of Brahmā.

    8. The good son of Brahmadattāgni[3] (the fire handed over by Brahmā) is well known by the name Bharata. Vaiśvānara was his son, and he carried Havya for a hundred years.

    9-10. Formerly the fire Edhiti was gathered by Atharvan in the ocean Puṣkara.[4] Hence that secular fire is Ātharvaṇa. Darpahā is remembered as the son of Atharvan. Bhṛgu was born as Atharvan and Fire is remembered as Ātharvaṇa (son of Atharvan). Hence the secular fire is considered Dadhyaṅ,[5] the son of Atharvaṇa.


    Vā.P. 29.7 reads Brahmaudanāgni instead of Brahmadattāgni of BD. P. That reading is supported by Mt. P. The genealogy is: Brahmadatta or Brahma-udana Bharata Vaiśvānara who carried Havya to gods. ŚBr. (Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa) I.4.2.2 explains that Agni is called Bharata as he supplies Havya to gods:

    eṣa agnir hi devebhyo bharati tasmād
    bharatognir ityāhuḥ /

    In other words this genealogy becomes an equation thus:

    Brahmadatta=Bharata=Vaiśvānara, the carrier of food to gods.


    The concept of Saptarṣis (seven sages) ursa major


    It is probably the same as Dakṣiṇāgni.

    In Vayu Purana, "secular fire" is Vaidyut, first son of Brahma. That is how it got stuck in "functions". Note 3 copies the Vayu but for some reason they did not connect the name to "secular fire" or "first son" where the Brahmanda surprisingly omits this. The Vayu also uses the term "worldly" for "secular". We do not know the Sanskrit term.

    Then the Vayu says Amrita was first churned by Atharvan in the Puskara where we see an inscrutable Edhiti.

    edhita thrive, prosper, grow up, get strong, great, or happy.

    edhiti increase

    It is just not a personal name, fire, or anything. Note 4 probably could have guided us to the Rg Veda where he doesn't churn Edhiti or Amrita but just fire.

    RV 6.16.14:

    TvAmagnE pushkarAdadhyatharvA niramanthata
    MurdhnO vishwasya vAghatah

    O Agni, Atharva kindled you on the pushkara, the head and support of the universe.

    That doesn't quite say why the name appears to be Dadhyatharva.

    Pushkara is another name for antarisksha or "space". It is because the space sustains the whole universe, it is termed "Pushkara". And so is highly venerable. This same space is represented as the lotus that stems from the navel of Vishnu, and holds the creator Brahma in Puranas. This is the space that is within and without. The Purusha that is stationed in this space within is the same as Agni who is in the form of SUrya (Sun). This space is the "Apa" [Water] of Vedas.

    Puṣkara (पुष्कर) is the name in the Rigveda and later of the ‘blue lotus flower’.

    TittarIya Samhita 5-6-6-3
    PrajApatirvA atharvAgnirEva dadyanchAtharvaNasyEshtakA

    Meaning: Atharva is PrajApati, and Agni is Dadhyanch. Atharva brought fire into existence. PrajApati is PrAna, and is the "self". It is the originator of Agni.

    Agni, Svaha, and the three elders and their sons from Swayambhu Manvantara are *not* counted by the Vayu in Forty-nine fires, which begin with Vaidyut. In other places it seems they *are* counted. The important thing is that "this" Agni and Svaha are in a mental realm without a world as we know it.

    Concerning Agni's origin during Swayambhu Manvantara, Fourteen Manus appear in each day of Brahmā [Kalpa]. The present Manu is Vaivasvata Manu. And so quite some time has passed from:


    The seven to come already being named as forms of Savarni (son of the Sun by Su-varṇā q.v., and therefore younger brother of the seventh Manu or Vaivasvata; the succeeding Manus to the twelfth, or [according to] to other authorities to the fourteenth inclusive, are all called Sāvarṇi; cf. dakṣa-, brahma-, dharma-s).

    Each Manvantara is created and ruled by a specific Manu, who in turn is created by Brahma, the Creator himself. Manu creates the world, and all its species during that period of time, each Manvantara lasts the lifetime of a Manu, upon whose death, Brahma creates another Manu to continue the cycle of Creation or Shristi, Vishnu on his part takes a new Avatar, and also a new Indra and Saptarishis are appointed.

    In the Manvantaras, Swayambhu or the male half of Brahma:

    ...married the goddess Śatarūpā, the spiritual daughter of Brahmā. After that, he went to the shore of the ocean of milk, made an image of Mahādevī there and worshipped her by chanting Vāgbhava mantra and performed an austere penance. After a hundred years of such worship the goddess was pleased. She appeared before Svāyambhuva and granted him boons. She blessed him to attain the highest place in Heaven (Paramapada) after begetting vast progeny. Then the goddess went to Vindhya mountain and became the deity of Vindhya. Svāyambhuva returned and started his reign by worshipping the goddess.

    This Svāyambhuva is regarded as the author of the famous work "Manusmṛti" [Laws of Manu].

    So the first "churning" or "fire by friction" released Vindhya Vasini.

    Although many Manus are each others' progeny, it is not something you automatically "are":

    After acquiring the mantra Cākṣuṣa went to the banks of the river Virajā and offered worship to Devī. At the end of twelve years, Devī appeared before him and blessed him with "Manuhood", mastery of the Manu kingdom and brilliant sons

    At first, Sūrya had three children [Vaivasvata] Manu, Yama, and Yamī, by Saṃjñā, the daughter of Viśvakarmā.

    Vaivasvata was born from Sūrya. It is this Manu who rules the world today. All living beings that we see today were born from him. Vaivasvata Manu is Satyavrata Manu [or, king] who escaped from the last deluge. To save him Viṣṇu took up the incarnation of Matsya (fish).

    But while Samjna was a Mare:

    Sūrya had three children by Chāyā, Śanaiścara [Saturn], another Manu and Tapatī. This Manu is known as Sāvarṇi who will become the eighth Manu.

    At the end of a Kalpa, there is a Pralaya or universal deluge and matter returns to its unformed condition. At the end of a Manvantara, there is a minor or global deluge such as the "submergence of Atlantis". Like the Puranas themselves, I personally believe the "numbers" given for time cycles are...muddled. In this sense, a Kalpa is a little over four billion years, approximately the current age of our planet, let alone the galaxy. So I don't think that can be too literal. It makes the period of a Manu something over 300 million years. They are said to "return to earth", and start a world, that is, an ecosystem of beings, not the physical plane or planet, which is done one time with Swayambhu Manu. In the doctrine of reincarnation, this does not necessarily mean physical human beings. The equivalent of "people" may still be living in a higher plane as a mental creation. That is what the Puranas say. Us as we know ourselves as a material organism probably only begins with Vaivasvata.

    I don't think they can write the actual cosmic age numbers and so forth because that would give you frequencies and you could possibly make weapons. So while these are, probably, "suggestive", there is a moment that is important in Time:

    Within this Manvantara, we are currently in the Kali Yuga of the 28th Chaturyuga. This Kali Yuga is said to have begun at midnight of 18th February, 3102 B.C.E. in the Julian calendar.

    That was when Sri Krishna passed away after being "mistaken for a deer" and shot by a hunter. Moreover, it was at a time when the Equinox was in Taurus and the Pole Star was Thuban in Draco. And so it is a bit of a "zero hour" to which we set our astrological watches. As we know, the Equinox keeps moving. I am not sure why you would need to invent a calendar so it was fixed around the same date each year. That sounds a bit Hail Caesar-ish, so that Julius and Augustus will remain in the high summer, and the other months from sept- "seven" to dece- "ten" are all shoved down two slots. From the view of the Eastern Lunar calendar, the main timekeeper is the Moon, not the Equinox with a permanent position.

    The page has listed chronology of several events:

    Beginning of Swayambhava Manavantara: Brahma creates the Universe, Vishnu takes Matsya Avatar and kills the demon Hayagriva, Vishnu takes Varaha Avatar and rescues the Earth.

    ...much later...

    End of Chakshusha Manvantara: Matsya Avatar saves King Satyavrata.

    There were Two Matsyas and Two Varahas. However one Varaha is probably Brahma.

    This king is in Bhagavata Purana:

    Satyavrata, the King of Draviḍadeśa

    And it does not exactly give his fate; he was reborn as Vaivasvata. Maybe he was a physical person, a Dravidian, and maybe only however many millions we said they could have lived. Archeology seems to think some Indian areas were inhabited 1.5 million years ago.

    He tied an ark to an eight million mile fish using Vasuki (who was also used to Churn the Ocean of Milk).

    It says the three worlds were flooded and Brahma was asleep. Matsya Purana is similar, moreover, this flood event was the occasion of its telling.

    Those do seem to place Manvantara as "end of the universe", and, interestingly, while everything is covered with water, the Samvarta fire is burning the former creation at the core. When we get to the current Manvantara:

    The name of our Indra is Purandar.

    4th Treta Yuga of Vaivasvata Manvantara: Narasimha kills Hiranyakashipu

    7th Treta Yuga of Vaivasvata Manvantara: Vamana seizes the land of the asura king Bali

    10th Treta Yuga of Vaivasvata Manvantara: Birth of Dattatreya

    19th Treta Yuga of Vaivasvata Manvantara: Parshuram annihilates Kartavirya Arjuna and other Kshatiyas

    24th Treta Yuga of Vaivasvata Manvantara: The Ramayana

    End of 28th Dwapara Yuga of Vaivasvata Manvantara: The Mahabharata

    End of 28th Kali Yuga of Vaivasvata Manvantara: Kalki Avatar

    "End of 28th Dwapara" is the time of Krishna, who is in the Mahabharata, although it is not really about him. That begins the current Kali Yuga, at the end of which comes the future or Kalkin Avatar. In Buddhism, it is actually Karma Family with Parasu Rama and Dharani as gurus when Maitreya manifests.

    Comparatively, there is some evidence to say the events of Ramayana took place around 5,000 B. C. E., and then there were "historical" King Janaka and Sita just before Buddha, perhaps similar to the "Buddhist Ramayana" where there was no war.

    Matsya Purana Agni

    Matsya Purana part I pdf with the seal similar to that of the Theosophical Society.

    part II

    This re-iteration I believe was from Vayu Purana:

    Their first son was Pavaka, fire from water (Abgharba, worshipped with Varuna) or lightning (also Daksinagni or Vaidyuta). His descendant fire is Saha raksa, fire of the asuras. From Pavaka, the fetus of waters, come Avabhrtha, Hrcchaya (in the belly, digestion), Jathara (gastric, in the belly), Manyuman (lord of living beings), Samvartaka (consumes ocean's waters, mare-faced, Brahma's region), Saharaksa, Ksama (burns human habitations), then Kravyid (consumes the dead). Vaidyuta is missile of the gods, Water Thunderbolt, from the clouds: Varuna explained this to Atharvan.

    Second son Suchi or Saura (Ahavaniya, drinker of waters), which is solar fire (Ayus, 2nd principle of ether); his descendant fire is Havya vahana, fire of the devas. From Suchi, son of the sun, kindled by Gandharvas and Asuras by Friction, come Ayus (in the animal), Adbhuta, down to Rukmavan (in gold, jewels, shinys). Vayu Purana makes these fourteen Vahnis of Suchi.

    Third son Pavamana (Garhapatya) is fire from churning the Arani, or friction. Arani is sticks from the Bodhi Tree. His descendant fire is Kavya vahana, fire of the pitris--in this sense, "Vahana" is a vehicle, specifically for the pinda or riceball offering, i. e. bindu. Its descent includes first son Samsya ("Problem"), identified as Havya Vahana in the Vayu, and Pavamana's second son is Sukra--Venus. Samsati--Samsya had two sons Sabhya and Avasathya, and then the Samsya Havya Vahana was happy about sixteen rivers. Then the Ahavaniya (Havya vahana) fire "loved sixteen rivers", from Sita in the Tarim to south India.

    He (Samsya--Havya Vahana) cut himself into sixteen pieces and dallied with the river goddesses when he was attracted to dhisnis, which move about in the sky (caused to move by Krittikas). Dhisni means "altar"; Dhisnis are "nadi wives"; their mother is Dhisni or Dhisana, their sons are Nadiputras. So these enter the nerves, nadis, symbolized by rivers geographically. Dishnis for Flying Dakinis, nadi wives. Three Upastheyas are Fixed: Vibhu, Pravahana, Agnidhra (Rtu, Pravahana, Agnidhra in the Vayu)--the other Thirteen Viharaniyas Move (syllables of Vajrayogini). Dhishniyas, Hotri Fire Altars.

    Kavyavāhana is said to be the son of Pavamāna. Saharakṣa was the son of Pāvaka and Havyavāha was the son of Śuci.

    Havyavāha is the fire of the Devas; Kavyavāhana is the fire of the Pitṛs; Saharakṣa is the fire of the Asuras.

    Agni Gayatri:

    Om Vaisvanaraya Vidhmahe Lalelaya Dhimahi Tanno Agni Pracodayat.

    In English: Om Let us know Him who burns inside of us, let us meditate (and absorb His energy) to Him with the 7 tongues, may Agni inspire and guide us.

    On the origin of esoteric sacrifices:

    King Pravahana (a ship or carrying away), son of Jivala in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, speaks of Five Fires on the soul's northward and southward journeys. He explains how the Waters came to be possessed of a human voice and form. Soma fire offering enters one to heaven. There, the gods who are really the vital force of the practitioner, offer two oblations into the fire of heaven. This Fire of Heaven is lit by the Sun which is its fuel. The day is its flame and its smoke is the rays. The four quarters are its cinders, a pacified state. The intermediate quarters are its sparks. From the oblation is created a subtle body in the lunar sphere called King Moon.

    King Moon is offered to the sacrificial fire of Parjanya the rain god. Clouds are its smoke and lightning is its flame. Thunder. Out of King Moon is produced rain that falls on earth. Fire of this world has earth for its fuel and fire for smoke. Its flame is the night, its own shadow. Pacified moon its its cinder; stars are its sparks.

    This makes food for the mouth, fourth sacrificial fire. Fifth sacrificial fire is the woman, to whom the seed of the man is offered. Waters acquire human form.

    A soul that dies on the northward path sees where we're going: to the flame deity, the deity of the Day, deity of moon's waxing fortnight, six deities when sun travels northwards, to the deity of the world of gods, then to the Sun, then to the Lightning. When in the lightning, Hiranyagarbha will send a messenger to take you to his realm. Souls that slip south off the waning moon will be eaten by devas who enjoy them like Soma.

    From Brihadaranyaka, liberation goes as: from the world of the Devas to the sun, from the sun to the place of lightning. When they have thus reached the place of lightning, Manasa comes near them, and leads them to the worlds of the (conditioned) Brahman.

    Bhrigu says Manasa is Unmanifest and produced Mahat, and is Ananta. Atharvas Isopanisad calls Atma, Vaidyuta, because Atmatattva causes all ignorant bodies to be revealed in the darkness of ignorance as non-existent apart from Atma. It places Vaidyuta in the same level as Eka, Tara, Parabrahm, Ananta, etc.

    A few other notes:

    Fixed Fires, sons of Samsya, include the Ocean Fire, Rtudhama in Udumbara Forest with Brahma Jyotir Vasu, and Aijakapat (Grhapati) in the front of a sacrifice hall. A fire of no Sacrificial or Celestial merit has its place in cremation.

    There are various kinds of portable fires; further sons of Pavaka are stolen by Gandharvas and Asuras.

    Viharaniyas have sons from the nadi wives. Matsya Purana:

    1. Hotri has Barhisa
    2. Prasamsya has Pracheta.
    3. Svambha Agni called Setu has its origin in the Waters, seen as the Soma.
    4. Pavaki along with Varuna is seen as the purifying bath; Pavaka Viharaniya produces fetus of waters.
    5. Hrcchaya's son digests food, etc.
    6. Manyuman's (Mrtyuman) or Ghorasamvartaka's son is Fire by Friction in the ocean, drinking water in the mouth of Vadava, consumes all beings. The son of Ocean Fire Samudravasi is Saharaksa who lives in houses. Saharaksa son of submarine fire. In the Vayu, Avabrhta is fire in the ocean (Samudravasi). It has Hrcchaya or Jathara (belly) then Manyuman. Manyuman's son is the terrible Samvartaka, mare-faced, drinking waters. Saharaksa is Samvartaka's son in the Vayu. Avabrhta is fire for oblations in watery regions (the Belly through Rukhmavan).

    The son of Fire by Friction Lord Ayu lives in sacrificial fire. Raksohayatikrit is the deity presiding at Kamya sacrifices. They presided in Swayambhu Manvantara and now are moving around. Seven more sons of Friction and then six sons of Suchi Solar Fire are stated but not given. Vayu and Brahmanda claim all fourteen for Suchi:

    Suchi son of the Sun was kindled by gandharvas and asuras by friction. Fourteen fires called Vahnis are called progeny of Suchi; in Matsya only six or seven. Vayu Purana then gives Suchi's fourteen sons including Ayus (animal), Mahiman, Adbhuta, Raksoha.

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    Default Re: Nirakara and Shentong Buddhism, Tara, Sadhanas, Sanskrit culture

    Pravargya and Agni Homa

    In Pravargya or Preparation, there was a fairly specific name for the Milk used.

    1) Gharma (घर्म):—m. (√2. ghṛ) heat, warmth (of the sun or of fire), sunshine, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda] etc.

    3) internal heat, [Rāmāyaṇa ii, 75, 45] ([varia lectio])

    4) perspiration

    5) day (opposed to night), [Jyotiṣa] (Yv) 9

    6) a cauldron, boiler, [especially] the vessel in which the milk-offering to the Aśvins is boiled, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda vii; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā viii, 61; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa i; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xiv; Lāṭyāyana]

    8) hot milk or any other hot beverage offered as an oblation ([especially] to the Aśvins), [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda iv, 1, 2; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā xxxviii; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa iv, xiv; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Āśvalāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

    The majority of Milk is offered in the Ahavaniya fire. The seed as milk goes into Agni, the womb of the gods. One experiences a series of Mayas culminating in Amritamaya and goes into the deity (Devata).

    Part of the procedure is to get Tapas to produce Rain which is part of Buddhist Cemetery meditation. Mahavira (the container) and "Makha's Head" enter a complex reality--the Sun. The container is heated red hot and handled with tongs. When pouring, the invocation is:

    "Svaha! I pour thee for the sun's ray which seeks out rain."

    The intent is that it is purifying the atmosphere which makes it relatively easy for the Aswins to bring rain.

    Atharva Veda 7.73 is an Aswins' pouring hymn, which says the milk came from a radiant cow.

    Chapter Seven has many related hymns, although this version is entirely translated. There are other Aswins' pouring mantras and also Shanti Mantras from Tattiriya Aranyaka that are used.

    So an identity is formed between the container, oneself, and the sun. There is a male deity whose head was severed. A yardstick view is to think of it as Hayagriva and Horse Head. Pravargya is "the thing inside which" the Soma Offering--which is the Homa itself--becomes possible:

    In Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa it is stated that the privileged knowledge possessed by Dadhyaṅc Ātharvaṇa concerns the Pravargya ritual by which the Soma-yāga is made “whole”. The Pravargya ritual again refers to a severed head, that of Makha, Viṣṇu, or Rudra in different brāhmaṇa-s, which is represented by the central implement of the ritual, the Gharma pot. The Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa further elaborates this Madhu-vidyā and it is presented as the high teaching of the upaniṣat in 14.5.5 (i.e. the Bṛhadāraṇyakopaniṣat).

    This mythic nucleus serves as a locus for further elaboration in later Hindu tradition. The Purāṇa-s incorporate the frame of the Pravargya myth into a narrative to explain how the horse-headed Viṣṇu came into being. His head is described as being severed, even as it was in one of the Pravargya legend, and was then replaced with that of horse. This horse-headed Viṣṇu is then able to slay a horse-headed asura, who had invulnerability from everyone else, except another with a horse’s head.

    On the one hand, there is, so to speak, Vishnu Horse, and at the same time, there is Sage Horse, functioning like the whisperer of immortality.

    The existence or deeds of Atharvan and Dadhyan are labyrinthine but aim at the Madhu of Tvastr.

    This is why it is meaningful that in Samvarodaya, our Tapas yogini becomes:

    Vairocani (वैरोचनि).—A wife of Tvaṣṭa.*

    * Vāyu-purāṇa 65. 85.

    If handled properly, she will melt the lunar aspect of Heruka; and so in the Homa, one will esoterically sacrifice King Moon, or Soma.

    Aswins are Prana Agni and grandchildren of Tvastr, through Saranyu Samjna and the solar deity. They are harbingers of dawn--Ushas, similar to Venus and Marici.

    This is still highly akin to Nirmana Cakra and Raudra Krama, for instance in Soundarya Lahiri:

    Manipoora the Suvarloka of Agni is administered by Rudra Dev

    In general:

    Agni is one of the most powerful transformative principles of Ayurveda. It holds the secret to longevity, vitality, high prana or life force, good health, more energy, clarity of mind, and wellness.

    Similar to Virya (Paramita, etc.).

    So there is a preparatory period, involving Milk, and the Homa uses Yogurt, which could of course be produced during the same preparation. In this sense:

    Milk from luminous cows becomes fixed as curd in the mind. Aswins delight in the mind fixed with luminosity and take it to the next level, using one's vitality, perfuming the prana. Ashwins are password or pass-key when higher orders need to take charge of the Path.

    Dadhikravan or Dadhiyan with Horse Head, as Fiery Lord of Speech on Wind Horse, is invoked first before Ushas, Aswins, Agni.

    One would seem to be well off by using the dharani or sadhana of Gopali during this time. As a simple substitute, one could have real milk, yogurt, and honey, and eat them, even without actual fires. The practice itself is aimed at a Garhapati or Householder, but, it is translated into visualized symbolic form for use by a forest hermit. Most of us are neither one of these, but, usually live indoors, and so we are drawing from a little bit of both ways. Since it is really just a practice that makes us more Noumenal and Luminous, you could just take a few days focusing on Gopali and all her related symbolism and take these cow products to set up an Inner Homa.

    Grihya Sutras or rules for householders involves the mantra Vasuvana Edhiti.

    Agni the deity has three main branches, and it is these which are also the basis for the ritual layout.

    During the Pravargya, one makes Three Fixed Fires, based from Garha or Household Fire. That fire is the main beginning. This is similar to the middle of a mandala, and facing the sacrificial fire, which is to the East; and then the protective fire is to the right, or South. In the Body, the origin or Garhapatya Fire is Pavamana, produced by Fire by Friction, related to Venus, the Pitris, and Kavya. That is your "house fire". Traditionally it is in a round pit, you get it from your parents and it is never supposed to go out.

    Nirmathya agni; father of two sons, Śamsya and Śukra.3

    3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa I. 12. 11; Vāyu-purāṇa 29. 11.

    From the Laws of Manu:

    The father, forsooth, is stated to be the Garhapatya fire, the mother the Dakshinagni, but the teacher the Ahavaniya fire; this triad of fires is most venerable.

    He who neglects not those three, (even after he has become) a householder, will conquer the three worlds and, radiant in body like a god, he will enjoy bliss in heaven.

    The Tretagni or triad of sacred fires is formed with the Garhapatya and Dakshina form. It is formed in opposition to the Laukika or merely temporal ones.


    three śrautāgnis

    Gārhapatya is the Agni who is made first. (The other ones are lighted from this) The meaning of Gārhapatya is “Of the lord of House”. He is established by the process of Agnyādhānam, (“establishment of fire”) which is traditionally a tedious process where two complimentary araṇi pieces are rubbed together and its friction would create the fire. This is the Agni that is said to be ritually pure (medhya) and thus prescribed for Brahmanic yajñas. Obviously the person who establishes the Gārhapatya must be married, as the śrautāgnis are for the householders. While the araṇis are being rubbed, the Sāmavedic udgātṛ priest sings the sāmans. The rite and its associated ceremonies is lengthy to describe, (it spans almost over two days) so that is how Gārhapatya is lighted.


    Āhavaniya literally means ‘to be offered as an oblation’.

    Anyone who establishes the Vedic fires normally maintains three fires :


    Most of the special sacrifices are performed in the āhavaniya which is kindled by the fire brought from the gārhapatya. The mound of āhavaniya is square and is situated on the eastern side of the sacrificial shed at a distance of twenty four padas or steps from the gārhapatya mound.

    The fire is established at dawn when half of the sun’s disc has risen above the horizon. The adhvaryu lights a few fuel sticks on the gārhapatya fire and carries them in a vessel containing sand to the āhavaniya mound chanting the appropriate mantras. After establishing the fire it is propitiated with oblations of clarified butter and fuel sticks.

    The Dakṣiṇāgni is the third Agni, to the South of the Gārhapatya. He can be made himself through rubbing of araṇis or lighting from Gārhapatya by the Agnīdhra. He is there to ward off the evils and to represent the destructive force of Agni.

    Other than the three, there are other [optional] śrauta Agnis - the Sabhya (who occupies the “Sabha”), the Āvasathya (who occupies the resting place of priests).

    Āhavanīya represents the constructive form, Gārhapatya represents the preserving form and Dakṣiṇāgni represents the destructive form of Agni. Later these functions became the characteristics of the celebrated Hindu trinity.

    The third or Daksinagni Fire is in a mound of semi-circular or crescent shape.

    The full, original Rg Veda has by far more many hymns to Agni than others; however on the day of the Homa:

    Morning oblation is for the Sun Savitr, whose wife may be called Prisni having the following relationships:

    2a) Pṛśnī (पृश्नी).—The wife of Savitā, and mother of Śāvitrī, Vyāhṛtī and others.*

    * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 18. 1.

    So it has a daughter nature named Savitri, i. e. in this case just because she sounds like her father's name, she is not the mother. This offspring light is close to Buddhist Marici. The following offspring, Vyahriti, is "words of fire" which expand the familiar Three Worlds or Bhu, Bhuvar, Svah, to Seven. The fourth world is Mahar, such as in Mahabharata, but in Buddhism is addressed as Kama Loka. And so it is effectively denying that a person has a fifth or other principle, because, due to the Kama Loka, such states are dormant. And then the tantras are saying "you could, if".

    Agni is the first word in the Rg Veda, and, probably, its main subject. What could be said of the Brahmanical system is that this leads to branches emphasizing different mantras, and, moreover, having different ritual structures. Buddhism, while gathering from all of the same elements, tapers into a single ritual system. The commonality of Vedic practices extends to three goddesses usually found around verse eight of an Apri hymn or Sukta. There are about ten different Gotras or lineages of the varying styles, such that there is a table of Apri Hymns by Sage. And so normally you would just follow whatever was in your lineage; but we generally do not have this lineage. We have had more recourse to that of Bhrgu X.110. Buddha mentions Jamadagni by name as reliable; line of Bhrgu. He was born as a mistake:

    jamadagni, who was the embodiment of Kṣātra tejas and the child with brāhma tejas born to the mother was viśvāmitra

    Jamat (जमत्):—[from jam] mfn. (derived [from] mad-agni) = jvalat

    but also in the sense that the name means "consumes fire":

    1) Jam (जम्):—(u) jamati 1. a. To eat.

    Most of Rg Veda is sacrificial hymns; if anything, an Apri which generally invites Tvastr and the three goddesses prior to the Homa itself would be beneficial. If we have meditated on Gopali for a few days, now she becomes Ila of the following group.

    From all Apri Hymns on one page:

    Bharati, the Goddess of prosperity, Ila, the Goddess of power,
    and Sarasvati, the Goddess of wisdom

    May Bharati with the Adityas love our sacrifice;
    Sarasvati with the Rudras hath holpen us,
    And Ida invoked with the Vasus in unison;

    GRETIL Sanskrit Rg Veda, to find originals for the translations.

    From another description of the three goddesses:

    Bharathi is hailed as speech comprising all subjects (sarva-visaya-gata vak) and as that which energizes all beings (Visvaturith). Or, Mahi, the rich, delightful and radiant (bṛhat jyotiḥ) goddess of blissful truth (ṛtaṁ jyotiḥ; codayitrī sῡnṛtānām), covering vast regions (varῡtrī dhiṣaṇā) is requested to bring happiness to the performer of the Yajna, for whom she is like a branch richly laden with ripe fruits (evā hyasya sῡnṛtā, virapśī gomatī mahī; pakvā śākhā na dāśuṣe – RV_1,008.08).

    Ida the earth; Sarasvathi the mid-region; and Bharathi, the heaven. And again, these three goddesses are also said to be three types of speech. Bharathi as Dyusthana Vac (upper regions); Sarasvathi as Madhyamika Vac (mid-region); and Ida as the speech spoken by humans (Manushi) on the earth (prthivi praisadirupa). Another interpretation assigns Bharathi, Sarasvathi and Ila the names of three levels of speech: Pashyanti, Madhyama and Vaikhari.

    Ila is a gracious goddess (sudanuh, mrlayanti devi). She is personified as the divine cow, mother of all realms (yuthasya matha), granting (sudanu) bounteous gifts of nourishments. She has epithets, such as: Prajavathi and Dhenumati (RV. 8.31. 4). She is also the personification of flowing libation (Grita). She is the presiding deity of Yajna, in general (RV.3.7.25).

    According to Sri Sayana, Ila – as nourishment, (RV.7.16.8) is the personification of the oblation (Havya) offered in the Yajna (annarupa havir-laksana devi). Such offerings of milk and butter are derivatives of the cow. And Ila, in the Brahmana texts, is related to the cow. And, in the Nighantu (2.11), Ila is one of the synonyms of the cow. Because of the nature of the offering, Ila is called butter-handed – ghṛta-hastā (RV. 7.16.15) and butter-footed – devī ghṛta padī juṣanta (RV. 10,070.08).

    As a parallel example of something that is fairly open to us, there is an Ayurvedic Mahaganapati Homa. I have not done the full thing, but, taken it as explanatory towards Ganapati Hrdaya dharani. When not seen as a polite title, but, a more powerful form, Maha Ganapati means he has an interest and connection to Prana Shakti. The title carries over into the Buddhist dharani, which then also grants him the name Sage or Muni Ganapati. And who or what is his heart remains evasive, she is Prana, Ucchista Candalini, Sumukhi, Maha Pisacini, Matangi, Vinayaki, Rddhi, Siddhi, Buddhi...not particularly evident from the dharani itself, but, mostly by way of implication through other practices of Ganapati. It mentions other forms, but, seems to mostly be about Muni or Maha Ganapati.

    This Ganapati addresses the Marut Gana, the Winds, to which the Fires or Agni are the illumined mind which rides them.

    Similarly, Five Fires or Panchagni are Birth and Death in Chandogya Upanishad. This is the knowledge of Warrior Kings, such as i. e. Jamadagni was ksatra incarnate/angry, yet becomes the father of Parasurama, who slays the warrior caste. Multiplicity of fires was described as part of the Purana's "Ur text" or Purana Samhita which some believe was the original of HPB's Theosophy. Purana is thought to have come from the Sutas or Bards, and, Agni may not have been extensively dealt with in the Root or Mula Purana, but, copied from the Solar and Lunar dynasties to make Vayu Ch. Twenty-nine in the Gupta era.

    Agnivaṃśa (अग्निवंश) (or, Agnivansha) is one of Kshatriya types, who claim descent from Agni. According to Agni Purana these Kshatriyas were born from the fire which resides in Mount Abu [Arbuda] in Northwestern India after the “destruction of ancient Kshatriyas”.

    However, Agni Purana is relatively late and this "historical Agnivamsa" originates ca. tenth century. Pandit Venkatachalam says the previous thousand years of Agni Vamsa have been erased.

    In Astronomical Dating, the confusion is over the Andhras:

    As per the list above the 32 Andhra Satavahana emperors of Magadha ruled for 506 years on
    the whole from Kali 2269 - 2775 or B. C. 833 to 327 B. C. After them the founder of the Gupta or
    Andhra Bhritya Dynasty. Chandragupta occupied the throne in B. C. 327 after putting to the
    sword the last two princes of the Aandhra dynasty, Chandra Sri and Puloma III. The king who
    then got himself crowned at Pataliputra, having annexed a considerable part of the Magadha
    state was this Chandragupta 1 of the Gupta dynasty and not Chandragupta Maurya, founder of
    the Maurya dynasty, as' is commonly and erroneously supposed now-a-days. By this erroneous
    identification by the western (European) historians of India, and as a consequence of it to be in
    accord with that. By pushing forward and locating in B. C. 1500 the Mahabharata war which
    took place actually in B. C 3138 and the coronation of Chandra Gupta Maurya of B. C. 1534 to B.
    C, 324. The antiquity of the entire history of ancient India has been reduced by more than 12

    Aandhra ram samsthitaha panch tesham vasashcah ye punaha saptaivatu bhavisyanti iti
    (Brahmanda Purana Chap 77, Verse 171 or Vayu Purana Ghapt. 99-3517- Verse.)

    Thereafter the princes of the Agni dynasty (a branch of the Saatavahana dynasty) might have
    branched off into various further subdivisions...

    The Pariharas ruled in Bengal the Brahmanas
    of the Sakti worship cult in Bengal belong to this branch of Agni Kshatriyas or Brahma-Kshatras.

    It has